Argument essay Argue for or aganist the advisability of getting involved in trying to help others.Support your position with details/examples from your experience. + 500 words ————————————— 3 creative topics related to your major (my major is Mechanical engineering) 3-5 pages

Argument essay Argue for or aganist the advisability of getting involved in trying to help others.Support your position with details/examples from your experience. + 500 words ————————————— 3 creative topics related to your major (my major is Mechanical engineering) 3-5 pages

Paper 1: Summary Our first few weeks of class have been devoted to summaries, and the practice of writing effective, informative synopses of longer texts. In each class session, we have discussed how to read an article or essay to extract its major points, how to phrase those points in your own words, how to organize those points logically, and how to ensure that your summary accurately reflects the contents of the original text. We have also focused on the importance of summaries for academic work, as they allow readers to understand the key elements of a significant issue or phenomenon, and allow writers to test their knowledge of a text by explaining its main points in brief. For this assignment, you will write a summary of either Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett’s “The Power of Situations” (WRAC, 579-582) or Solomon E. Asch’s “Opinions and Social Pressure” Your summary should clearly restate the central claim or thesis of the essay you select, go through the essay’s subordinate claims that support that thesis, and provide a few brief examples that illustrate those claims. Remember that you are not to offer your opinion on the essay – rather, you are summarizing the contents of the essay, without making your own arguments about those contents. Things to Keep in Mind When writing your summary, ask yourself the following questions: • Does this summary begin by stating the thesis of the essay you’ve chosen? • Does that statement of the thesis clearly communicate the central argument of the entire essay? That is, does it give the reader a firm sense of what the whole essay is about? • Are the subordinate points you’ve provided the most significant points within the essay that support the essay’s thesis? • Are the examples you’ve chosen important to understanding the essay’s argument? • Is the summary organized logically, with each idea clearly building upon its predecessor? • Is the summary clearly written, and free of grammatical errors? These will be the questions I ask as I evaluate your summary, so keep them in mind as you’re writing. You should also look over them again once you’ve finished the summary, and make any revisions you might need before submitting the final summary for a grade. Formal Requirements Papers should be 2-3 full pages long (no less, and not significantly more), typed in 12-point, Times New Roman font, and double-spaced. All papers must include a list of works cited, and all in-text citations should be provided in MLA format.

Paper 1: Summary Our first few weeks of class have been devoted to summaries, and the practice of writing effective, informative synopses of longer texts. In each class session, we have discussed how to read an article or essay to extract its major points, how to phrase those points in your own words, how to organize those points logically, and how to ensure that your summary accurately reflects the contents of the original text. We have also focused on the importance of summaries for academic work, as they allow readers to understand the key elements of a significant issue or phenomenon, and allow writers to test their knowledge of a text by explaining its main points in brief. For this assignment, you will write a summary of either Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett’s “The Power of Situations” (WRAC, 579-582) or Solomon E. Asch’s “Opinions and Social Pressure” Your summary should clearly restate the central claim or thesis of the essay you select, go through the essay’s subordinate claims that support that thesis, and provide a few brief examples that illustrate those claims. Remember that you are not to offer your opinion on the essay – rather, you are summarizing the contents of the essay, without making your own arguments about those contents. Things to Keep in Mind When writing your summary, ask yourself the following questions: • Does this summary begin by stating the thesis of the essay you’ve chosen? • Does that statement of the thesis clearly communicate the central argument of the entire essay? That is, does it give the reader a firm sense of what the whole essay is about? • Are the subordinate points you’ve provided the most significant points within the essay that support the essay’s thesis? • Are the examples you’ve chosen important to understanding the essay’s argument? • Is the summary organized logically, with each idea clearly building upon its predecessor? • Is the summary clearly written, and free of grammatical errors? These will be the questions I ask as I evaluate your summary, so keep them in mind as you’re writing. You should also look over them again once you’ve finished the summary, and make any revisions you might need before submitting the final summary for a grade. Formal Requirements Papers should be 2-3 full pages long (no less, and not significantly more), typed in 12-point, Times New Roman font, and double-spaced. All papers must include a list of works cited, and all in-text citations should be provided in MLA format.

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Prompt for Essay 2: Argumentative on Drama Write a strongly persuasive essay on one of the following: 1. In Trifles, once the women have pieced together the clues and solved the mystery of Mr. Wright’s death, they quickly come to an agreement to suppress the information from the men who are investigating the murder. Construct an argument in which you identify whether the women were right to withhold their discovery from the investigators or not. 2. In August Wilson’s Fences, are Troy’s problems self-created or is he a victim of his past? Make a convincing argument on this issue. 3. Oedipus downfall in Oedipus the King: fate, freewill or influence of others Take Note as you write all the essays: If you craft your thesis well, it will contain a set of key words, phrases, and ideas which should then show up in key places/transitions throughout your paper. This stylistic and structural practice builds coherence and clarity in your essay. Sub-claims (Reasons) & Evidence (Textual Evidence): Your thesis/main claim statement must be supported by clearly organized evidence drawn primarily from the text of the story itself. Your argument, then, will be arranged with a main claim/thesis, sub-claims (reasons), and textual evidence. Take care to note that your textual evidence (quoted, paraphrased or summarized bits from the story) is not self-evident; it requires explanatory comment preceding it—to direct readers to what specifically in the evidence illustrates your sub-claim and main claim—and often following it for full elaboration and/or recapitulation. • Review the section in A Writer’s Reference on the MLA and Plagiarism • Use Writing Resources in the Course documents tab. MLA Style: Please follow MLA guidelines in formatting, mechanics and stylistics. Papers that do not follow MLA style will not be graded. I advise you look at the sample MLA papers in your textbooks You do not need any secondary source citations or research to support your analysis, but you must cite the source for the story being analyzed and A Writer’s Reference.

Prompt for Essay 2: Argumentative on Drama Write a strongly persuasive essay on one of the following: 1. In Trifles, once the women have pieced together the clues and solved the mystery of Mr. Wright’s death, they quickly come to an agreement to suppress the information from the men who are investigating the murder. Construct an argument in which you identify whether the women were right to withhold their discovery from the investigators or not. 2. In August Wilson’s Fences, are Troy’s problems self-created or is he a victim of his past? Make a convincing argument on this issue. 3. Oedipus downfall in Oedipus the King: fate, freewill or influence of others Take Note as you write all the essays: If you craft your thesis well, it will contain a set of key words, phrases, and ideas which should then show up in key places/transitions throughout your paper. This stylistic and structural practice builds coherence and clarity in your essay. Sub-claims (Reasons) & Evidence (Textual Evidence): Your thesis/main claim statement must be supported by clearly organized evidence drawn primarily from the text of the story itself. Your argument, then, will be arranged with a main claim/thesis, sub-claims (reasons), and textual evidence. Take care to note that your textual evidence (quoted, paraphrased or summarized bits from the story) is not self-evident; it requires explanatory comment preceding it—to direct readers to what specifically in the evidence illustrates your sub-claim and main claim—and often following it for full elaboration and/or recapitulation. • Review the section in A Writer’s Reference on the MLA and Plagiarism • Use Writing Resources in the Course documents tab. MLA Style: Please follow MLA guidelines in formatting, mechanics and stylistics. Papers that do not follow MLA style will not be graded. I advise you look at the sample MLA papers in your textbooks You do not need any secondary source citations or research to support your analysis, but you must cite the source for the story being analyzed and A Writer’s Reference.

Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

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Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

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Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

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This assignment challenges you to analyze how two writers present arguments about a significant issue or topic. For this assignment, you will choose two current newspaper or scholarly journal articles that focus on a current issue relevant to the people on the continent of Africa, and/or people of African descent. Your goal is to identify the purposes and claims of each author, locate their arguments in a rhetorical situation, and analyze the appeals each writer makes to support their argument. You will then evaluate the arguments: which author better satisfies their readers? Which author crafts the more fitting response? In sum, then, the main goals are: 1. Identify the purposes and claims that two authors make about a significant issue. 2. Locate the arguments in a rhetorical situation (what exigencies do the authors address? What constraints and resources exist for the authors? To whom are they writing? When and where was each article published? 3. Analyze the appeals (logical, ethical, emotional) put forth by the writers. 4. Evaluate the arguments. Which argument is more fitting? Which author better satisfies readers? (Your evaluation need not be either/or: maybe one author is more effective logically, for instance, while the second author is more effective ethically and emotionally.)

This assignment challenges you to analyze how two writers present arguments about a significant issue or topic. For this assignment, you will choose two current newspaper or scholarly journal articles that focus on a current issue relevant to the people on the continent of Africa, and/or people of African descent. Your goal is to identify the purposes and claims of each author, locate their arguments in a rhetorical situation, and analyze the appeals each writer makes to support their argument. You will then evaluate the arguments: which author better satisfies their readers? Which author crafts the more fitting response? In sum, then, the main goals are: 1. Identify the purposes and claims that two authors make about a significant issue. 2. Locate the arguments in a rhetorical situation (what exigencies do the authors address? What constraints and resources exist for the authors? To whom are they writing? When and where was each article published? 3. Analyze the appeals (logical, ethical, emotional) put forth by the writers. 4. Evaluate the arguments. Which argument is more fitting? Which author better satisfies readers? (Your evaluation need not be either/or: maybe one author is more effective logically, for instance, while the second author is more effective ethically and emotionally.)

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According to Galen, an excess of yellow bile would cause a person to most likely ________. isolate themselves from others be thoughtlessly rude and cold be friendly and cheerful at a party hold a grudge after an argument

According to Galen, an excess of yellow bile would cause a person to most likely ________. isolate themselves from others be thoughtlessly rude and cold be friendly and cheerful at a party hold a grudge after an argument

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The Classic Five-Part Structure 1. Introduce the topic to be argued. Establish its importance. 2. Provide background information so readers will be able to follow your discussion. 3. State your claim (your argumentative thesis) and develop your argument by making a logical appeal. Support your claims with facts, opinions, and examples. If appropriate, mix an emotional appeal or an appeal to authority with your logical appeals. 4. Acknowledge counterarguments and treat them with respect. Rebut these arguments. Reject their evidence or their logic or concede some validity and modify your claim accordingly. Be flexible; you might split the counterarguments and rebut them one at a time at different locations in the paper, or you might begin the paper with a counterargument, rebut it, and then move on to your own claim. 5. Conclude by summarizing the main points of your argument. Then remind readers of what you want them to believe or do. Give them something to remember. The Problem-Solution Structure I. There is a serious problem. A. The problem exists and is growing. (Provide support for argument.) B. The problem is serious. (Provide support.) C. Current methods cannot cope with the problem. (Provide support.) II. There is a solution to the problem. (Your claim goes here.) A. The solution is practical. (Provide support.) B. The solution is desirable. (Provide support.) C. We can implement the solution. (Provide support.) D. Alternate solutions are not as strong as the proposed solution. (Review – and reject – competing solutions.) In both cases, you know before you begin writing whether you will use an inductive (analytic) or deductive (synthetic) arrangement for your argument. The decision to move inductively or deductively is about strategy. Induction moves from support to a claim. Deduction moves from a claim to support – to particular facts, opinions, and examples. This is the preferred form for most writing in the humanities. You can position your claim at the beginning, middle, or end of your presentation. In the problem/solution structure, the claim is made only after the writer introduces a problem. With the five-part structure, you have more flexibility in positioning your claim. One factor that can help determine placement is the likelihood of your audience agreeing with you. When your audience is likely to be neutral or supportive, making your claim early on will not alienate readers (synthetic presentation). When your audience is likely to disagree, placing your thesis at the end of your presentation allows you time to build a consensus, step by step, until you reach your conclusion (analytical presentation).

The Classic Five-Part Structure 1. Introduce the topic to be argued. Establish its importance. 2. Provide background information so readers will be able to follow your discussion. 3. State your claim (your argumentative thesis) and develop your argument by making a logical appeal. Support your claims with facts, opinions, and examples. If appropriate, mix an emotional appeal or an appeal to authority with your logical appeals. 4. Acknowledge counterarguments and treat them with respect. Rebut these arguments. Reject their evidence or their logic or concede some validity and modify your claim accordingly. Be flexible; you might split the counterarguments and rebut them one at a time at different locations in the paper, or you might begin the paper with a counterargument, rebut it, and then move on to your own claim. 5. Conclude by summarizing the main points of your argument. Then remind readers of what you want them to believe or do. Give them something to remember. The Problem-Solution Structure I. There is a serious problem. A. The problem exists and is growing. (Provide support for argument.) B. The problem is serious. (Provide support.) C. Current methods cannot cope with the problem. (Provide support.) II. There is a solution to the problem. (Your claim goes here.) A. The solution is practical. (Provide support.) B. The solution is desirable. (Provide support.) C. We can implement the solution. (Provide support.) D. Alternate solutions are not as strong as the proposed solution. (Review – and reject – competing solutions.) In both cases, you know before you begin writing whether you will use an inductive (analytic) or deductive (synthetic) arrangement for your argument. The decision to move inductively or deductively is about strategy. Induction moves from support to a claim. Deduction moves from a claim to support – to particular facts, opinions, and examples. This is the preferred form for most writing in the humanities. You can position your claim at the beginning, middle, or end of your presentation. In the problem/solution structure, the claim is made only after the writer introduces a problem. With the five-part structure, you have more flexibility in positioning your claim. One factor that can help determine placement is the likelihood of your audience agreeing with you. When your audience is likely to be neutral or supportive, making your claim early on will not alienate readers (synthetic presentation). When your audience is likely to disagree, placing your thesis at the end of your presentation allows you time to build a consensus, step by step, until you reach your conclusion (analytical presentation).

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