http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnKEFSVAiNQ Watch the video, and then answer the questions below. According to realism, which of the following represents something that states would NOT seek? A. security B. prestige C. autonomy D. wealth E. permanent cooperation Schweller suggests that realists are wary of interdependence. If that is true, which of the following might be the most acceptable to a realist? A. creating a permanent pact of nonviolence with all English-speaking countries B. establishing an alliance to defend the U.S. against an invading country C. turning North America into something similar to the European Union, with a unified currency D. permitting the United Nations to run a global military so that the U.S. can reduce its military spending E. entering into a global production agreement in which the U.S. only manufactures computers Based on the video, which of the following statements about realists would seem to be false? A. Realists see the world as perpetually violent and full of war. B. Realists see humans as basically self-interested. C. Realists believe that the absence of a threat means a country should retrench. D. Realists believe that intervening in other countries to spread democracy is dangerous. E. Realists believe that autonomy is better than interdependence. What does Schweller mean by his statement that “there is no 911”? A. There is no global authority that is guaranteed to help any state in trouble. B. The world needs a central government to provide a universal social safety net. C. States need to cooperate more with each other in order to provide greater security for all. D. The United Nations is terrible at dealing with international emergencies. E. Islamic terrorists were not responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001. Which of the following would be the best way to convince a realist to go to war? A. argue that we signed a treaty to protect that country B. argue that the country we are helping to defend was an ally in a prior war C. argue that it will provide the world with a chance at long-term peace and stability D. argue that the other country is a direct threat to our interests E. argue that if we do not intervene, the United Nations will

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnKEFSVAiNQ Watch the video, and then answer the questions below. According to realism, which of the following represents something that states would NOT seek? A. security B. prestige C. autonomy D. wealth E. permanent cooperation Schweller suggests that realists are wary of interdependence. If that is true, which of the following might be the most acceptable to a realist? A. creating a permanent pact of nonviolence with all English-speaking countries B. establishing an alliance to defend the U.S. against an invading country C. turning North America into something similar to the European Union, with a unified currency D. permitting the United Nations to run a global military so that the U.S. can reduce its military spending E. entering into a global production agreement in which the U.S. only manufactures computers Based on the video, which of the following statements about realists would seem to be false? A. Realists see the world as perpetually violent and full of war. B. Realists see humans as basically self-interested. C. Realists believe that the absence of a threat means a country should retrench. D. Realists believe that intervening in other countries to spread democracy is dangerous. E. Realists believe that autonomy is better than interdependence. What does Schweller mean by his statement that “there is no 911”? A. There is no global authority that is guaranteed to help any state in trouble. B. The world needs a central government to provide a universal social safety net. C. States need to cooperate more with each other in order to provide greater security for all. D. The United Nations is terrible at dealing with international emergencies. E. Islamic terrorists were not responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001. Which of the following would be the best way to convince a realist to go to war? A. argue that we signed a treaty to protect that country B. argue that the country we are helping to defend was an ally in a prior war C. argue that it will provide the world with a chance at long-term peace and stability D. argue that the other country is a direct threat to our interests E. argue that if we do not intervene, the United Nations will

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnKEFSVAiNQ   Watch the video, and then answer the questions … Read More...
1000 words Total. Answer each question in paragraph form https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzicXbnmllc In the video, presented by Brooke Deterline, talks about creating ethical cultures in a business. One of Brooke’s main point was courage. She defines courage as our ability to act from our hearts in the face of fear and is a skill that we can build with practice. Brooke gives an example of life without courage and shows us many scenarios where it is still happening today, 10 years after the ENRON scandal. Courage is something that lacks in social situations where wrong is being done. She states that we all are vulnerable to situation influence all the time and that it is natural human wiring. It seems that most of us, including myself, can become a bystander to follow a leader or a group that we know is doing wrong because we want to be accepted. (1) Why do you think that the most ethical and compassionate among us can easily betray our values, in the face of challenging situations? What challenges does one face when they are presented with a difficult situation? (2) Do you believe that with practice we can retrain our brains to override our natural fear response when we are put in these challenging situations? Managers sometimes face business problems that raise difficult questions. When being faced with these problems they must choose between two ways of resolving it. Each of these alternatives is the right thing to do, but they can not do both ways. Badaracco characterizes right-versus-right dilemmas as “dirty-hands problems,” where managers or any employee often have to “get their hands dirty” by making tough choices between competing virtues such as honesty, fairness, respect, objectivity, and responsibility. He shows us three managers that face different right- versus-right conflicts. We see that these managers have the responsibilities to live up to the commitments they have made and the standards by which they want live by. However, it is not that simple to choose from wanting to be a successful manager and a decent, responsible person. (3) After reading the three different extremes of right- versus- right, why do you think that Badaracco emphasizes on the statement made by Oliver Wendell Holmes, “I do not give a fig for the simplicity on the this side complexity, but i would give my life for the simplicity on the other side of complexity,” and what do you think it means? A manager often encounters right-versus-right dilemmas where professional responsibilities conflict with personal values. For example, a senior manager may have knowledge of plans to lay off an employee-friend who is planning the purchase of a new home. Warning the friend about the upcoming layoff would certainly help the friend avoid the difficulty of paying for a new home without a job, but it may also violate an agreement with senior management and shareholders to keep such plans confidential until these plans are properly implemented. (4) In a challenging situation like this, should mangers rely on fundamental ethical principles and the company’s mission statement to help them decide what to do or should they consult their own moral instincts and intuitions?

1000 words Total. Answer each question in paragraph form https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzicXbnmllc In the video, presented by Brooke Deterline, talks about creating ethical cultures in a business. One of Brooke’s main point was courage. She defines courage as our ability to act from our hearts in the face of fear and is a skill that we can build with practice. Brooke gives an example of life without courage and shows us many scenarios where it is still happening today, 10 years after the ENRON scandal. Courage is something that lacks in social situations where wrong is being done. She states that we all are vulnerable to situation influence all the time and that it is natural human wiring. It seems that most of us, including myself, can become a bystander to follow a leader or a group that we know is doing wrong because we want to be accepted. (1) Why do you think that the most ethical and compassionate among us can easily betray our values, in the face of challenging situations? What challenges does one face when they are presented with a difficult situation? (2) Do you believe that with practice we can retrain our brains to override our natural fear response when we are put in these challenging situations? Managers sometimes face business problems that raise difficult questions. When being faced with these problems they must choose between two ways of resolving it. Each of these alternatives is the right thing to do, but they can not do both ways. Badaracco characterizes right-versus-right dilemmas as “dirty-hands problems,” where managers or any employee often have to “get their hands dirty” by making tough choices between competing virtues such as honesty, fairness, respect, objectivity, and responsibility. He shows us three managers that face different right- versus-right conflicts. We see that these managers have the responsibilities to live up to the commitments they have made and the standards by which they want live by. However, it is not that simple to choose from wanting to be a successful manager and a decent, responsible person. (3) After reading the three different extremes of right- versus- right, why do you think that Badaracco emphasizes on the statement made by Oliver Wendell Holmes, “I do not give a fig for the simplicity on the this side complexity, but i would give my life for the simplicity on the other side of complexity,” and what do you think it means? A manager often encounters right-versus-right dilemmas where professional responsibilities conflict with personal values. For example, a senior manager may have knowledge of plans to lay off an employee-friend who is planning the purchase of a new home. Warning the friend about the upcoming layoff would certainly help the friend avoid the difficulty of paying for a new home without a job, but it may also violate an agreement with senior management and shareholders to keep such plans confidential until these plans are properly implemented. (4) In a challenging situation like this, should mangers rely on fundamental ethical principles and the company’s mission statement to help them decide what to do or should they consult their own moral instincts and intuitions?

Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

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In case the body stay in lower temperature for short period (less than 20 minutes), explain how the body response to it.

In case the body stay in lower temperature for short period (less than 20 minutes), explain how the body response to it.

Sweat stops being formed. The minute muscles under the exterior … Read More...
Question One: There are 4 legal reasons why an agreement would lack assignment is to list each of the four legal reasons.  Provide a factual example for each of the four legal reasons. The factual example can be from the textbook, an actual case that you know about or you can make it up. a) An agreement would lack consideration if  ___________   

    factual example: X and Y . . . . b) An agreement would lack consideration if  ___________ 

    factual example: X and Y . . . c) An agreement would lack consideration if ___________    

    factual example: X and Y . . . d) An agreement would lack consideration if ___________    

    factual example: X and Y . . .  Question Two: Explain Promissory Estoppel. Be sure to include the elements required to prove promissory estoppel in your discussion.

Question One: There are 4 legal reasons why an agreement would lack assignment is to list each of the four legal reasons.  Provide a factual example for each of the four legal reasons. The factual example can be from the textbook, an actual case that you know about or you can make it up. a) An agreement would lack consideration if  ___________   

    factual example: X and Y . . . . b) An agreement would lack consideration if  ___________ 

    factual example: X and Y . . . c) An agreement would lack consideration if ___________    

    factual example: X and Y . . . d) An agreement would lack consideration if ___________    

    factual example: X and Y . . .  Question Two: Explain Promissory Estoppel. Be sure to include the elements required to prove promissory estoppel in your discussion.

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This assignment provides you the opportunity to reflect on the topics ethics and how one might experience ethical challenges early in one’s career. The attached scenario is based on actual events and used with permission of ASCE. Using the attached scenario and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) code of ethics, develop a response to the questions that are included within the scenario. Your deliverable must be in the form of a memorandum, which could be used as a reference or guideline when discussing the importance of ethics colleagues. When answering the questions you should be specific in identifying the components of the code of ethics you use to reflect on the questions posed and how they would be used to assist someone facing the same scenario. Ethics Scenario and Questions: Last month, Sara was reported to her State’s Engineer’s Board for a possible ethics violation. Tomorrow morning she would meet with the Board and though she felt she had done nothing unethical, Sara’s eyes had been opened to the complexity and gravity of ethical dilemmas in engineering practice. She wished she had sought and/or received better guidance regarding ethical issues earlier in her career. Sara reflected on how she got to this point in her career. When Sara had been a senior Civil Engineering student in an ABET-accredited program at the State University, she immersed herself in her course work. Graduating at the top of her class assured Sara that she would have some choice in her career direction. Knowing that she wanted to become a licensed engineer, Sara took and passed the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam during her senior year and after graduation, went to work as an Engineer Intern (EI) for a company that would allow her to achieve that goal. Sara was excited about her new job — she worked diligently for four years under licensed engineers and was assigned increasing responsibilities. She was now ready to take the Professional Engineer (PE) exam and become licensed. Just before taking the PE licensing exam, Sara’s firm was retained to investigate the structural integrity of an apartment complex that the firm’s client planned to sell. Sara’s supervisor informed her in no uncertain terms that the client required that the structural report remain confidential. Later, the client informed Sara that he planned to sell the occupied property “as is.” During Sara’s investigation she found no significant structural problems with the apartment complex. However, she did observe some electrical deficiencies that she believed violated city codes and could pose a safety hazard to the occupants. Realizing that electrical matters were, in a manner of speaking, not her direct area of expertise, Sara discussed possible approaches with her colleague and friend, Tom. Also an Engineer Intern, Tom had been an officer in the student chapter of ASCE during their college years. During their conversation, Tom commented that based on the ASCE Code of Ethics, he believed Sara had an ethical obligation to disclose this health-safety problem. Sara felt Tom did not appreciate the fact that she had been clearly instructed to keep such information confidential, and she certainly did not want to damage the client relationship. Nevertheless, with reluctance, Sara verbally informed the client about the problem and made an oblique reference to the electrical deficiencies in her report, which her supervisor signed and sealed. Several weeks later, Sara learned that her client did not inform either the residents of the apartment complex or the prospective buyer about her concerns. Although Sara felt confident and pleased with her work on the project, the situation about the electrical deficiencies continued to bother her. She wondered if she had an ethical obligation to do more than just tell the client and state her concerns in her report. The thought of informing the proper authorities occurred to her, especially since the client was not disclosing the potential safety concerns to either the occupants or the buyer. She toyed with the idea of discussing the situation with her immediate supervisor but since everyone seemed satisfied, Sara moved onto other projects and eventually put it out of her mind. Questions to consider (What were the main issues Sara was wrestling with in this situation? ; Do you think Sara had a “right” or an “obligation” to report the deficiency to the proper authorities? ;Who might Sara have spoken with about the dilemma? ; Who should be responsible for what happened – Sara, Sara’s employer, the client, or someone else? ; How does this situation conflict with Sara’s obligation to be faithful to her client? ; Is it wise practice to ignore “gut feelings” that arise? These and other questions will surface again later and most will be considered at that point, but let’s continue for now with Sara’s story. During her first few years with the company, and under the supervision of several managers, Sara was encouraged to become active in technical and professional societies (which was the policy of the company). But then she found her involvement with those groups diminishing as her current supervisor opposed Sara’s participation in meetings and conferences unless she used vacation time. Sara was very frustrated but did not really know how to rectify the situation. In the course of time, Sara attended a meeting with the CEO on a different matter and she took the opportunity to inquire about attending technical and professional society meetings. The CEO reaffirmed that the company thought it important and that he wanted Sara to participate in such meetings. Sara informed her supervisor and though he did begin approving Sara’s requests for leave to participate in society meetings, their relationship was strained. Questions to consider: What might Sara have done differently to seek a remedy and yet preserve her relationship with her supervisor? ; Where could Sara have found guidance in the ASCE Code of Ethics, appropriate to this situation? The story continues….. As Christmas approached the following year, Sara discovered a gift bag on her desk. Inside the gift bag was an expensive honey-glazed spiral cut ham and a Christmas greeting card from a vendor who called on Sara from time to time. This concerned Sara as she felt it might cast doubt on the integrity of their business relationship. She asked around and found that several others received gifts from the vendor as well. After sleeping on it, Sara sent a polite note to the vendor returning the ham. Questions to consider: Was Sara really obligated to return the ham? Or was this taking ethics too far? ; On the other hand, could Sara be obligated to pursue the matter further than just returning the gift she had received? A few years later, friends and colleagues urged Sara, now a highly successful principal in a respected engineering firm, to run for public office. Sara carefully considered this step, realizing it would be a challenge to juggle work, family, and such intense community involvement. Ultimately, she agreed to run and soon found herself immersed in the campaign. A draft political advertisement was prepared that included her photograph, her engineering seal, and the following text: “Vote for Sara! We need an engineer on the City Council. That is simple common sense, isn’t it? Sara is an experienced licensed engineer with years of rich accomplishments, who disdains delays and takes action now!” Questions to consider: Should Sara’s engineering seal be included in the advertisement? ; Should she ask someone in ASCE his or her opinion before deciding? As fate would have it, a few days later, just after announcing her candidacy for City Council, the matter of Sara’s investigation of the apartment complex so many years ago resurfaced. Sara learned that the apartment complex caught on fire, and people had been seriously injured. During the investigation of the cause of the fire, Sara’s report was reviewed, and somehow the cause of the fire was traced to the electrical deficiencies, which she had briefly mentioned. Immediately this hit the local newspapers, attorneys became involved, and subsequently the Licensing Board was asked to look into the ethical responsibilities related to the report. Now, sitting alone by the shore of the lake, Sara pondered her situation. Legally, she felt she might claim some immunity since she was not a licensed engineer at the time of her work on the apartment complex. But professionally, she keenly felt she had let the public down, and she could not get this, or those who had been hurt in the fire, out of her mind. Question to consider: Occasionally, are some elements of the code in conflict with other elements In the backseat of the taxi on the way to the airport, Sara thumbed through her hometown newspaper that she had purchased at a newsstand. She stopped when she saw an editorial about her City Council campaign. The article claimed that, as a result of the allegations against her, she was no longer fit for public office. Could this be true? Question to consider: How should she respond to such claims?

This assignment provides you the opportunity to reflect on the topics ethics and how one might experience ethical challenges early in one’s career. The attached scenario is based on actual events and used with permission of ASCE. Using the attached scenario and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) code of ethics, develop a response to the questions that are included within the scenario. Your deliverable must be in the form of a memorandum, which could be used as a reference or guideline when discussing the importance of ethics colleagues. When answering the questions you should be specific in identifying the components of the code of ethics you use to reflect on the questions posed and how they would be used to assist someone facing the same scenario. Ethics Scenario and Questions: Last month, Sara was reported to her State’s Engineer’s Board for a possible ethics violation. Tomorrow morning she would meet with the Board and though she felt she had done nothing unethical, Sara’s eyes had been opened to the complexity and gravity of ethical dilemmas in engineering practice. She wished she had sought and/or received better guidance regarding ethical issues earlier in her career. Sara reflected on how she got to this point in her career. When Sara had been a senior Civil Engineering student in an ABET-accredited program at the State University, she immersed herself in her course work. Graduating at the top of her class assured Sara that she would have some choice in her career direction. Knowing that she wanted to become a licensed engineer, Sara took and passed the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam during her senior year and after graduation, went to work as an Engineer Intern (EI) for a company that would allow her to achieve that goal. Sara was excited about her new job — she worked diligently for four years under licensed engineers and was assigned increasing responsibilities. She was now ready to take the Professional Engineer (PE) exam and become licensed. Just before taking the PE licensing exam, Sara’s firm was retained to investigate the structural integrity of an apartment complex that the firm’s client planned to sell. Sara’s supervisor informed her in no uncertain terms that the client required that the structural report remain confidential. Later, the client informed Sara that he planned to sell the occupied property “as is.” During Sara’s investigation she found no significant structural problems with the apartment complex. However, she did observe some electrical deficiencies that she believed violated city codes and could pose a safety hazard to the occupants. Realizing that electrical matters were, in a manner of speaking, not her direct area of expertise, Sara discussed possible approaches with her colleague and friend, Tom. Also an Engineer Intern, Tom had been an officer in the student chapter of ASCE during their college years. During their conversation, Tom commented that based on the ASCE Code of Ethics, he believed Sara had an ethical obligation to disclose this health-safety problem. Sara felt Tom did not appreciate the fact that she had been clearly instructed to keep such information confidential, and she certainly did not want to damage the client relationship. Nevertheless, with reluctance, Sara verbally informed the client about the problem and made an oblique reference to the electrical deficiencies in her report, which her supervisor signed and sealed. Several weeks later, Sara learned that her client did not inform either the residents of the apartment complex or the prospective buyer about her concerns. Although Sara felt confident and pleased with her work on the project, the situation about the electrical deficiencies continued to bother her. She wondered if she had an ethical obligation to do more than just tell the client and state her concerns in her report. The thought of informing the proper authorities occurred to her, especially since the client was not disclosing the potential safety concerns to either the occupants or the buyer. She toyed with the idea of discussing the situation with her immediate supervisor but since everyone seemed satisfied, Sara moved onto other projects and eventually put it out of her mind. Questions to consider (What were the main issues Sara was wrestling with in this situation? ; Do you think Sara had a “right” or an “obligation” to report the deficiency to the proper authorities? ;Who might Sara have spoken with about the dilemma? ; Who should be responsible for what happened – Sara, Sara’s employer, the client, or someone else? ; How does this situation conflict with Sara’s obligation to be faithful to her client? ; Is it wise practice to ignore “gut feelings” that arise? These and other questions will surface again later and most will be considered at that point, but let’s continue for now with Sara’s story. During her first few years with the company, and under the supervision of several managers, Sara was encouraged to become active in technical and professional societies (which was the policy of the company). But then she found her involvement with those groups diminishing as her current supervisor opposed Sara’s participation in meetings and conferences unless she used vacation time. Sara was very frustrated but did not really know how to rectify the situation. In the course of time, Sara attended a meeting with the CEO on a different matter and she took the opportunity to inquire about attending technical and professional society meetings. The CEO reaffirmed that the company thought it important and that he wanted Sara to participate in such meetings. Sara informed her supervisor and though he did begin approving Sara’s requests for leave to participate in society meetings, their relationship was strained. Questions to consider: What might Sara have done differently to seek a remedy and yet preserve her relationship with her supervisor? ; Where could Sara have found guidance in the ASCE Code of Ethics, appropriate to this situation? The story continues….. As Christmas approached the following year, Sara discovered a gift bag on her desk. Inside the gift bag was an expensive honey-glazed spiral cut ham and a Christmas greeting card from a vendor who called on Sara from time to time. This concerned Sara as she felt it might cast doubt on the integrity of their business relationship. She asked around and found that several others received gifts from the vendor as well. After sleeping on it, Sara sent a polite note to the vendor returning the ham. Questions to consider: Was Sara really obligated to return the ham? Or was this taking ethics too far? ; On the other hand, could Sara be obligated to pursue the matter further than just returning the gift she had received? A few years later, friends and colleagues urged Sara, now a highly successful principal in a respected engineering firm, to run for public office. Sara carefully considered this step, realizing it would be a challenge to juggle work, family, and such intense community involvement. Ultimately, she agreed to run and soon found herself immersed in the campaign. A draft political advertisement was prepared that included her photograph, her engineering seal, and the following text: “Vote for Sara! We need an engineer on the City Council. That is simple common sense, isn’t it? Sara is an experienced licensed engineer with years of rich accomplishments, who disdains delays and takes action now!” Questions to consider: Should Sara’s engineering seal be included in the advertisement? ; Should she ask someone in ASCE his or her opinion before deciding? As fate would have it, a few days later, just after announcing her candidacy for City Council, the matter of Sara’s investigation of the apartment complex so many years ago resurfaced. Sara learned that the apartment complex caught on fire, and people had been seriously injured. During the investigation of the cause of the fire, Sara’s report was reviewed, and somehow the cause of the fire was traced to the electrical deficiencies, which she had briefly mentioned. Immediately this hit the local newspapers, attorneys became involved, and subsequently the Licensing Board was asked to look into the ethical responsibilities related to the report. Now, sitting alone by the shore of the lake, Sara pondered her situation. Legally, she felt she might claim some immunity since she was not a licensed engineer at the time of her work on the apartment complex. But professionally, she keenly felt she had let the public down, and she could not get this, or those who had been hurt in the fire, out of her mind. Question to consider: Occasionally, are some elements of the code in conflict with other elements In the backseat of the taxi on the way to the airport, Sara thumbed through her hometown newspaper that she had purchased at a newsstand. She stopped when she saw an editorial about her City Council campaign. The article claimed that, as a result of the allegations against her, she was no longer fit for public office. Could this be true? Question to consider: How should she respond to such claims?

MEMO       To: Ms. Sara From: Ethics Monitoring … Read More...
Read the excerpt provided, then answer the questions below. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=23&page=transcript What is the line of division suggested by the Monroe Doctrine? A. It establishes a dividing line that leaves all of the Americas to the United States. B. It establishes a sphere of security that ends roughly at the divide between Central and South America. C. It states that anything south of the U.S. border is available for colonization but nothing north of it. D. It establishes a division of territorial control between the United States and Canada. E. It establishes a division between East and West Germany. What does the Monroe Doctrine establish in terms of the U.S. realm of security? A. An agreement among South American states to protect themselves against European and U.S. intervention. B. A declaration that establishes South and Central America as included into the U.S. sphere of security and that intervention by Europe would be met with hostility. C. A European policy of non-intervention into the Americas. D. A treaty of mutual cooperation between Europe and the United States to protect each other’s colonies. E. A free trade sphere among North and South America. What does the Monroe Doctrine indicate in terms of European colonization of Central and South America? A. A policy of cooperative assistance, if Europe wishes to colonize South American countries we will assist. B. A policy of non-interference, the colonization of South American countries by European states will be considered a threat to U.S. security interests. C. A policy of the expansion of the rights of Central and South American states. D. The creation of a unified group of colonies including the U.S. and European colonies for collective security. E. A policy of complete cooperation and humanitarian development through aid dollars. For the newly independent states who were at one point European colonies, what does the Doctrine indicate? A. That the United States sees the rights of the European countries to reestablish control of those territories. B. That the United States will take over and colonize those countries rather than allow the Europeans to re-establish control. C. That the United States sees no legitimacy in recognizing the newly independent states who are stable. D. That the United States supports the maintenance of the independence of those former colonies. E. That the United States will accept payment for the loss of control over those former colonies.

Read the excerpt provided, then answer the questions below. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=23&page=transcript What is the line of division suggested by the Monroe Doctrine? A. It establishes a dividing line that leaves all of the Americas to the United States. B. It establishes a sphere of security that ends roughly at the divide between Central and South America. C. It states that anything south of the U.S. border is available for colonization but nothing north of it. D. It establishes a division of territorial control between the United States and Canada. E. It establishes a division between East and West Germany. What does the Monroe Doctrine establish in terms of the U.S. realm of security? A. An agreement among South American states to protect themselves against European and U.S. intervention. B. A declaration that establishes South and Central America as included into the U.S. sphere of security and that intervention by Europe would be met with hostility. C. A European policy of non-intervention into the Americas. D. A treaty of mutual cooperation between Europe and the United States to protect each other’s colonies. E. A free trade sphere among North and South America. What does the Monroe Doctrine indicate in terms of European colonization of Central and South America? A. A policy of cooperative assistance, if Europe wishes to colonize South American countries we will assist. B. A policy of non-interference, the colonization of South American countries by European states will be considered a threat to U.S. security interests. C. A policy of the expansion of the rights of Central and South American states. D. The creation of a unified group of colonies including the U.S. and European colonies for collective security. E. A policy of complete cooperation and humanitarian development through aid dollars. For the newly independent states who were at one point European colonies, what does the Doctrine indicate? A. That the United States sees the rights of the European countries to reestablish control of those territories. B. That the United States will take over and colonize those countries rather than allow the Europeans to re-establish control. C. That the United States sees no legitimacy in recognizing the newly independent states who are stable. D. That the United States supports the maintenance of the independence of those former colonies. E. That the United States will accept payment for the loss of control over those former colonies.

Read the excerpt provided, then answer the questions below. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=23&page=transcript … Read More...
Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 6.13 A hand presses down on the book in the figure. Part A Is the normal force of the table on the book larger than, smaller than, or equal to ? ANSWER: Correct mg Equal to Larger than Smaller than mg mg mg Problem 6.2 The three ropes in the figure are tied to a small, very light ring. Two of these ropes are anchored to walls at right angles with the tensions shown in the figure. Part A What is the magnitude of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the direction of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. T  3 T3 = 94 N T  3 Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct The Normal Force When an object rests on a surface, there is always a force perpendicular to the surface; we call this the normal force, denoted by . The two questions to the right will explore the normal force. Part A A man attempts to pick up his suitcase of weight by pulling straight up on the handle. However, he is unable to lift the suitcase from the floor. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man pulls upward on the suitcase? Hint 1. How to approach this problem First, identify the forces that act on the suitcase and draw a free-body diagram. Then use the fact that the suitcase is in equilibrium, , to examine how the forces acting on the suitcase relate to each other. Hint 2. Identify the correct free-body diagram Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram of the suitcase while the man is pulling on the handle with a force of magnitude ? = 58   below horizontal n ws n F = 0 fpull Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase minus the magnitude of the force of the pull. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the force of the pull and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is greater than the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. Typesetting math: 100% Now assume that the man of weight is tired and decides to sit on his suitcase. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man is sitting on the suitcase? Hint 1. Identify the correct free-body diagram. Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram while the man is sitting atop the suitcase? Here the vector labeled is a force that has the same magnitude as the man’s weight. ANSWER: wm n wm Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Recognize that the normal force acting on an object is not always equal to the weight of that object. This is an important point to understand. Problem 6.5 A construction worker with a weight of 880 stands on a roof that is sloped at 18 . Part A What is the magnitude of the normal force of the roof on the worker? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight minus the magnitude of the man’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the man’s weight and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is less than the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. N  n = 840 N Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.6 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B For diagram the part A, find the value of the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg ax x ax = -0.67 m s2 ay, y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D For diagram the part C, find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = 0.67 m s2 ay y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.7 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay = 0 m s2 kg ax x ax = 0.99 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Part B Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay y ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = -0.18 m s2 ay y ay = 0 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.10 A horizontal rope is tied to a 53.0 box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if: Part A The box is at rest? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The box moves at a steady = 4.80 ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The box = 4.80 and = 4.60 ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T = 0 N vx m/s T = 0 N vx m/s ax m/s2 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.14 It takes the elevator in a skyscraper 4.5 to reach its cruising speed of 11 . A 60 passenger gets aboard on the ground floor. Part A What is the passenger’s weight before the elevator starts moving? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the passenger’s weight while the elevator is speeding up? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the passenger’s weight after the elevator reaches its cruising speed? T = 244 N s m/s kg w = 590 N w = 730 N Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Block on an Incline A block lies on a plane raised an angle from the horizontal. Three forces act upon the block: , the force of gravity; , the normal force; and , the force of friction. The coefficient of friction is large enough to prevent the block from sliding . Part A Consider coordinate system a, with the x axis along the plane. Which forces lie along the axes? ANSWER: w = 590 N  F  w F n F  f Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Which forces lie along the axes of the coordinate system b, in which the y axis is vertical? ANSWER: Correct only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w Typesetting math: 100% Usually the best advice is to choose coordinate system so that the acceleration of the system is directly along one of the coordinate axes. If the system isn’t accelerating, then you are better off choosing the coordinate system with the most vectors along the coordinate axes. But now you are going to ignore that advice. You will find the normal force, , using vertical coordinate system b. In these coordinates you will find the magnitude appearing in both the x and y equations, each multiplied by a trigonometric function. Part C Because the block is not moving, the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the y-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: F  n Fn Fn Ff Fw  F n Fny F  n Fn  F  n  Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the x-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: ANSWER: Fny = Fncos() F f Ffy F f Ff  F  f  Ffy = Ffsin() Fy = 0 = Fncos() + Ffsin() − Fw Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part D Because the block is not moving, the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the x component of Write an expression for , the x component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part E To find the magnitude of the normal force, you must express in terms of since is an unknown. Using the equations you found in the two previous parts, find an expression for involving and but not . Hint 1. How to approach the problem From your answers to the previous two parts you should have two force equations ( and ). Combine these equations to eliminate . The key is to multiply the Fn Ff Fw  F n Fnx F  n Fn  Fnx = −Fnsin() Fx = 0 = −Fnsin() + Ffcos() Fn Fw Ff Fn Fw  Ff Typesetting math: 100% Fy = 0 Fx = 0 Ff equation for the y components by and the equation for the x components by , then add or subtract the two equations to eliminate the term . An alternative motivation for the algebra is to eliminate the trig functions in front of by using the trig identity . At the very least this would result in an equation that is simple to solve for . ANSWER: Correct Congratulations on working this through. Now realize that in coordinate system a, which is aligned with the plane, the y-coordinate equation is , which leads immediately to the result obtained here for . CONCLUSION: A thoughtful examination of which coordinate system to choose can save a lot of algebra. Contact Forces Introduced Learning Goal: To introduce contact forces (normal and friction forces) and to understand that, except for friction forces under certain circumstances, these forces must be determined from: net Force = ma. Two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. Indeed, when the objects touch, they exert repulsive normal forces on each other, as well as frictional forces that resist their slipping relative to each other. These contact forces arise from a complex interplay between the electrostatic forces between the electrons and ions in the objects and the laws of quantum mechanics. As two surfaces are pushed together these forces increase exponentially over an atomic distance scale, easily becoming strong enough to distort the bulk material in the objects if they approach too close. In everyday experience, contact forces are limited by the deformation or acceleration of the objects, rather than by the fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, we can conclude the following: The magnitude of contact forces is determined by , that is, by the other forces on, and acceleration of, the contacting bodies. The only exception is that the frictional forces cannot exceed (although they can be smaller than this or even zero). Normal and friction forces Two types of contact forces operate in typical mechanics problems, the normal and frictional forces, usually designated by and (or , or something similar) respectively. These are the components of the overall contact force: perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of contact. Kinetic friction when surfaces slide cos  sin  Ff cos() sin() Fn sin2() + cos2 () = 1 Fn Fn = Fwcos() Fy = Fn − FW cos() = 0 Fn F = ma μn n f Ffric n f Typesetting math: 100% When one surface is sliding past the other, experiments show three things about the friction force (denoted ): The frictional force opposes the relative motion at the 1. point of contact, 2. is proportional to the normal force, and 3. the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to that of the normal force is fairly constant over a wide range of speeds. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of kinetic friction, often designated . As long as the sliding continues, the frictional force is then (valid when the surfaces slide by each other). Static friction when surfaces don’t slide When there is no relative motion of the surfaces, the frictional force can assume any value from zero up to a maximum , where is the coefficient of static friction. Invariably, is larger than , in agreement with the observation that when a force is large enough that something breaks loose and starts to slide, it often accelerates. The frictional force for surfaces with no relative motion is therefore (valid when the contacting surfaces have no relative motion). The actual magnitude and direction of the static friction force are such that it (together with other forces on the object) causes the object to remain motionless with respect to the contacting surface as long as the static friction force required does not exceed . The equation is valid only when the surfaces are on the verge of sliding. Part A When two objects slide by one another, which of the following statements about the force of friction between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct Part B fk fk μk fk = μkn μsn μs μs μk fs ! μsn μsn fs = μsn The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μkn μkn μkn Typesetting math: 100% When two objects are in contact with no relative motion, which of the following statements about the frictional force between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct For static friction, the actual magnitude and direction of the friction force are such that it, together with any other forces present, will cause the object to have the observed acceleration. The magnitude of the force cannot exceed . If the magnitude of static friction needed to keep acceleration equal to zero exceeds , then the object will slide subject to the resistance of kinetic friction. Do not automatically assume that unless you are considering a situation in which the magnitude of the static friction force is as large as possible (i.e., when determining at what point an object will just begin to slip). Whether the actual magnitude of the friction force is 0, less than , or equal to depends on the magnitude of the other forces (if any) as well as the acceleration of the object through . Part C When a board with a box on it is slowly tilted to larger and larger angle, common experience shows that the box will at some point “break loose” and start to accelerate down the board. The box begins to slide once the component of gravity acting parallel to the board just begins to exceeds the maximum force of static friction. Which of the following is the most general explanation for why the box accelerates down the board? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μsn μsn μsn μsn μsn fs = μsn μsn μsn F = ma Fg The force of kinetic friction is smaller than that of maximum static friction, but remains the same. Once the box is moving, is smaller than the force of maximum static friction but larger than the force of kinetic friction. Once the box is moving, is larger than the force of maximum static friction. When the box is stationary, equals the force of static friction, but once the box starts moving, the sliding reduces the normal force, which in turn reduces the friction. Fg Fg Fg Fg Typesetting math: 100% Correct At the point when the box finally does “break loose,” you know that the component of the box’s weight that is parallel to the board just exceeds (i.e., this component of gravitational force on the box has just reached a magnitude such that the force of static friction, which has a maximum value of , can no longer oppose it.) For the box to then accelerate, there must be a net force on the box along the board. Thus, the component of the box’s weight parallel to the board must be greater than the force of kinetic friction. Therefore the force of kinetic friction must be less than the force of static friction which implies , as expected. Part D Consider a problem in which a car of mass is on a road tilted at an angle . The normal force Select the best answer. ANSWER: Correct The key point is that contact forces must be determined from Newton’s equation. In the problem described above, there is not enough information given to determine the normal force (e.g., the acceleration is unknown). Each of the answer options is valid under some conditions ( , the car is sliding down an icy incline, or the car is going around a banked turn), but in fact none is likely to be correct if there are other forces on the car or if the car is accelerating. Do not memorize values for the normal force valid in different problems–you must determine from . Problem 6.17 Bonnie and Clyde are sliding a 323 bank safe across the floor to their getaway car. The safe slides with a constant speed if Clyde pushes from behind with 375 of force while Bonnie pulls forward on a rope with 335 of force. μsn μsn μkn μsn μk < μs M  is found using n = Mg n = Mg cos() n = Mg cos() F  = Ma  = 0 n F = ma kg N N Typesetting math: 100% Part A What is the safe's coefficient of kinetic friction on the bank floor? ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.19 A crate is placed on a horizontal conveyor belt. The materials are such that and . Part A Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt runs at constant speed. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: 0.224 10 kg μs = 0.5 μk = 0.3 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt is speeding up. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C What is the maximum acceleration the belt can have without the crate slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct amax = 4.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.28 A 1100 steel beam is supported by two ropes. Part A What is the tension in rope 1? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the tension in rope 2? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T1 = 7000 N Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.35 The position of a 1.4 mass is given by , where is in seconds. Part A What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.39 T2 = 4800 N kg x = (2t3 − 3t2 )m t t = 0 s F = -8.4 N t = 1 s F = 8.4 N Typesetting math: 100% A rifle with a barrel length of 61 fires a 8 bullet with a horizontal speed of 400 . The bullet strikes a block of wood and penetrates to a depth of 11 . Part A What resistive force (assumed to be constant) does the wood exert on the bullet? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How long does it take the bullet to come to rest after entering the wood? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.45 You and your friend Peter are putting new shingles on a roof pitched at 21 . You're sitting on the very top of the roof when Peter, who is at the edge of the roof directly below you, 5.0 away, asks you for the box of nails. Rather than carry the 2.0 box of nails down to Peter, you decide to give the box a push and have it slide down to him. Part A If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the roof is 0.55, with what speed should you push the box to have it gently come to rest right at the edge of the roof? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. cm g m/s cm fk = 5800 N = 5.5×10−4 t s  m kg Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.54 The 2.0 wood box in the figure slides down a vertical wood wall while you push on it at a 45 angle. Part A What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down at a constant speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct v = 3.9 ms kg  F = 23 N Typesetting math: 100% Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 98.8%. You received 114.57 out of a possible total of 116 points. Typesetting math: 100%

Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 6.13 A hand presses down on the book in the figure. Part A Is the normal force of the table on the book larger than, smaller than, or equal to ? ANSWER: Correct mg Equal to Larger than Smaller than mg mg mg Problem 6.2 The three ropes in the figure are tied to a small, very light ring. Two of these ropes are anchored to walls at right angles with the tensions shown in the figure. Part A What is the magnitude of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the direction of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. T  3 T3 = 94 N T  3 Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct The Normal Force When an object rests on a surface, there is always a force perpendicular to the surface; we call this the normal force, denoted by . The two questions to the right will explore the normal force. Part A A man attempts to pick up his suitcase of weight by pulling straight up on the handle. However, he is unable to lift the suitcase from the floor. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man pulls upward on the suitcase? Hint 1. How to approach this problem First, identify the forces that act on the suitcase and draw a free-body diagram. Then use the fact that the suitcase is in equilibrium, , to examine how the forces acting on the suitcase relate to each other. Hint 2. Identify the correct free-body diagram Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram of the suitcase while the man is pulling on the handle with a force of magnitude ? = 58   below horizontal n ws n F = 0 fpull Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase minus the magnitude of the force of the pull. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the force of the pull and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is greater than the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. Typesetting math: 100% Now assume that the man of weight is tired and decides to sit on his suitcase. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man is sitting on the suitcase? Hint 1. Identify the correct free-body diagram. Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram while the man is sitting atop the suitcase? Here the vector labeled is a force that has the same magnitude as the man’s weight. ANSWER: wm n wm Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Recognize that the normal force acting on an object is not always equal to the weight of that object. This is an important point to understand. Problem 6.5 A construction worker with a weight of 880 stands on a roof that is sloped at 18 . Part A What is the magnitude of the normal force of the roof on the worker? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight minus the magnitude of the man’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the man’s weight and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is less than the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. N  n = 840 N Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.6 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B For diagram the part A, find the value of the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg ax x ax = -0.67 m s2 ay, y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D For diagram the part C, find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = 0.67 m s2 ay y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.7 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay = 0 m s2 kg ax x ax = 0.99 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Part B Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay y ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = -0.18 m s2 ay y ay = 0 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.10 A horizontal rope is tied to a 53.0 box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if: Part A The box is at rest? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The box moves at a steady = 4.80 ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The box = 4.80 and = 4.60 ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T = 0 N vx m/s T = 0 N vx m/s ax m/s2 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.14 It takes the elevator in a skyscraper 4.5 to reach its cruising speed of 11 . A 60 passenger gets aboard on the ground floor. Part A What is the passenger’s weight before the elevator starts moving? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the passenger’s weight while the elevator is speeding up? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the passenger’s weight after the elevator reaches its cruising speed? T = 244 N s m/s kg w = 590 N w = 730 N Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Block on an Incline A block lies on a plane raised an angle from the horizontal. Three forces act upon the block: , the force of gravity; , the normal force; and , the force of friction. The coefficient of friction is large enough to prevent the block from sliding . Part A Consider coordinate system a, with the x axis along the plane. Which forces lie along the axes? ANSWER: w = 590 N  F  w F n F  f Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Which forces lie along the axes of the coordinate system b, in which the y axis is vertical? ANSWER: Correct only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w Typesetting math: 100% Usually the best advice is to choose coordinate system so that the acceleration of the system is directly along one of the coordinate axes. If the system isn’t accelerating, then you are better off choosing the coordinate system with the most vectors along the coordinate axes. But now you are going to ignore that advice. You will find the normal force, , using vertical coordinate system b. In these coordinates you will find the magnitude appearing in both the x and y equations, each multiplied by a trigonometric function. Part C Because the block is not moving, the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the y-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: F  n Fn Fn Ff Fw  F n Fny F  n Fn  F  n  Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the x-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: ANSWER: Fny = Fncos() F f Ffy F f Ff  F  f  Ffy = Ffsin() Fy = 0 = Fncos() + Ffsin() − Fw Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part D Because the block is not moving, the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the x component of Write an expression for , the x component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part E To find the magnitude of the normal force, you must express in terms of since is an unknown. Using the equations you found in the two previous parts, find an expression for involving and but not . Hint 1. How to approach the problem From your answers to the previous two parts you should have two force equations ( and ). Combine these equations to eliminate . The key is to multiply the Fn Ff Fw  F n Fnx F  n Fn  Fnx = −Fnsin() Fx = 0 = −Fnsin() + Ffcos() Fn Fw Ff Fn Fw  Ff Typesetting math: 100% Fy = 0 Fx = 0 Ff equation for the y components by and the equation for the x components by , then add or subtract the two equations to eliminate the term . An alternative motivation for the algebra is to eliminate the trig functions in front of by using the trig identity . At the very least this would result in an equation that is simple to solve for . ANSWER: Correct Congratulations on working this through. Now realize that in coordinate system a, which is aligned with the plane, the y-coordinate equation is , which leads immediately to the result obtained here for . CONCLUSION: A thoughtful examination of which coordinate system to choose can save a lot of algebra. Contact Forces Introduced Learning Goal: To introduce contact forces (normal and friction forces) and to understand that, except for friction forces under certain circumstances, these forces must be determined from: net Force = ma. Two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. Indeed, when the objects touch, they exert repulsive normal forces on each other, as well as frictional forces that resist their slipping relative to each other. These contact forces arise from a complex interplay between the electrostatic forces between the electrons and ions in the objects and the laws of quantum mechanics. As two surfaces are pushed together these forces increase exponentially over an atomic distance scale, easily becoming strong enough to distort the bulk material in the objects if they approach too close. In everyday experience, contact forces are limited by the deformation or acceleration of the objects, rather than by the fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, we can conclude the following: The magnitude of contact forces is determined by , that is, by the other forces on, and acceleration of, the contacting bodies. The only exception is that the frictional forces cannot exceed (although they can be smaller than this or even zero). Normal and friction forces Two types of contact forces operate in typical mechanics problems, the normal and frictional forces, usually designated by and (or , or something similar) respectively. These are the components of the overall contact force: perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of contact. Kinetic friction when surfaces slide cos  sin  Ff cos() sin() Fn sin2() + cos2 () = 1 Fn Fn = Fwcos() Fy = Fn − FW cos() = 0 Fn F = ma μn n f Ffric n f Typesetting math: 100% When one surface is sliding past the other, experiments show three things about the friction force (denoted ): The frictional force opposes the relative motion at the 1. point of contact, 2. is proportional to the normal force, and 3. the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to that of the normal force is fairly constant over a wide range of speeds. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of kinetic friction, often designated . As long as the sliding continues, the frictional force is then (valid when the surfaces slide by each other). Static friction when surfaces don’t slide When there is no relative motion of the surfaces, the frictional force can assume any value from zero up to a maximum , where is the coefficient of static friction. Invariably, is larger than , in agreement with the observation that when a force is large enough that something breaks loose and starts to slide, it often accelerates. The frictional force for surfaces with no relative motion is therefore (valid when the contacting surfaces have no relative motion). The actual magnitude and direction of the static friction force are such that it (together with other forces on the object) causes the object to remain motionless with respect to the contacting surface as long as the static friction force required does not exceed . The equation is valid only when the surfaces are on the verge of sliding. Part A When two objects slide by one another, which of the following statements about the force of friction between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct Part B fk fk μk fk = μkn μsn μs μs μk fs ! μsn μsn fs = μsn The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μkn μkn μkn Typesetting math: 100% When two objects are in contact with no relative motion, which of the following statements about the frictional force between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct For static friction, the actual magnitude and direction of the friction force are such that it, together with any other forces present, will cause the object to have the observed acceleration. The magnitude of the force cannot exceed . If the magnitude of static friction needed to keep acceleration equal to zero exceeds , then the object will slide subject to the resistance of kinetic friction. Do not automatically assume that unless you are considering a situation in which the magnitude of the static friction force is as large as possible (i.e., when determining at what point an object will just begin to slip). Whether the actual magnitude of the friction force is 0, less than , or equal to depends on the magnitude of the other forces (if any) as well as the acceleration of the object through . Part C When a board with a box on it is slowly tilted to larger and larger angle, common experience shows that the box will at some point “break loose” and start to accelerate down the board. The box begins to slide once the component of gravity acting parallel to the board just begins to exceeds the maximum force of static friction. Which of the following is the most general explanation for why the box accelerates down the board? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μsn μsn μsn μsn μsn fs = μsn μsn μsn F = ma Fg The force of kinetic friction is smaller than that of maximum static friction, but remains the same. Once the box is moving, is smaller than the force of maximum static friction but larger than the force of kinetic friction. Once the box is moving, is larger than the force of maximum static friction. When the box is stationary, equals the force of static friction, but once the box starts moving, the sliding reduces the normal force, which in turn reduces the friction. Fg Fg Fg Fg Typesetting math: 100% Correct At the point when the box finally does “break loose,” you know that the component of the box’s weight that is parallel to the board just exceeds (i.e., this component of gravitational force on the box has just reached a magnitude such that the force of static friction, which has a maximum value of , can no longer oppose it.) For the box to then accelerate, there must be a net force on the box along the board. Thus, the component of the box’s weight parallel to the board must be greater than the force of kinetic friction. Therefore the force of kinetic friction must be less than the force of static friction which implies , as expected. Part D Consider a problem in which a car of mass is on a road tilted at an angle . The normal force Select the best answer. ANSWER: Correct The key point is that contact forces must be determined from Newton’s equation. In the problem described above, there is not enough information given to determine the normal force (e.g., the acceleration is unknown). Each of the answer options is valid under some conditions ( , the car is sliding down an icy incline, or the car is going around a banked turn), but in fact none is likely to be correct if there are other forces on the car or if the car is accelerating. Do not memorize values for the normal force valid in different problems–you must determine from . Problem 6.17 Bonnie and Clyde are sliding a 323 bank safe across the floor to their getaway car. The safe slides with a constant speed if Clyde pushes from behind with 375 of force while Bonnie pulls forward on a rope with 335 of force. μsn μsn μkn μsn μk < μs M  is found using n = Mg n = Mg cos() n = Mg cos() F  = Ma  = 0 n F = ma kg N N Typesetting math: 100% Part A What is the safe's coefficient of kinetic friction on the bank floor? ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.19 A crate is placed on a horizontal conveyor belt. The materials are such that and . Part A Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt runs at constant speed. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: 0.224 10 kg μs = 0.5 μk = 0.3 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt is speeding up. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C What is the maximum acceleration the belt can have without the crate slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct amax = 4.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.28 A 1100 steel beam is supported by two ropes. Part A What is the tension in rope 1? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the tension in rope 2? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T1 = 7000 N Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.35 The position of a 1.4 mass is given by , where is in seconds. Part A What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.39 T2 = 4800 N kg x = (2t3 − 3t2 )m t t = 0 s F = -8.4 N t = 1 s F = 8.4 N Typesetting math: 100% A rifle with a barrel length of 61 fires a 8 bullet with a horizontal speed of 400 . The bullet strikes a block of wood and penetrates to a depth of 11 . Part A What resistive force (assumed to be constant) does the wood exert on the bullet? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How long does it take the bullet to come to rest after entering the wood? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.45 You and your friend Peter are putting new shingles on a roof pitched at 21 . You're sitting on the very top of the roof when Peter, who is at the edge of the roof directly below you, 5.0 away, asks you for the box of nails. Rather than carry the 2.0 box of nails down to Peter, you decide to give the box a push and have it slide down to him. Part A If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the roof is 0.55, with what speed should you push the box to have it gently come to rest right at the edge of the roof? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. cm g m/s cm fk = 5800 N = 5.5×10−4 t s  m kg Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.54 The 2.0 wood box in the figure slides down a vertical wood wall while you push on it at a 45 angle. Part A What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down at a constant speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct v = 3.9 ms kg  F = 23 N Typesetting math: 100% Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 98.8%. You received 114.57 out of a possible total of 116 points. Typesetting math: 100%

Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You … Read More...
Prompt for Essay 2: Argumentative on Drama Write a strongly persuasive essay on one of the following: 1. In Trifles, once the women have pieced together the clues and solved the mystery of Mr. Wright’s death, they quickly come to an agreement to suppress the information from the men who are investigating the murder. Construct an argument in which you identify whether the women were right to withhold their discovery from the investigators or not. 2. In August Wilson’s Fences, are Troy’s problems self-created or is he a victim of his past? Make a convincing argument on this issue. 3. Oedipus downfall in Oedipus the King: fate, freewill or influence of others Take Note as you write all the essays: If you craft your thesis well, it will contain a set of key words, phrases, and ideas which should then show up in key places/transitions throughout your paper. This stylistic and structural practice builds coherence and clarity in your essay. Sub-claims (Reasons) & Evidence (Textual Evidence): Your thesis/main claim statement must be supported by clearly organized evidence drawn primarily from the text of the story itself. Your argument, then, will be arranged with a main claim/thesis, sub-claims (reasons), and textual evidence. Take care to note that your textual evidence (quoted, paraphrased or summarized bits from the story) is not self-evident; it requires explanatory comment preceding it—to direct readers to what specifically in the evidence illustrates your sub-claim and main claim—and often following it for full elaboration and/or recapitulation. • Review the section in A Writer’s Reference on the MLA and Plagiarism • Use Writing Resources in the Course documents tab. MLA Style: Please follow MLA guidelines in formatting, mechanics and stylistics. Papers that do not follow MLA style will not be graded. I advise you look at the sample MLA papers in your textbooks You do not need any secondary source citations or research to support your analysis, but you must cite the source for the story being analyzed and A Writer’s Reference.

Prompt for Essay 2: Argumentative on Drama Write a strongly persuasive essay on one of the following: 1. In Trifles, once the women have pieced together the clues and solved the mystery of Mr. Wright’s death, they quickly come to an agreement to suppress the information from the men who are investigating the murder. Construct an argument in which you identify whether the women were right to withhold their discovery from the investigators or not. 2. In August Wilson’s Fences, are Troy’s problems self-created or is he a victim of his past? Make a convincing argument on this issue. 3. Oedipus downfall in Oedipus the King: fate, freewill or influence of others Take Note as you write all the essays: If you craft your thesis well, it will contain a set of key words, phrases, and ideas which should then show up in key places/transitions throughout your paper. This stylistic and structural practice builds coherence and clarity in your essay. Sub-claims (Reasons) & Evidence (Textual Evidence): Your thesis/main claim statement must be supported by clearly organized evidence drawn primarily from the text of the story itself. Your argument, then, will be arranged with a main claim/thesis, sub-claims (reasons), and textual evidence. Take care to note that your textual evidence (quoted, paraphrased or summarized bits from the story) is not self-evident; it requires explanatory comment preceding it—to direct readers to what specifically in the evidence illustrates your sub-claim and main claim—and often following it for full elaboration and/or recapitulation. • Review the section in A Writer’s Reference on the MLA and Plagiarism • Use Writing Resources in the Course documents tab. MLA Style: Please follow MLA guidelines in formatting, mechanics and stylistics. Papers that do not follow MLA style will not be graded. I advise you look at the sample MLA papers in your textbooks You do not need any secondary source citations or research to support your analysis, but you must cite the source for the story being analyzed and A Writer’s Reference.

Q51. Place the following Assets in groups giving justification for your choice – Website – Digital Certificates – SOP – KYC guidelines – Portable storage devices

Q51. Place the following Assets in groups giving justification for your choice – Website – Digital Certificates – SOP – KYC guidelines – Portable storage devices

Q51. Place the following Assets in groups giving justification for … Read More...