EGR 3323 HW2 1) For points P(1, -2, 1) , Q(0, -2, 5) and R(4, -6, 7) , a) Find the vector v from point P to point Q? b) Find the vector k from R to P? c) Calculate the dot product of v and k. d) Calculate the cross product of v and k. e) The projection of v on k. f) The angle between v and k. For question 1, Write a MATLAB program to verify your answers. Submit the output displayed.(Use matlab functions such as dot, cross, norm, acos) 2) Solar panels have to be installed carefully so that the tilt of the roof and direction to the sun rays should maximize the power absorbed from the sun. P2 P1 P3 P4 Here are the coordinates of the corners of the roof at the picture P1(8,6,4) , P2(8,10,4), P3(6,8,8) and P4(6,4,8). Determine the following for this roof. a) What are the edge vectors that define the roof surface? Write them in component form. b) What is the unit vector (p) perpendicular to these edge vectors of the roof surface? c) If the flow of solar energy is in s=[4 -3 2] direction with magnitude of 1000 watts/meter2, calculate the dot product of E=1000us and p. (where us is the unit vector of s). d) Calculate the angle between s and p. What do you say about this angle for maximum solar energy? 3) Find the unit vector perpendicular to the plane -3x + 7y – 2z = 8. 4) A wheel is rotating about x-axis with angular speed w=20sec-1 (you can take this quantity as it is, no need to transform to rads/sec, the units for this angular speed is revolutions/secs) The rotation is clockwise if one sits at the origin and looks at this wheel in the positive x direction. Find the velocity and speed at point [4 3 0]. Make a sketch. 5) Two forces of equal magnitude are applied to the wrench. If a moment of 50N-m is required to loosen the nut and determine the Force vectors.

EGR 3323 HW2 1) For points P(1, -2, 1) , Q(0, -2, 5) and R(4, -6, 7) , a) Find the vector v from point P to point Q? b) Find the vector k from R to P? c) Calculate the dot product of v and k. d) Calculate the cross product of v and k. e) The projection of v on k. f) The angle between v and k. For question 1, Write a MATLAB program to verify your answers. Submit the output displayed.(Use matlab functions such as dot, cross, norm, acos) 2) Solar panels have to be installed carefully so that the tilt of the roof and direction to the sun rays should maximize the power absorbed from the sun. P2 P1 P3 P4 Here are the coordinates of the corners of the roof at the picture P1(8,6,4) , P2(8,10,4), P3(6,8,8) and P4(6,4,8). Determine the following for this roof. a) What are the edge vectors that define the roof surface? Write them in component form. b) What is the unit vector (p) perpendicular to these edge vectors of the roof surface? c) If the flow of solar energy is in s=[4 -3 2] direction with magnitude of 1000 watts/meter2, calculate the dot product of E=1000us and p. (where us is the unit vector of s). d) Calculate the angle between s and p. What do you say about this angle for maximum solar energy? 3) Find the unit vector perpendicular to the plane -3x + 7y – 2z = 8. 4) A wheel is rotating about x-axis with angular speed w=20sec-1 (you can take this quantity as it is, no need to transform to rads/sec, the units for this angular speed is revolutions/secs) The rotation is clockwise if one sits at the origin and looks at this wheel in the positive x direction. Find the velocity and speed at point [4 3 0]. Make a sketch. 5) Two forces of equal magnitude are applied to the wrench. If a moment of 50N-m is required to loosen the nut and determine the Force vectors.

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12. value: 10.00 points A total of 5.4 percent of the prime time viewing audience watched shows on ABC, 7.2 percent watched shows on CBS, 6.4 percent on Fox, 6.1 percent on NBC, 2.1 percent on Warner Brothers, and 2.6 percent on UPN. A total of 70.2 percent of the audience watched shows on other cable networks, such as CNN and ESPN. What will be the prime time viewing percentage of the pie chart for the following data? (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.) Prime time viewing ABC % CBS % Fox % NBC % Warner % UPN % 13. value: 10.00 points The number of families who used the Minneapolis YWCA day care service was recorded over a 30-day period. The results are as follows: 32 66 62 68 68 33 54 34 42 41 17 39 23 44 44 24 37 49 54 17 58 62 50 46 63 59 52 54 58 12 ________________________________________ Construct a cumulative frequency distribution of this data. Class Cumulative Frequency 0 up to 15 up to up to up to up to ________________________________________ rev: 01_27_2015_QC_CS-5196

12. value: 10.00 points A total of 5.4 percent of the prime time viewing audience watched shows on ABC, 7.2 percent watched shows on CBS, 6.4 percent on Fox, 6.1 percent on NBC, 2.1 percent on Warner Brothers, and 2.6 percent on UPN. A total of 70.2 percent of the audience watched shows on other cable networks, such as CNN and ESPN. What will be the prime time viewing percentage of the pie chart for the following data? (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.) Prime time viewing ABC % CBS % Fox % NBC % Warner % UPN % 13. value: 10.00 points The number of families who used the Minneapolis YWCA day care service was recorded over a 30-day period. The results are as follows: 32 66 62 68 68 33 54 34 42 41 17 39 23 44 44 24 37 49 54 17 58 62 50 46 63 59 52 54 58 12 ________________________________________ Construct a cumulative frequency distribution of this data. Class Cumulative Frequency 0 up to 15 up to up to up to up to ________________________________________ rev: 01_27_2015_QC_CS-5196

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Q1: A small town has two banks A and B. It is estimated that 45% of the potential customers do business only with bank A, 30% only with bank B, and 15% with both banks A and B. The remaining 10% of the customers do business with none of the banks. If E1(E2) denotes the event of a randomly selected customer doing business with bank A(B), find the following probabilities: P(E1), P(E2), P(E1∩E2),P(Ē1Ē2) and P(Ē1UE2) Q2: The inspection of a batch of laminated composite beams produced in a company for defects yielded the following data: No. of defects Proportion of Beams with defects inside Proportion of Beams with defects on surface Total 0 0.4 0.15 0.55 1 0.1 0.05 0.15 2 0.07 0.03 0.1 3 0.06 0.02 0.08 4 0.02 0.03 0.05 5 or more 0.03 0.04 0.07 Total 0.68 0.32 1.0 Determine the probability that the beam has a defect on the surface or it has 4 or more defects. Q3. A batch of 1000 piston rings manufactured in an engine manufacturing facility contains 40% defective. Two piston rings are randomly selected from the batch, one at a time, without replacement. If Ei denotes the event that the i th piston ring selected is defective (i=1, 2), determine the values, P(E1) and P(E2). Q4. An automobile transmission can fail due to three types of problems i.e. gear failure, bearing failure, or shaft failure, wit probabilities 0.3, 0.5 an 0.2 respectively. The probability of transmission failure given a gear failure is 0.5, given a bearing failure is 0.5 and given a shaft failure is 0.6. If a transmission fails, what is the most likely cause? Q5. In the manufacture of a fiber-reinforced laminated composite material, the following probabilities can be associated with the failure of the components made out of this material: Prob. Of failure of components Level of defect in material 0.2 High 0.05 Medium 0.01 Low In a batch of composite material manufactured, 10% of material is found to have High defects, 30% to Medium level defects and 60% to Low level of defects. For a component using this batch of material, indicate the various events associated with the failure of component as a Tree diagram. Also, determine the probability that the component fails.

Q1: A small town has two banks A and B. It is estimated that 45% of the potential customers do business only with bank A, 30% only with bank B, and 15% with both banks A and B. The remaining 10% of the customers do business with none of the banks. If E1(E2) denotes the event of a randomly selected customer doing business with bank A(B), find the following probabilities: P(E1), P(E2), P(E1∩E2),P(Ē1Ē2) and P(Ē1UE2) Q2: The inspection of a batch of laminated composite beams produced in a company for defects yielded the following data: No. of defects Proportion of Beams with defects inside Proportion of Beams with defects on surface Total 0 0.4 0.15 0.55 1 0.1 0.05 0.15 2 0.07 0.03 0.1 3 0.06 0.02 0.08 4 0.02 0.03 0.05 5 or more 0.03 0.04 0.07 Total 0.68 0.32 1.0 Determine the probability that the beam has a defect on the surface or it has 4 or more defects. Q3. A batch of 1000 piston rings manufactured in an engine manufacturing facility contains 40% defective. Two piston rings are randomly selected from the batch, one at a time, without replacement. If Ei denotes the event that the i th piston ring selected is defective (i=1, 2), determine the values, P(E1) and P(E2). Q4. An automobile transmission can fail due to three types of problems i.e. gear failure, bearing failure, or shaft failure, wit probabilities 0.3, 0.5 an 0.2 respectively. The probability of transmission failure given a gear failure is 0.5, given a bearing failure is 0.5 and given a shaft failure is 0.6. If a transmission fails, what is the most likely cause? Q5. In the manufacture of a fiber-reinforced laminated composite material, the following probabilities can be associated with the failure of the components made out of this material: Prob. Of failure of components Level of defect in material 0.2 High 0.05 Medium 0.01 Low In a batch of composite material manufactured, 10% of material is found to have High defects, 30% to Medium level defects and 60% to Low level of defects. For a component using this batch of material, indicate the various events associated with the failure of component as a Tree diagram. Also, determine the probability that the component fails.

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A piece of metal with a mass of 1.8 kg, specific heat of 226 J/kg/◦C, and initial temperature of 82◦C is dropped into an insulated jar that contains liquid with a mass of 5 kg, specific heat of 1000 J/kg/◦C, and initial temperature of 7◦C. The piece ofmetal is removed after 2.6 s, at which time its temperature is 19◦C. Find the temperature of the liquid after the metal is removed. Neglect any effects of heat transfer to the air or to the insulated jar.

A piece of metal with a mass of 1.8 kg, specific heat of 226 J/kg/◦C, and initial temperature of 82◦C is dropped into an insulated jar that contains liquid with a mass of 5 kg, specific heat of 1000 J/kg/◦C, and initial temperature of 7◦C. The piece ofmetal is removed after 2.6 s, at which time its temperature is 19◦C. Find the temperature of the liquid after the metal is removed. Neglect any effects of heat transfer to the air or to the insulated jar.

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Refer back to the temperature profile above. The thermocline is at which approximate depth? Question 15 options: 0 – 200 meters 400 – 700 meters 1000 – 1500 meters 3500 – 4500 meters

Refer back to the temperature profile above. The thermocline is at which approximate depth? Question 15 options: 0 – 200 meters 400 – 700 meters 1000 – 1500 meters 3500 – 4500 meters

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MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

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SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT BOSE CORPORATION Bose Corporation, headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts, offers an excellent example of integrated supply chain management. Bose, a producer of audio premium speakers used in automobiles, high-fidelity systems, and consumer and commercial broadcasting systems, was founded in 1964 by Dr. Bose of MIT. Bose currently maintains plants in Massachusetts and Michigan as well as Canada, Mexico, and Ireland. Its purchasing organization, while decentralized, has some overlap that requires coordination between sites. It manages this coordination by using conference calls between managers, electronic communication, and joint problem solving. The company is moving toward single sourcing many of its 800 to 1,000 parts, which include corrugated paper, particle board and wood, plastic injected molded parts, fasteners, glues, woofers, and fabric. Some product components, such as woofers, are sourced overseas. For example, at the Hillsdale, Michigan, plant, foreign sourcing accounts for 20% of purchases, with the remainder of suppliers located immediately within the state of Michigan. About 35% of the parts purchased at this site are single sourced, with approximately half of the components arriving with no incoming inspection performed. In turn, Bose ships finished products directly to Delco, Honda, and Nissan and has a record of no missed deliveries. Normal lead time to customers is 60 working days, but Bose can expedite shipments in one week and airfreight them if necessary. The company has developed a detailed supplier performance system that measures on-time delivery, quality performance, technical improvements, and supplier suggestions. A report is generated twice a month from this system and sent to the supplier providing feedback about supplier performance. If there is a three-week trend of poor performance, Bose will usually establish a specific goal for improvement that the supplier must attain. Examples include 10% delivery improvement every month until 100% conformance is achieved, or 5% quality improvement until a 1% defect level is reached over a four-month period. In one case, a supplier sent a rejected shipment back to Bose without explanation and with no corrective action taken. When no significant improvement occurred, another supplier replaced the delinquent supplier. Bose has few written contracts with suppliers. After six months of deliveries without rejects, Bose encourages suppliers to apply for a certificate of achievement form, signifying that they are qualified suppliers. One of the primary criteria for gaining certification involves how well the supplier responds to corrective action requests. One of the biggest problems observed is that suppliers often correct problems on individual parts covered by a corrective action form without extending these corrective actions to other part families and applicable parts. Bose has adopted a unique system of marrying just-in-time (JIT) purchasing with global sourcing. Approximately half of the dollar value of Bose’s total purchases are made overseas, with the majority of the sourcing done in Asia. Because foreign sourcing does not support just-in-time deliveries, Bose “had to find a way to blend low inventory with buying from distant sources,” says the director of purchasing and logistics for Bose. Visualizing itself as a customer-driven organization, Bose now uses a sophisticated transportation system—what Bose’s manager of logistics calls “the best EDI system in the country.” Working closely with a national less-than-truckload carrier for the bulk of its domestic freight movements, including shipments arriving at a U.S. port from oversees, Bose implemented an electronic data interchange (EDI) system that does much more than simple tracking. The system operates close to real time and allows two-way communication between every one of the freight handler’s 230 terminals and Bose. Information is updated several times daily and is downloaded automatically, enabling Bose to perform shipping analysis and distribution channel modeling to achieve reliable lowest total cost scenarios. The company can also request removal from a terminal of any shipment that it must expedite with an air shipment. This state-of-the-art system provides a snapshot of what is happening on a daily basis and keeps Bose’s managers on top of everyday occurrences and decisions. Management proactively manages logistics time elements in pursuit of better customer service. The next step is to implement this system with all major suppliers rather than just with transportation suppliers. In the future, Bose plans to automate its entire materials system. Perhaps one of the most unique features of Bose’s procurement and logistics system is the development of JIT II. The basic premise of JIT II is simple: The person who can do the best job of ordering and managing inventory of a particular item is the supplier himself. Bose negotiated with each supplier to provide a full-time employee at the Bose plant who was responsible for ordering, shipping, and receiving materials from that plant, as well as managing on-site inventories of the items. This was done through an EDI connection between Bose’s plant and the supplier’s facility. Collocating suppliers and buyers was so successful that Bose is now implementing it at all plant locations. In fact, many other companies have also begun to implement collocation of suppliers. Assignment Questions The following assignment questions relate to ideas and concepts presented throughout this text. Answer some or all of the questions as directed by your instructor. 1. Discuss how the strategy development process might work at a company like Bose. 2. What should be the relationship between Bose’s supply management strategy and the development of its performance measurement system? 3. Why is purchased quality so important to Bose? 4. Can a just-in-time purchase system operate without total quality from suppliers? 5. Why can some components arrive at the Hillsdale, Michigan, plant with no incoming inspection required? 6. Discuss the reasons why Bose has a certificate of achievement program for identifying qualified suppliers. 7. Bose is moving toward single sourcing many of its purchased part requirements. Discuss why the company might want to do this. Are there any risks to that approach? 8. Discuss some of the difficulties a company like Bose might experience when trying to implement just-in-time purchasing with international suppliers. 9. Why does Bose have to source so much of its purchase requirements from offshore suppliers? 10. What makes the JIT II system at Bose unique? Why would a company pursue this type of system? 11. Why is it necessary to enter into a longer-term contractual arrangement when pursuing arrangements like the one Bose has with its domestic transportation carrier? 12. Why is it important to manage logistics time elements proactively when pursuing higher levels of customer service? 13. What role does information technology play at Bose? 14. What advantages do information technology systems provide to Bose that might not be available to a company that does not have these systems? 15. Why has Bose developed its supplier performance measurement system? 16. Do you think the performance measurement systems at Bose are computerized or manual? Why?

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT BOSE CORPORATION Bose Corporation, headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts, offers an excellent example of integrated supply chain management. Bose, a producer of audio premium speakers used in automobiles, high-fidelity systems, and consumer and commercial broadcasting systems, was founded in 1964 by Dr. Bose of MIT. Bose currently maintains plants in Massachusetts and Michigan as well as Canada, Mexico, and Ireland. Its purchasing organization, while decentralized, has some overlap that requires coordination between sites. It manages this coordination by using conference calls between managers, electronic communication, and joint problem solving. The company is moving toward single sourcing many of its 800 to 1,000 parts, which include corrugated paper, particle board and wood, plastic injected molded parts, fasteners, glues, woofers, and fabric. Some product components, such as woofers, are sourced overseas. For example, at the Hillsdale, Michigan, plant, foreign sourcing accounts for 20% of purchases, with the remainder of suppliers located immediately within the state of Michigan. About 35% of the parts purchased at this site are single sourced, with approximately half of the components arriving with no incoming inspection performed. In turn, Bose ships finished products directly to Delco, Honda, and Nissan and has a record of no missed deliveries. Normal lead time to customers is 60 working days, but Bose can expedite shipments in one week and airfreight them if necessary. The company has developed a detailed supplier performance system that measures on-time delivery, quality performance, technical improvements, and supplier suggestions. A report is generated twice a month from this system and sent to the supplier providing feedback about supplier performance. If there is a three-week trend of poor performance, Bose will usually establish a specific goal for improvement that the supplier must attain. Examples include 10% delivery improvement every month until 100% conformance is achieved, or 5% quality improvement until a 1% defect level is reached over a four-month period. In one case, a supplier sent a rejected shipment back to Bose without explanation and with no corrective action taken. When no significant improvement occurred, another supplier replaced the delinquent supplier. Bose has few written contracts with suppliers. After six months of deliveries without rejects, Bose encourages suppliers to apply for a certificate of achievement form, signifying that they are qualified suppliers. One of the primary criteria for gaining certification involves how well the supplier responds to corrective action requests. One of the biggest problems observed is that suppliers often correct problems on individual parts covered by a corrective action form without extending these corrective actions to other part families and applicable parts. Bose has adopted a unique system of marrying just-in-time (JIT) purchasing with global sourcing. Approximately half of the dollar value of Bose’s total purchases are made overseas, with the majority of the sourcing done in Asia. Because foreign sourcing does not support just-in-time deliveries, Bose “had to find a way to blend low inventory with buying from distant sources,” says the director of purchasing and logistics for Bose. Visualizing itself as a customer-driven organization, Bose now uses a sophisticated transportation system—what Bose’s manager of logistics calls “the best EDI system in the country.” Working closely with a national less-than-truckload carrier for the bulk of its domestic freight movements, including shipments arriving at a U.S. port from oversees, Bose implemented an electronic data interchange (EDI) system that does much more than simple tracking. The system operates close to real time and allows two-way communication between every one of the freight handler’s 230 terminals and Bose. Information is updated several times daily and is downloaded automatically, enabling Bose to perform shipping analysis and distribution channel modeling to achieve reliable lowest total cost scenarios. The company can also request removal from a terminal of any shipment that it must expedite with an air shipment. This state-of-the-art system provides a snapshot of what is happening on a daily basis and keeps Bose’s managers on top of everyday occurrences and decisions. Management proactively manages logistics time elements in pursuit of better customer service. The next step is to implement this system with all major suppliers rather than just with transportation suppliers. In the future, Bose plans to automate its entire materials system. Perhaps one of the most unique features of Bose’s procurement and logistics system is the development of JIT II. The basic premise of JIT II is simple: The person who can do the best job of ordering and managing inventory of a particular item is the supplier himself. Bose negotiated with each supplier to provide a full-time employee at the Bose plant who was responsible for ordering, shipping, and receiving materials from that plant, as well as managing on-site inventories of the items. This was done through an EDI connection between Bose’s plant and the supplier’s facility. Collocating suppliers and buyers was so successful that Bose is now implementing it at all plant locations. In fact, many other companies have also begun to implement collocation of suppliers. Assignment Questions The following assignment questions relate to ideas and concepts presented throughout this text. Answer some or all of the questions as directed by your instructor. 1. Discuss how the strategy development process might work at a company like Bose. 2. What should be the relationship between Bose’s supply management strategy and the development of its performance measurement system? 3. Why is purchased quality so important to Bose? 4. Can a just-in-time purchase system operate without total quality from suppliers? 5. Why can some components arrive at the Hillsdale, Michigan, plant with no incoming inspection required? 6. Discuss the reasons why Bose has a certificate of achievement program for identifying qualified suppliers. 7. Bose is moving toward single sourcing many of its purchased part requirements. Discuss why the company might want to do this. Are there any risks to that approach? 8. Discuss some of the difficulties a company like Bose might experience when trying to implement just-in-time purchasing with international suppliers. 9. Why does Bose have to source so much of its purchase requirements from offshore suppliers? 10. What makes the JIT II system at Bose unique? Why would a company pursue this type of system? 11. Why is it necessary to enter into a longer-term contractual arrangement when pursuing arrangements like the one Bose has with its domestic transportation carrier? 12. Why is it important to manage logistics time elements proactively when pursuing higher levels of customer service? 13. What role does information technology play at Bose? 14. What advantages do information technology systems provide to Bose that might not be available to a company that does not have these systems? 15. Why has Bose developed its supplier performance measurement system? 16. Do you think the performance measurement systems at Bose are computerized or manual? Why?

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