Question 1 1. The ________________________ presents the movement in cash and bank balances over a period. 1 points Question 2 1. Which of the following departments is not a support center? marketing telecommunications guest transportation human resources 1 points Question 3 1. The distinction between operating and nonoperating income relates to: Continuity of income. Primary activities of the reporting entity. Consistency of income stream. Reliability of measurements. 1 points Question 4 1. Change statements include a: Retained earnings statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. Balance sheet, cash flow statement, and income statement. Cash flow statement, income statement, and retained earnings statement. Retained earnings statement, balance sheet, and income statement. 1 points Question 5 1. Pro forma earnings: Could be considered management’s view of permanent earnings. Are needed for the correction of errors. Are standardized under generally accepted accounting principles Are useful to compare two different firms’ performance. 1 points Question 6 1. The purpose of the statement of retained earnings is to show: the lifetime earnings retained by the corporation. the lifetime cash flow. the lifetime sales. all of the above. 1 points Question 7 1. The study of an individual financial statement item over several accounting periods is called: Ratio analysis. Vertical analysis. Horizontal analysis. Time and motion analysis. 1 points Question 8 1. Which of the following is not an example of an internal user of a company’s financial statements? member of the board of directors department head stockholder top-level manager 1 points Question 9 1. The accounting principle that requires revenue to be reported when earned is the: Matching principle Revenue recognition principle Time period principle Accrual reporting principle Going-concern principle 1 points Question 10 1. Which of the following questions can not be answered by analyzing information presented on a monthly income statement? How profitable was the hospitality operation at the end of the month? How much was spent last month to market the operation’s services? How much cash was on hand at the end of the month? What was the cost of sales for the month? 1 points Question 11 1. The sources of hotel revenue might be: profits and sales. sales, interest income, and dividend income. net income. all of the above. 1 points Question 12 1. Vertical analysis is a tool to evaluate individual financial statement items or groups of items in terms of a specific base amount. True False 1 points Question 13 1. The following is a portion of a comparative analysis: This Year Change Cost of Sales $400,000 (30,000) The cost of sales last year was: $370,000. $430,000. $30,000. $60,000. 1 points Question 14 1. Since everyone knows what an income statement is, there is no need to put a heading on this report. True False 1 points Question 15 1. An analytical procedure in which each income statement amount is stated as a percentage of a base amount, in this case, net sales. 1 points Question 16 1. Groups outside the business who require accounting and financial information. This includes suppliers, bankers, stockholders, and investors. 1 points Question 17 1. Interpretation of data shown on a common-size income statement can be simplified by: zeroing out the income statement bookkeeping accounts. classifying dividends as a business expense. restating the percentages as a component of the sales dollar. redesigning the statement. 1 points Question 18 1. The following information is provided: Dividends paid this year $ 30,000 Dividends declared this year 40,000 Net income this year 100,000 Retained earnings, start of year 150,000 The retained earnings at the end of this year are: $180,000. $220,000. $210,000. $260,000. 1 points Question 19 1. Horizontal analysis is also known as: Liquidity analysis. Absolute analysis. Revenue analysis. Trend analysis. 1 points Question 20 1. At the end of Year 1, the income statement for the Roadside Inn showed net income at $50,000. At the end of Year 2, the income statement showed $100,000 in net income. A horizontal analysis of the income statements would show the relative difference between the two years as: $50,000. $20,000. 100%. 50%. 1 points Question 21 1. Financial statement analysis is the application of analytical tools to general-purpose financial statements and related data for making business decisions. True False 1 points Question 22 1. Following is a portion of an income statement: 20X8 20X7 Sales $180,000 $190,000 In a comparative analysis, the percentage change from 20X7 to 20X8 is: A 105% decrease. A 94.7% Decrease A 5.6% Decrease A 5.3% Decrease 1 points Question 23 1. A fiscal year consists of any twelve consecutive months. True False 1 points Question 24 1. Financial statements intended for internal users. These statements present detailed information on each responsibility area ant the hotel as a whole. 1 points Question 25 1. Financial statements are usually prepared at the end of each fiscal period. True False

Question 1 1. The ________________________ presents the movement in cash and bank balances over a period. 1 points Question 2 1. Which of the following departments is not a support center? marketing telecommunications guest transportation human resources 1 points Question 3 1. The distinction between operating and nonoperating income relates to: Continuity of income. Primary activities of the reporting entity. Consistency of income stream. Reliability of measurements. 1 points Question 4 1. Change statements include a: Retained earnings statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. Balance sheet, cash flow statement, and income statement. Cash flow statement, income statement, and retained earnings statement. Retained earnings statement, balance sheet, and income statement. 1 points Question 5 1. Pro forma earnings: Could be considered management’s view of permanent earnings. Are needed for the correction of errors. Are standardized under generally accepted accounting principles Are useful to compare two different firms’ performance. 1 points Question 6 1. The purpose of the statement of retained earnings is to show: the lifetime earnings retained by the corporation. the lifetime cash flow. the lifetime sales. all of the above. 1 points Question 7 1. The study of an individual financial statement item over several accounting periods is called: Ratio analysis. Vertical analysis. Horizontal analysis. Time and motion analysis. 1 points Question 8 1. Which of the following is not an example of an internal user of a company’s financial statements? member of the board of directors department head stockholder top-level manager 1 points Question 9 1. The accounting principle that requires revenue to be reported when earned is the: Matching principle Revenue recognition principle Time period principle Accrual reporting principle Going-concern principle 1 points Question 10 1. Which of the following questions can not be answered by analyzing information presented on a monthly income statement? How profitable was the hospitality operation at the end of the month? How much was spent last month to market the operation’s services? How much cash was on hand at the end of the month? What was the cost of sales for the month? 1 points Question 11 1. The sources of hotel revenue might be: profits and sales. sales, interest income, and dividend income. net income. all of the above. 1 points Question 12 1. Vertical analysis is a tool to evaluate individual financial statement items or groups of items in terms of a specific base amount. True False 1 points Question 13 1. The following is a portion of a comparative analysis: This Year Change Cost of Sales $400,000 (30,000) The cost of sales last year was: $370,000. $430,000. $30,000. $60,000. 1 points Question 14 1. Since everyone knows what an income statement is, there is no need to put a heading on this report. True False 1 points Question 15 1. An analytical procedure in which each income statement amount is stated as a percentage of a base amount, in this case, net sales. 1 points Question 16 1. Groups outside the business who require accounting and financial information. This includes suppliers, bankers, stockholders, and investors. 1 points Question 17 1. Interpretation of data shown on a common-size income statement can be simplified by: zeroing out the income statement bookkeeping accounts. classifying dividends as a business expense. restating the percentages as a component of the sales dollar. redesigning the statement. 1 points Question 18 1. The following information is provided: Dividends paid this year $ 30,000 Dividends declared this year 40,000 Net income this year 100,000 Retained earnings, start of year 150,000 The retained earnings at the end of this year are: $180,000. $220,000. $210,000. $260,000. 1 points Question 19 1. Horizontal analysis is also known as: Liquidity analysis. Absolute analysis. Revenue analysis. Trend analysis. 1 points Question 20 1. At the end of Year 1, the income statement for the Roadside Inn showed net income at $50,000. At the end of Year 2, the income statement showed $100,000 in net income. A horizontal analysis of the income statements would show the relative difference between the two years as: $50,000. $20,000. 100%. 50%. 1 points Question 21 1. Financial statement analysis is the application of analytical tools to general-purpose financial statements and related data for making business decisions. True False 1 points Question 22 1. Following is a portion of an income statement: 20X8 20X7 Sales $180,000 $190,000 In a comparative analysis, the percentage change from 20X7 to 20X8 is: A 105% decrease. A 94.7% Decrease A 5.6% Decrease A 5.3% Decrease 1 points Question 23 1. A fiscal year consists of any twelve consecutive months. True False 1 points Question 24 1. Financial statements intended for internal users. These statements present detailed information on each responsibility area ant the hotel as a whole. 1 points Question 25 1. Financial statements are usually prepared at the end of each fiscal period. True False

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Course: PHYS 5426 — Quantum Statistical Physics Assignment #1 Instructor: Gennady Y. Chitov Date Assigned: January 15, 2014 Due Date: January 29, 2014 Problem 1. Prove [a; f(a†)] = @f(a†) @a† (1) [a†; f(a)] = −@f(a) @a (2) for arbitrary function f of operator which admits a series expansion. The Bose creation/ annihilation operators satisfy the standard commutation relations [a; a†] ≡ aa† − a†a = 1 (3) Hint: From Eqs.(1,2) one can figure out the corresponding commutation relations for the powers of creation/annihilation operators and then prove them by the method of mathematical induction. Note that for an arbitrary operator Aˆ: @A^n @A^ = nAˆn−1. Problem 2. In the presence of a constant external force acting on a one-dimensional oscillating particle its Hamiltonian becomes that of the so-called displaced oscillator, and the Schr¨odinger equation ˆH (q) = E (q) of the problem (cf. lecture notes) can be written in terms of dimensionless variables as ( − 1 2 d2 d2 + 1 2 2 − √ 2  ) () = ” () ; (4) where q = √ ~ m! and E = ~!”. a). Write the Schr¨odinger equation (4) in terms of the creation/annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator ( = 0)  = √1 2 (a + a†) (5) d d = √1 2 (a − a†) (6) 1 Via a linear transformation to the new creation/annihilation operators ˜a†; ˜a preserving the bosonic commutation relations for ˜a†; ˜a map the problem (4) of the displaced oscillator onto that of a simple harmonic oscillator with new operators (˜a†; ˜a). b). Find the spectrum (eigenvalues) ” (E) of the displaced oscillator. c). Write the normalized eigenstates |n⟩ of the displaced Hamiltonian (4) via a† and the vacuum state |Θ◦⟩ of the new operators, i.e. ˜a|Θ◦⟩ = 0 (7) d). As follows from the completeness of the oscillator’s eigenstates, the vacuum state of the displaced oscillator |Θ◦⟩ can be related to the simple oscillator’s vacuum |0⟩ (i.e., a|0⟩ = 0) as |Θ◦⟩ = Ω(a†)|0⟩ (8) Find (up to a normalization factor) the operator function Ω(a†) relating two vacua. Hint: in working out Eqs.(7,8), employ Eqs.(1,2). Problem 3. Prove from the standard commutation relations ([ai; a † j ]∓ = ij , etc) that ⟨0|aiaja † ka † l |0⟩ = jkil ± ikjl (9) the sign depending on the statistics. Also calculate the vacuum expectation value ⟨0|ahaiaja † ka † l a† m |0⟩. Problem 4. In the formalism of second quantization the two-particle interaction term of the Hamiltonian for spinless fermions is given by ˆ V = 1 2 ∫ ∫ dxdy ˆ †(x) ˆ †(y)V(x; y) ˆ (y) ˆ (x) (10) For the short-ranged interaction V(x; y) = V(|x−y|) ≡ V(r) = e2 exp(−r)=r find ˆ V in the momentum representation. The field operators and the creation/annihilation operators in the momentum representation are related in the usual way, i.e., ˆ †(x) = ∫ dp (2)3 a†(p)e−ipx (11) Note that the limit  → 0 recovers the Coulomb (long-ranged) interaction V(r) = e2=r. What is the Fourier transform V(q) of the Coulomb interaction? 2 Problem 5. The matrix elements of a two-particle interaction from the previous problem can be written as ⟨k3k4|V|k1k2⟩ = (2)3(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4)V(q) (12) where q ≡ k3−k1 is the momentum transfer. Show that the diagonal part of the interaction operator ˆ V found on the previous problem in the k-representation, arises from momentum transfers q = 0 and q = k2−k1. Write down the two interaction terms and identify them as direct (q = 0) and exchange (q = k2 − k1) interactions. Draw the corresponding Feynman diagrams. Problem 6. Find the first correction to the temperature dependence of the chemical potential  of the degenerate ideal electron gas, assuming constant particle concentration ⟨N⟩=V . Express the result in terms of T and the zero-temperature chemical potential ◦. For the calculations the following formula (we set kB = 1) can be used: I ≡ ∫ ∞ 0 f(“)d” e(“−)=T + 1 = ∫  0 f(“)d” + 2 6 T2f′() + O(T4) (13) 3

Course: PHYS 5426 — Quantum Statistical Physics Assignment #1 Instructor: Gennady Y. Chitov Date Assigned: January 15, 2014 Due Date: January 29, 2014 Problem 1. Prove [a; f(a†)] = @f(a†) @a† (1) [a†; f(a)] = −@f(a) @a (2) for arbitrary function f of operator which admits a series expansion. The Bose creation/ annihilation operators satisfy the standard commutation relations [a; a†] ≡ aa† − a†a = 1 (3) Hint: From Eqs.(1,2) one can figure out the corresponding commutation relations for the powers of creation/annihilation operators and then prove them by the method of mathematical induction. Note that for an arbitrary operator Aˆ: @A^n @A^ = nAˆn−1. Problem 2. In the presence of a constant external force acting on a one-dimensional oscillating particle its Hamiltonian becomes that of the so-called displaced oscillator, and the Schr¨odinger equation ˆH (q) = E (q) of the problem (cf. lecture notes) can be written in terms of dimensionless variables as ( − 1 2 d2 d2 + 1 2 2 − √ 2  ) () = ” () ; (4) where q = √ ~ m! and E = ~!”. a). Write the Schr¨odinger equation (4) in terms of the creation/annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator ( = 0)  = √1 2 (a + a†) (5) d d = √1 2 (a − a†) (6) 1 Via a linear transformation to the new creation/annihilation operators ˜a†; ˜a preserving the bosonic commutation relations for ˜a†; ˜a map the problem (4) of the displaced oscillator onto that of a simple harmonic oscillator with new operators (˜a†; ˜a). b). Find the spectrum (eigenvalues) ” (E) of the displaced oscillator. c). Write the normalized eigenstates |n⟩ of the displaced Hamiltonian (4) via a† and the vacuum state |Θ◦⟩ of the new operators, i.e. ˜a|Θ◦⟩ = 0 (7) d). As follows from the completeness of the oscillator’s eigenstates, the vacuum state of the displaced oscillator |Θ◦⟩ can be related to the simple oscillator’s vacuum |0⟩ (i.e., a|0⟩ = 0) as |Θ◦⟩ = Ω(a†)|0⟩ (8) Find (up to a normalization factor) the operator function Ω(a†) relating two vacua. Hint: in working out Eqs.(7,8), employ Eqs.(1,2). Problem 3. Prove from the standard commutation relations ([ai; a † j ]∓ = ij , etc) that ⟨0|aiaja † ka † l |0⟩ = jkil ± ikjl (9) the sign depending on the statistics. Also calculate the vacuum expectation value ⟨0|ahaiaja † ka † l a† m |0⟩. Problem 4. In the formalism of second quantization the two-particle interaction term of the Hamiltonian for spinless fermions is given by ˆ V = 1 2 ∫ ∫ dxdy ˆ †(x) ˆ †(y)V(x; y) ˆ (y) ˆ (x) (10) For the short-ranged interaction V(x; y) = V(|x−y|) ≡ V(r) = e2 exp(−r)=r find ˆ V in the momentum representation. The field operators and the creation/annihilation operators in the momentum representation are related in the usual way, i.e., ˆ †(x) = ∫ dp (2)3 a†(p)e−ipx (11) Note that the limit  → 0 recovers the Coulomb (long-ranged) interaction V(r) = e2=r. What is the Fourier transform V(q) of the Coulomb interaction? 2 Problem 5. The matrix elements of a two-particle interaction from the previous problem can be written as ⟨k3k4|V|k1k2⟩ = (2)3(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4)V(q) (12) where q ≡ k3−k1 is the momentum transfer. Show that the diagonal part of the interaction operator ˆ V found on the previous problem in the k-representation, arises from momentum transfers q = 0 and q = k2−k1. Write down the two interaction terms and identify them as direct (q = 0) and exchange (q = k2 − k1) interactions. Draw the corresponding Feynman diagrams. Problem 6. Find the first correction to the temperature dependence of the chemical potential  of the degenerate ideal electron gas, assuming constant particle concentration ⟨N⟩=V . Express the result in terms of T and the zero-temperature chemical potential ◦. For the calculations the following formula (we set kB = 1) can be used: I ≡ ∫ ∞ 0 f(“)d” e(“−)=T + 1 = ∫  0 f(“)d” + 2 6 T2f′() + O(T4) (13) 3

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9.[ Book Sections 8.3 & 8.4] A rectangular loop in the figure carries a current of I = 4A and is in a magnetic field B˙ = 0.75˙ax + 0.5˙ay Wb/m2. Calculate the torque on the coil:

9.[ Book Sections 8.3 & 8.4] A rectangular loop in the figure carries a current of I = 4A and is in a magnetic field B˙ = 0.75˙ax + 0.5˙ay Wb/m2. Calculate the torque on the coil:

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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People v. Glover 233 Cal. App. 3d 1476 (1991) Deadline is 12 hours from posting time. There is no page minimum as long as every question in the following instructions is answered thoroughly and completely. Instructions: Complete a case brief on People v. Glover 233 Cal. App. 3d 1476 (1991) and answer the following 11 questions… 1. name of case 2. legal citation and year case decided 3. character of action (how the case was brought before the appellate court) 4. facts of the case 5. legal issues in the case 6. decision of the appellate court 7. majority opinion 8. concurring opinion(s) 9. dissenting opinion 10. comment by the student 11. principle of the case (what the case stands for)

People v. Glover 233 Cal. App. 3d 1476 (1991) Deadline is 12 hours from posting time. There is no page minimum as long as every question in the following instructions is answered thoroughly and completely. Instructions: Complete a case brief on People v. Glover 233 Cal. App. 3d 1476 (1991) and answer the following 11 questions… 1. name of case 2. legal citation and year case decided 3. character of action (how the case was brought before the appellate court) 4. facts of the case 5. legal issues in the case 6. decision of the appellate court 7. majority opinion 8. concurring opinion(s) 9. dissenting opinion 10. comment by the student 11. principle of the case (what the case stands for)

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Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

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Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 3 and 4 of Project 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website. These are two design problems involving finite state machine design and interfacing with seven-segment display. First start by analyzing the block diagram for Problem 3 of Project 10. Then, use VHDL to design each of the system components. You will need to use four separate design modules and instantiate each of these within a fifth design module for the overall system. For Problem 4 of Project 10, carefully read through the problem and the “Seven-Segment Display” section of the FPGA board’s user guide before carefully planning the design of this system. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 3 of Project 10 (a single-digit stopwatch): a. Pay particular attention to the block diagram displayed for this problem. Create each of the four components to this system: i. Seven-segment decoder: You will be able to reuse your design from Lab 2 ii. 4-bit counter: I recommend taking a look at the behavior binary counter illustrated in “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 iii. Clock divider: You will be able to reuse your design from Lab 5. However, you will have to revise this design for task 2. For more information, I recommend taking a look at “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 for information about clock dividers. Note: The stopwatch circuit will increment the digit once every second. Design your clock divider accordingly in order to meet this timing specification. Remember, the clock on the lab FPGA board (Spartan 3) has a frequency of 50 MHz. If you purchased your board, the FPGA Basys 3 or Nexys 4 DDR FPGA board has a frequency of 100 MHz. iv. Controller: This is the main component you will design using a finite state machine b. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your 4-bit counter, clock divider (I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating so you do not have to simulate for a long duration), controller, and overall system (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) c. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 10 (a multi-digit stopwatch): a. Note: The least-significant digit should change at a rate of once per millisecond. However, for our design, the most-significant bit will not change once per second since each digit will count from 0-F. b. For more information about the timing and pinouts of the seven-segment display, please refer to your board’s user guide from Digilent’s website. Or use this direct link to our lab’s Spartan 3 FPGA board’s user guide. Look for a heading named “Seven-Segment Display” for more information about the timing requirements. c. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) d. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit 3. If you complete both of the tasks above, then you may continue and complete one or both of the following extra credit tasks: a. Decimal, Multi-Digit Stopwatch (extra credit task) You may complete this extra credit task instead of the hexadecimal, multi-digit stopwatch (lab task 2), or you may complete lab task 2 first, then complete this task i. Modify/create a multi-digit stopwatch so that only decimal numbers are displayed. The least-significant digit should change at a rate of once per millisecond and the most-significant bit will change once per second. This will now act like a real stopwatch. ii. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) iii. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit iv. Answer the extra credit lab task A questions on the cover sheet. In addition, list any references you use for this extra credit task. b. A Blinking, Multi-Digit Stopwatch (extra credit task) You may complete this extra credit task by altering your design of the hexadecimal or decimal multidigit stopwatch i. Modify your multi-digit stopwatch so the seven-segment display will blink rapidly once the most-significant digit is 9 or greater (to signal the stopwatch is close to the maximum value). This is your chance to design the system you described in the discussion question on the cover sheet. You may choose an appropriate rate at which the seven-segment display will blink. ii. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) iii. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit iv. Answer the extra credit lab task B questions on the cover sheet. In addition, list any references you use for this extra credit task.

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 3 and 4 of Project 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website. These are two design problems involving finite state machine design and interfacing with seven-segment display. First start by analyzing the block diagram for Problem 3 of Project 10. Then, use VHDL to design each of the system components. You will need to use four separate design modules and instantiate each of these within a fifth design module for the overall system. For Problem 4 of Project 10, carefully read through the problem and the “Seven-Segment Display” section of the FPGA board’s user guide before carefully planning the design of this system. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 3 of Project 10 (a single-digit stopwatch): a. Pay particular attention to the block diagram displayed for this problem. Create each of the four components to this system: i. Seven-segment decoder: You will be able to reuse your design from Lab 2 ii. 4-bit counter: I recommend taking a look at the behavior binary counter illustrated in “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 iii. Clock divider: You will be able to reuse your design from Lab 5. However, you will have to revise this design for task 2. For more information, I recommend taking a look at “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 for information about clock dividers. Note: The stopwatch circuit will increment the digit once every second. Design your clock divider accordingly in order to meet this timing specification. Remember, the clock on the lab FPGA board (Spartan 3) has a frequency of 50 MHz. If you purchased your board, the FPGA Basys 3 or Nexys 4 DDR FPGA board has a frequency of 100 MHz. iv. Controller: This is the main component you will design using a finite state machine b. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your 4-bit counter, clock divider (I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating so you do not have to simulate for a long duration), controller, and overall system (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) c. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 10 (a multi-digit stopwatch): a. Note: The least-significant digit should change at a rate of once per millisecond. However, for our design, the most-significant bit will not change once per second since each digit will count from 0-F. b. For more information about the timing and pinouts of the seven-segment display, please refer to your board’s user guide from Digilent’s website. Or use this direct link to our lab’s Spartan 3 FPGA board’s user guide. Look for a heading named “Seven-Segment Display” for more information about the timing requirements. c. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) d. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit 3. If you complete both of the tasks above, then you may continue and complete one or both of the following extra credit tasks: a. Decimal, Multi-Digit Stopwatch (extra credit task) You may complete this extra credit task instead of the hexadecimal, multi-digit stopwatch (lab task 2), or you may complete lab task 2 first, then complete this task i. Modify/create a multi-digit stopwatch so that only decimal numbers are displayed. The least-significant digit should change at a rate of once per millisecond and the most-significant bit will change once per second. This will now act like a real stopwatch. ii. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) iii. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit iv. Answer the extra credit lab task A questions on the cover sheet. In addition, list any references you use for this extra credit task. b. A Blinking, Multi-Digit Stopwatch (extra credit task) You may complete this extra credit task by altering your design of the hexadecimal or decimal multidigit stopwatch i. Modify your multi-digit stopwatch so the seven-segment display will blink rapidly once the most-significant digit is 9 or greater (to signal the stopwatch is close to the maximum value). This is your chance to design the system you described in the discussion question on the cover sheet. You may choose an appropriate rate at which the seven-segment display will blink. ii. Use VHDL test benches to verify the correct operation of your system and its components (again, I suggest you use a small divider value for simulating) iii. Ask the instructor to check your designs, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation for your circuit iv. Answer the extra credit lab task B questions on the cover sheet. In addition, list any references you use for this extra credit task.

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