Materials and process selection for a bicycle frame Background The principle components of the bike are familiar and their function needs no explanation. The largest of these is the frame. Frames can be made from a remarkable diversity of materials: CFRP, carbon steel, GFRP, nylon, wood, aluminium, titanium etc… How is it that such a diversity of materials can co-exist in a free market in which competition favours the fittest – sure there must be a single “best” material for the job? The mistake here is to assume that all bikes have the same purpose. The specification of a “shopping” or “uni” bike is very different from that of one for speed or for the mountain, as are the objectives of the purchaser. The Project Explore materials and process selection for bike frames (illustrated below) or for any other component of the bike: forks, handle bars, cranks, wheels, brake or gear cables…. 1) Analyse your chosen component, listing its function, the constraints it must meet and the objectives for the bike – This will require a decision about the type of bike you are designing (shopping (booze cruiser), speed / road / track bike, mountain bike, folding, children’s etc). Remember to include a lower cut-off constraint on fracture toughness (K1C > 15MPa √m is a good approximation to start at) – a brittle bike would be a bad idea! 2) List the requirements as Functions, Constraints, Objectives and Free Variables. 3) Identify the materials indices you will use to rank / select your materials. 4) Identify a promising material for the component. 5) Make a choice of material and then use CES EduPack Joining database to select ways of joining the frame. 6) Present the case study for your choice of material and process as a report. Use the charts from CES EduPack and other sources to explain your reasoning. For the purposes of simplicity it is suggested that you avoid accounting for shape in your selection criteria / indices identification. However, you should still consider the form of your component when considering an appropriate manufacturing process. To make the right choices you will need to source some information on typical service conditions for you selected bike type, these might be mechanical, physical or environmental focussed properties. You will also need to consider the type of conditions experienced by the component e.g. bending, tension, torsion, abrasion etc. Assignments will be assessed on the basis of the quality and clarity of the problem construction, the selection of indices, appropriate use of charts / figures and crucially the analysis and interpretation of the results presented.

Materials and process selection for a bicycle frame Background The principle components of the bike are familiar and their function needs no explanation. The largest of these is the frame. Frames can be made from a remarkable diversity of materials: CFRP, carbon steel, GFRP, nylon, wood, aluminium, titanium etc… How is it that such a diversity of materials can co-exist in a free market in which competition favours the fittest – sure there must be a single “best” material for the job? The mistake here is to assume that all bikes have the same purpose. The specification of a “shopping” or “uni” bike is very different from that of one for speed or for the mountain, as are the objectives of the purchaser. The Project Explore materials and process selection for bike frames (illustrated below) or for any other component of the bike: forks, handle bars, cranks, wheels, brake or gear cables…. 1) Analyse your chosen component, listing its function, the constraints it must meet and the objectives for the bike – This will require a decision about the type of bike you are designing (shopping (booze cruiser), speed / road / track bike, mountain bike, folding, children’s etc). Remember to include a lower cut-off constraint on fracture toughness (K1C > 15MPa √m is a good approximation to start at) – a brittle bike would be a bad idea! 2) List the requirements as Functions, Constraints, Objectives and Free Variables. 3) Identify the materials indices you will use to rank / select your materials. 4) Identify a promising material for the component. 5) Make a choice of material and then use CES EduPack Joining database to select ways of joining the frame. 6) Present the case study for your choice of material and process as a report. Use the charts from CES EduPack and other sources to explain your reasoning. For the purposes of simplicity it is suggested that you avoid accounting for shape in your selection criteria / indices identification. However, you should still consider the form of your component when considering an appropriate manufacturing process. To make the right choices you will need to source some information on typical service conditions for you selected bike type, these might be mechanical, physical or environmental focussed properties. You will also need to consider the type of conditions experienced by the component e.g. bending, tension, torsion, abrasion etc. Assignments will be assessed on the basis of the quality and clarity of the problem construction, the selection of indices, appropriate use of charts / figures and crucially the analysis and interpretation of the results presented.

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Ball Bearings Inc. faces costs of production as follow: Q TFC TVC AFC AVC ATC MC 0 $100 $0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360 a) Complete the above Table by calculating the Company’s Average Fixed Costs (AFC), Average Variable Costs (AVC), Average Total Costs (ATC) and Marginal Cost (MC). Show all your calculations.b) The price of a case of ball bearings is $50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the chief executive officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain. c) Vaguely remembering his introductory Economics course, the chief financial officer tells the CEO, it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

Ball Bearings Inc. faces costs of production as follow: Q TFC TVC AFC AVC ATC MC 0 $100 $0 1 100 50 2 100 70 3 100 90 4 100 140 5 100 200 6 100 360 a) Complete the above Table by calculating the Company’s Average Fixed Costs (AFC), Average Variable Costs (AVC), Average Total Costs (ATC) and Marginal Cost (MC). Show all your calculations.b) The price of a case of ball bearings is $50. Seeing that she can’t make a profit, the chief executive officer (CEO) decides to shut down operations. What are the firm’s profits/losses? Was this a wise decision? Explain. c) Vaguely remembering his introductory Economics course, the chief financial officer tells the CEO, it is better to produce 1 case of ball bearings because marginal revenue equals marginal cost at that quantity. What are the firm’s profits/losses at that level of production? Was this the best decision? Explain.

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HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

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1) ED = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ + 18- – 6 6 – 2) The cro a × b = = i(-3 ⋅ 2 = -15i – 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ × = 3 b a 4 i + + + + – 2 16 3 0 4 -1 5 8 1 oss produc – 1 ⋅ 9) 2j + 39k ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ − 3 1 9 2 j k == + + + + + + 2 4 9 0 1 -3 5 2 3 1 t is – j(3 ⋅ 2 15i + 2j – ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ + + + + + 4 12 0 3 10 6

1) ED = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ + 18- – 6 6 – 2) The cro a × b = = i(-3 ⋅ 2 = -15i – 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ × = 3 b a 4 i + + + + – 2 16 3 0 4 -1 5 8 1 oss produc – 1 ⋅ 9) 2j + 39k ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ − 3 1 9 2 j k == + + + + + + 2 4 9 0 1 -3 5 2 3 1 t is – j(3 ⋅ 2 15i + 2j – ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ + + + + + 4 12 0 3 10 6

 
Project Part 1 Objective Our objective, in this Part 1 of our Project, is to practise solving a problem by composing and testing a Python program using all that we have learnt so far and discovering new things, such as lists of lists, on the way. Project – Hunting worms in our garden! No more turtles! In this project, we shall move on to worms. Indeed, our project is a game in which the player hunts for worms in our garden. Once our garden has been displayed, the player tries to guess where the worms are located by entering the coordinates of a cell in our garden. When the player has located all the worms, the game is over! Of course there are ways of making this game more exciting (hence complicated), but considering that we have 2 weeks for Part 1 and 2 weeks for Part 2, keeping it simple will be our goal. We will implement our game in two parts. In Part 1, we write code that constructs and tests our data structures i.e., our variables. In Part 2, we write code that allows the player to play a complete “worm hunting” game! ? Project – Part 1 – Description Data Structures (variables): As stated above, in Part 1, we write code that constructs our data structures i.e., our variables. In our game program, we will need data structures (variables) to represent: 1. Our garden that is displayed to the player (suggestion: list of lists), 2. The garden that contains all the worms (suggestion: another list of lists), Garden: Our garden in Part 1 of our Project will have a width and a height of 10. Warning: The width and the height of our garden may change in Part 2 of our Project. So, it may be a good idea to create 2 variables and assign the width and the height of our garden to these 2 variables. 3. Our worms and their information. For each worm, we may want to keep the following information: a. worm number, b. the location of the worm, for example, either the coordinates of the cells containing the worm OR the coordinate of the first cell containing the worm, its length and whether the worm is laying horizontally or vertically. Worms: We will create 6 worms of length 3. 4. And other variables as needed. Testing our data structures: ? Suggestion: as we create a data structure (the “displayed” garden, the garden containing the worms, each worm, etc…), print it with a “debug print statement”. Once we are certain the data structure is well constructed, comment out the “debug print statement”. Code: In Part 1, the code we write must include functions and it must include the main section of our program. In other words, in Part 1, the code we write must be a complete program. In terms of functions, here is a list of suggestions. We may have functions that … ? creates a garden (i.e., a garden data structure), ? creates the worms (i.e., the worm data structure), ? places a worm in the garden that is to hold the worms (i.e., another garden data structure), ? displays the garden on the screen for the player to see, ? displays a worm in the displayed garden, ? etc… ? Finally, in Part 1, the code we write must implement the following algorithm: Algorithm: Here is the algorithm for the main section of our game program: ? Welcome the player ? Create an empty “displayed” garden, (“displayed” because this is the garden we display to the player) ? Create the worms (worms’ information) ? Create an empty “hidden” garden Note 1: “hidden” because one can keep track of the worms in this “hidden” garden, which we do not show to the player. This is why it is called “hidden”. Note 2: One can keep track of worm’s locations using a different mechanism or data structure. It does not have to be a list of lists representing a “hidden” garden. We are free to choose how we want to keep track of where our worms are located in our garden. ? Place each worm in the “hidden” garden (or whatever mechanism or data structure we decide to use) ? Display the “displayed” garden on the screen for the player to see ? While the player wants to play, ask the player for a worm number (1 to 6), read this worm number and display this worm on the “displayed” garden. This is not the game. Remember, we shall implement the game itself in Part 2. Here, in this step, we make sure our code works properly, i.e., it can retrieve worm information and display worms properly. Displaying worms properly: Note that when we create worms and display them, it may be the case that worms overlap with other worms and that worms wrap around the garden. These 2 situations are illustrated in the 3 Sample Runs discussed below. At this point, we are ready for Part 2 of our Project. Sample Runs: In order to illustrate the explanations given above of what we are to do in this Part 1 of our Project, 3 sample runs have been posted below the description of this Part 1 of our Project on our course web site. Have a look at these 3 sample runs. The code we create for this Part 1 of our Project must produce exactly the same output as the one shown in these 3 sample runs. Of course, the position of our worms will be different but everything else should be the same. What we see in each of these 3 sample runs is 1 execution of the code we are to create for this Part 1 of our Project. Note about Sample Run 1: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers 1 to 8 sequentially. Wrap around: Worm 2 wraps around: it starts at (row 7, column B), (row 7, column A) then wraps around to (row 7, column J). Worm 6 also wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column E), (row 1, column E) then wraps around to (row 10, column E). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 5 and 6 overlap at (row 1, column E). Note about Sample Run 2: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers 1 to 8 sequentially. Wrap around: Worm 3 wraps around: it starts at (row 1, column B) then wraps around to (row 10, column B) and (row 9, column B). Worm 6 also wraps around: it starts at (row 1, column D) then wraps around to (row 10, column D) and (row 9, column D). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 2 and 4 overlap at (row 3, column H), worms 1 and 2 overlap at (row 3, column G) and worms 2 and 5 overlap at (row 3, column E). Note about Sample Run 3: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers in the following sequence: 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1, 7, 8. Wrap around: Worm 3 wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column C), (row 1, column C) then wraps around to (row 10, column C). Worm 1 also wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column B), (row 2, column A) then wraps around to (row 2, column J). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 6 and 3 overlap at (row 1, column C) and (row 2, column C). Other Requirements: Here are a few more requirements the code we are to create for this Part 1 of our Project must satisfy. 1. The location of each worm in the garden must be determined randomly. 2. Whether a worm is lying horizontally or vertically must also be determined randomly. 3. It is acceptable in Part 1 of our Project if worms overlap each other (see Sample Runs) 4. When placing a worm in a garden, the worm must “wrap around” the garden. See Sample Runs for examples of what “wrapping around” signifies. How will we implement this wrapping around? Hint: wrapping around can be achieved using an arithmetic operator we have already seen. 5. We must make use of docstring when we implement our functions (have a look at our textbook for an explanation and an example). 6. Every time we encounter the word must in this description of Part 1 of our Project, we shall look upon that sentence as another requirement. For example, the sentence “The code we create for this Part 1 of our Project must produce exactly the same output as the one shown in these 3 sample runs.”, even though it is not listed below the Other Requirements heading, is also a requirement because of its must.

Project Part 1 Objective Our objective, in this Part 1 of our Project, is to practise solving a problem by composing and testing a Python program using all that we have learnt so far and discovering new things, such as lists of lists, on the way. Project – Hunting worms in our garden! No more turtles! In this project, we shall move on to worms. Indeed, our project is a game in which the player hunts for worms in our garden. Once our garden has been displayed, the player tries to guess where the worms are located by entering the coordinates of a cell in our garden. When the player has located all the worms, the game is over! Of course there are ways of making this game more exciting (hence complicated), but considering that we have 2 weeks for Part 1 and 2 weeks for Part 2, keeping it simple will be our goal. We will implement our game in two parts. In Part 1, we write code that constructs and tests our data structures i.e., our variables. In Part 2, we write code that allows the player to play a complete “worm hunting” game! ? Project – Part 1 – Description Data Structures (variables): As stated above, in Part 1, we write code that constructs our data structures i.e., our variables. In our game program, we will need data structures (variables) to represent: 1. Our garden that is displayed to the player (suggestion: list of lists), 2. The garden that contains all the worms (suggestion: another list of lists), Garden: Our garden in Part 1 of our Project will have a width and a height of 10. Warning: The width and the height of our garden may change in Part 2 of our Project. So, it may be a good idea to create 2 variables and assign the width and the height of our garden to these 2 variables. 3. Our worms and their information. For each worm, we may want to keep the following information: a. worm number, b. the location of the worm, for example, either the coordinates of the cells containing the worm OR the coordinate of the first cell containing the worm, its length and whether the worm is laying horizontally or vertically. Worms: We will create 6 worms of length 3. 4. And other variables as needed. Testing our data structures: ? Suggestion: as we create a data structure (the “displayed” garden, the garden containing the worms, each worm, etc…), print it with a “debug print statement”. Once we are certain the data structure is well constructed, comment out the “debug print statement”. Code: In Part 1, the code we write must include functions and it must include the main section of our program. In other words, in Part 1, the code we write must be a complete program. In terms of functions, here is a list of suggestions. We may have functions that … ? creates a garden (i.e., a garden data structure), ? creates the worms (i.e., the worm data structure), ? places a worm in the garden that is to hold the worms (i.e., another garden data structure), ? displays the garden on the screen for the player to see, ? displays a worm in the displayed garden, ? etc… ? Finally, in Part 1, the code we write must implement the following algorithm: Algorithm: Here is the algorithm for the main section of our game program: ? Welcome the player ? Create an empty “displayed” garden, (“displayed” because this is the garden we display to the player) ? Create the worms (worms’ information) ? Create an empty “hidden” garden Note 1: “hidden” because one can keep track of the worms in this “hidden” garden, which we do not show to the player. This is why it is called “hidden”. Note 2: One can keep track of worm’s locations using a different mechanism or data structure. It does not have to be a list of lists representing a “hidden” garden. We are free to choose how we want to keep track of where our worms are located in our garden. ? Place each worm in the “hidden” garden (or whatever mechanism or data structure we decide to use) ? Display the “displayed” garden on the screen for the player to see ? While the player wants to play, ask the player for a worm number (1 to 6), read this worm number and display this worm on the “displayed” garden. This is not the game. Remember, we shall implement the game itself in Part 2. Here, in this step, we make sure our code works properly, i.e., it can retrieve worm information and display worms properly. Displaying worms properly: Note that when we create worms and display them, it may be the case that worms overlap with other worms and that worms wrap around the garden. These 2 situations are illustrated in the 3 Sample Runs discussed below. At this point, we are ready for Part 2 of our Project. Sample Runs: In order to illustrate the explanations given above of what we are to do in this Part 1 of our Project, 3 sample runs have been posted below the description of this Part 1 of our Project on our course web site. Have a look at these 3 sample runs. The code we create for this Part 1 of our Project must produce exactly the same output as the one shown in these 3 sample runs. Of course, the position of our worms will be different but everything else should be the same. What we see in each of these 3 sample runs is 1 execution of the code we are to create for this Part 1 of our Project. Note about Sample Run 1: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers 1 to 8 sequentially. Wrap around: Worm 2 wraps around: it starts at (row 7, column B), (row 7, column A) then wraps around to (row 7, column J). Worm 6 also wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column E), (row 1, column E) then wraps around to (row 10, column E). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 5 and 6 overlap at (row 1, column E). Note about Sample Run 2: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers 1 to 8 sequentially. Wrap around: Worm 3 wraps around: it starts at (row 1, column B) then wraps around to (row 10, column B) and (row 9, column B). Worm 6 also wraps around: it starts at (row 1, column D) then wraps around to (row 10, column D) and (row 9, column D). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 2 and 4 overlap at (row 3, column H), worms 1 and 2 overlap at (row 3, column G) and worms 2 and 5 overlap at (row 3, column E). Note about Sample Run 3: In this Sample Run, the player enters the numbers in the following sequence: 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1, 7, 8. Wrap around: Worm 3 wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column C), (row 1, column C) then wraps around to (row 10, column C). Worm 1 also wraps around: it starts at (row 2, column B), (row 2, column A) then wraps around to (row 2, column J). Overlap: There are some overlapping worms: worms 6 and 3 overlap at (row 1, column C) and (row 2, column C). Other Requirements: Here are a few more requirements the code we are to create for this Part 1 of our Project must satisfy. 1. The location of each worm in the garden must be determined randomly. 2. Whether a worm is lying horizontally or vertically must also be determined randomly. 3. It is acceptable in Part 1 of our Project if worms overlap each other (see Sample Runs) 4. When placing a worm in a garden, the worm must “wrap around” the garden. See Sample Runs for examples of what “wrapping around” signifies. How will we implement this wrapping around? Hint: wrapping around can be achieved using an arithmetic operator we have already seen. 5. We must make use of docstring when we implement our functions (have a look at our textbook for an explanation and an example). 6. Every time we encounter the word must in this description of Part 1 of our Project, we shall look upon that sentence as another requirement. For example, the sentence “The code we create for this Part 1 of our Project must produce exactly the same output as the one shown in these 3 sample runs.”, even though it is not listed below the Other Requirements heading, is also a requirement because of its must.

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Please read Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun and Witches Ch.1, pp. 3-19. You can access an electronic copy through the CSUN library homepage. On the library webpage go to the library catalog and do a title search of Moon, Sun and Witches. Click on the one followed by the term “electronic resource.” Click on the red lettering that says “Connect to ACLS Humanites E-Book.” You will be asked for you ID info. You will see each chapter listed, click on Chapter 1. The questions are due via Moodle anytime before our class meets. Please bring in a copy of your answers so you can refer to them. 1.) What´s your gut reaction? 2.)Explain the ayllu. Explain gender parallelism and how this influenced how Andean women gained resources in the ayllu. 3.) How did Andean societies view relationships between men and women, especially as reflected in the ritual of marriage? 4.) What work in the Andean community did women primarily contribute to? What were the duties that defined maleness? 5.) What is Silverblatt´s argument about how gender differences became gender hierarchies in Andean communities conquered by the Incas? 6.)Give at least two examples of women who wielded power in pre and post Inca society in the Andes.

Please read Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun and Witches Ch.1, pp. 3-19. You can access an electronic copy through the CSUN library homepage. On the library webpage go to the library catalog and do a title search of Moon, Sun and Witches. Click on the one followed by the term “electronic resource.” Click on the red lettering that says “Connect to ACLS Humanites E-Book.” You will be asked for you ID info. You will see each chapter listed, click on Chapter 1. The questions are due via Moodle anytime before our class meets. Please bring in a copy of your answers so you can refer to them. 1.) What´s your gut reaction? 2.)Explain the ayllu. Explain gender parallelism and how this influenced how Andean women gained resources in the ayllu. 3.) How did Andean societies view relationships between men and women, especially as reflected in the ritual of marriage? 4.) What work in the Andean community did women primarily contribute to? What were the duties that defined maleness? 5.) What is Silverblatt´s argument about how gender differences became gender hierarchies in Andean communities conquered by the Incas? 6.)Give at least two examples of women who wielded power in pre and post Inca society in the Andes.

Please read Irene Silverblatt, Moon, Sun and Witches Ch.1, pp. … Read More...
Questions from Ishmael, Part 1 Type your answers to the following questions: 1. How do animals typically react to life in a zoo, according to Ishmael? And how, as a young gorilla, did zoo life affect him personally? 2. What does Ishmael mean by “Takers” and “Leavers?” Do these terms have any connotations to you (and if so, describe them), or do you see them as neutral? 3. Describe our culture’s origin myth, according to Ishmael. 4. After the events described in our culture’s origin myth, what was the next major event in human history that is essential in describing “how things came to be this way.” In the book it’s called “the middle of the story.” Describe this event, detailing what it meant for humankind. 5. According to Ishmael, how do Takers envision the role of humans “in the divine scheme?” What is humankind’s purpose? How has this perspective affected human/nature relationships? 6. According to Ishmael, how do most Takers envision the future of humanity? As part of your answer, describe how most Takers say we should deal with problems such as energy shortages and pollution. 7. What is Daniel Quinn trying to get you to perceive about the state of our culture’s relationship with nature? How does his story-telling approach affect your perception about environmental issues? To what extent is his approach successful, and why?

Questions from Ishmael, Part 1 Type your answers to the following questions: 1. How do animals typically react to life in a zoo, according to Ishmael? And how, as a young gorilla, did zoo life affect him personally? 2. What does Ishmael mean by “Takers” and “Leavers?” Do these terms have any connotations to you (and if so, describe them), or do you see them as neutral? 3. Describe our culture’s origin myth, according to Ishmael. 4. After the events described in our culture’s origin myth, what was the next major event in human history that is essential in describing “how things came to be this way.” In the book it’s called “the middle of the story.” Describe this event, detailing what it meant for humankind. 5. According to Ishmael, how do Takers envision the role of humans “in the divine scheme?” What is humankind’s purpose? How has this perspective affected human/nature relationships? 6. According to Ishmael, how do most Takers envision the future of humanity? As part of your answer, describe how most Takers say we should deal with problems such as energy shortages and pollution. 7. What is Daniel Quinn trying to get you to perceive about the state of our culture’s relationship with nature? How does his story-telling approach affect your perception about environmental issues? To what extent is his approach successful, and why?

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FSE 100 Extra Credit (20 points) Instructions: Read the description below and work through the design process to build an automated waste sorting system. Turn in the following deliverables in one document, typed: 1. Problem Statement – 1 point 2. Technical System Requirements (at least 3 complete sentences using “shall”) – 3 points 3. Judging Criteria (at least 3, explain why you chose them) – 2 points 4. AHP – 2 points 5. Summaries of your 3 design options (paragraph minimum for each option) – 3 points 6. Design Decision Matrix – 3 points 7. Orthographic Drawing of your final design (3 projections required) – 3 points 8. Activity Diagram of how your sorter functions – 3 points Description: The city of Tempe waste management has notified ASU that due to the exceptional effort the Sundevil students have made in the sustainability area, ASU has been contributing three times the amount of recyclable materials than what was predicted on a monthly basis. Unfortunately, due to the immense amount of materials being delivered, the city of Tempe waste management has asked for assistance from ASU prior to picking up the recyclable waste. They have requested that ASU implement an automated waste sorting system that would pre-filter all the materials so the city of Tempe can collect the materials based on one of three types and process the waste much faster. ASU has hired you to design an automated sorter, but due to the unexpected nature of this request, ASU prefers that this design be as simple and inexpensive to build as possible. The city of Tempe would like to have the waste categorized as either glass, plastic, or metal. Paper will not be considered in this design. Any glass that is sorted in your device needs to stay intact, and not break. Very few people will be able to monitor this device as it sorts, so it must be able to sort the items with no input from a user, as quickly as possible. This design cannot exceed 2m in length, width, or height, but the weight is unlimited. ASU is not giving any guidance as to the materials you can use, so you are free to shop for whatever you’d like, but keep in mind, the final cost of this device must be as inexpensive as possible. Submit through Blackboard or print out your document and turn it in to me no later than the date shown on Blackboard.

FSE 100 Extra Credit (20 points) Instructions: Read the description below and work through the design process to build an automated waste sorting system. Turn in the following deliverables in one document, typed: 1. Problem Statement – 1 point 2. Technical System Requirements (at least 3 complete sentences using “shall”) – 3 points 3. Judging Criteria (at least 3, explain why you chose them) – 2 points 4. AHP – 2 points 5. Summaries of your 3 design options (paragraph minimum for each option) – 3 points 6. Design Decision Matrix – 3 points 7. Orthographic Drawing of your final design (3 projections required) – 3 points 8. Activity Diagram of how your sorter functions – 3 points Description: The city of Tempe waste management has notified ASU that due to the exceptional effort the Sundevil students have made in the sustainability area, ASU has been contributing three times the amount of recyclable materials than what was predicted on a monthly basis. Unfortunately, due to the immense amount of materials being delivered, the city of Tempe waste management has asked for assistance from ASU prior to picking up the recyclable waste. They have requested that ASU implement an automated waste sorting system that would pre-filter all the materials so the city of Tempe can collect the materials based on one of three types and process the waste much faster. ASU has hired you to design an automated sorter, but due to the unexpected nature of this request, ASU prefers that this design be as simple and inexpensive to build as possible. The city of Tempe would like to have the waste categorized as either glass, plastic, or metal. Paper will not be considered in this design. Any glass that is sorted in your device needs to stay intact, and not break. Very few people will be able to monitor this device as it sorts, so it must be able to sort the items with no input from a user, as quickly as possible. This design cannot exceed 2m in length, width, or height, but the weight is unlimited. ASU is not giving any guidance as to the materials you can use, so you are free to shop for whatever you’d like, but keep in mind, the final cost of this device must be as inexpensive as possible. Submit through Blackboard or print out your document and turn it in to me no later than the date shown on Blackboard.

  Problem statement      ASU has been contributing three … Read More...