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FAWN: A Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes http://www.sigops.org/sosp/sosp09/papers/andersen-sosp09.pdf 1. Why does CPU utilization become a concern in the design of a KV store? Why cannot dynamic power scaling provide an effective solution? (Section 2)

## FAWN: A Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes http://www.sigops.org/sosp/sosp09/papers/andersen-sosp09.pdf 1. Why does CPU utilization become a concern in the design of a KV store? Why cannot dynamic power scaling provide an effective solution? (Section 2)

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Consider the problem of implementing insertion sort using a doubly-linked list instead of array. Namely, each element a of the linked list has ?elds a.previous, a.next and a.value. You are giving a stating element s of the linked list (so that s.previous = nil, s.value = A[1], s.next.value = A[2], etc.) (a) Give a pseudocode implementation of this algorithm, and analyze its running time in the T(f(n)) notation. Explain how we do not have to “bump” elements in order to create room for the next inserted elements. Is this saving asymptotically signi?cant? (b) Can we speed up the time of the implementation to O(n log n) by utilizing binary search

## Consider the problem of implementing insertion sort using a doubly-linked list instead of array. Namely, each element a of the linked list has ?elds a.previous, a.next and a.value. You are giving a stating element s of the linked list (so that s.previous = nil, s.value = A[1], s.next.value = A[2], etc.) (a) Give a pseudocode implementation of this algorithm, and analyze its running time in the T(f(n)) notation. Explain how we do not have to “bump” elements in order to create room for the next inserted elements. Is this saving asymptotically signi?cant? (b) Can we speed up the time of the implementation to O(n log n) by utilizing binary search

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Your body is composed of a dazzling array of different cell types. Each cell type develops its own unique properties. How does this happen? ANSWER Each cell type is provided with its own specialized set of genes during cell division. All cells (with very few exceptions) contain the same set of genes, but the process of gene expression determines which genes are active in each cell. The zygote contains one of each of the different cell types. These ancestor cells then divide to produce the diversity of cell types in the adult. none of the above

## Your body is composed of a dazzling array of different cell types. Each cell type develops its own unique properties. How does this happen? ANSWER Each cell type is provided with its own specialized set of genes during cell division. All cells (with very few exceptions) contain the same set of genes, but the process of gene expression determines which genes are active in each cell. The zygote contains one of each of the different cell types. These ancestor cells then divide to produce the diversity of cell types in the adult. none of the above

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CS 180 Term Project 10% of course grade Due midnight on Dec 8, 2015 The purpose of this project is to implement a general purpose big integer library that can handle common arithmetic operations for big integers. 1. The class should be named WKUBigInt 2. You should support the following (public) methods: a. constructors: WKUBigInt(int value) and WKUBigInt(String value) b. add(WKUBigInt another) c. sub(WKUBigInt another) d. mult(WKUBigInt another) e. toString(), which will return the String representation f. div(WKUBigInt another) for integer divisions g. mod(WKUBigInt another) div and mod are for those students who would like to have more challenges and are not required. Internally, you should use a long array to represent the value of a big integer. Each element in the array is used to represent a chunk of the integer. To make the project more manageable, you are required to have a detailed description on how to implement each method. The descriptions of the methods should be part of the final report. Even though the final report is due at the end, it is expected that you will complete these descriptions before you implement your idea. The final report should have the following sections: 1. Description of each method. The description should be detailed enough to show HOW the implementation can be done.. 2. Discuss what type of testing you have done to ensure the correctness of your implementation. 3. Have a table to count the number of arithmetic operations that are needed for each operation using input data set from the instructor. This also implies additional requirements in your implementation. Submit your source code and a final report in a word document before the due date.

## CS 180 Term Project 10% of course grade Due midnight on Dec 8, 2015 The purpose of this project is to implement a general purpose big integer library that can handle common arithmetic operations for big integers. 1. The class should be named WKUBigInt 2. You should support the following (public) methods: a. constructors: WKUBigInt(int value) and WKUBigInt(String value) b. add(WKUBigInt another) c. sub(WKUBigInt another) d. mult(WKUBigInt another) e. toString(), which will return the String representation f. div(WKUBigInt another) for integer divisions g. mod(WKUBigInt another) div and mod are for those students who would like to have more challenges and are not required. Internally, you should use a long array to represent the value of a big integer. Each element in the array is used to represent a chunk of the integer. To make the project more manageable, you are required to have a detailed description on how to implement each method. The descriptions of the methods should be part of the final report. Even though the final report is due at the end, it is expected that you will complete these descriptions before you implement your idea. The final report should have the following sections: 1. Description of each method. The description should be detailed enough to show HOW the implementation can be done.. 2. Discuss what type of testing you have done to ensure the correctness of your implementation. 3. Have a table to count the number of arithmetic operations that are needed for each operation using input data set from the instructor. This also implies additional requirements in your implementation. Submit your source code and a final report in a word document before the due date.

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Lab Assignment-Matlab 1 Note: You should write your solutions in a Word file and upload it to D2L. For each problem, you shall specify the commands you used in MATLAB as well as the solutions shown in MATLAB. This can be done by copying the text from MATLAB’s command window then paste them onto your Word file. Read chapters 1.1-1.5 of the textbook (Introduction to MATLAB 7 for Engineers), solve the following problems in MATLAB. Suppose that x=9 and y=7. Use MATLAB to compute the following, and check the results with a calculator. a) 1/(1-1/x^5 ) b) 3Πx^3 c) 4y/(5x-9) d) (3(y-7))/(9x-5) Assuming that the variables a, b, c, d, and f are scalars, write MATLAB statements to compute and display the following expressions. Test your statements for the values a=1.2, b=2.34, c=0.72, d=0.81, e= 1.29 and f=19.83. a) x=1+a/b+c/d^2 + e/f^3 b) s= (b-a+e)/(d-c+f) c) r=1/(1/a+1/b+1/c+1/d-1/f) d) ab/d f^2/2 The volume of a sphere is given by V= (4/3)*Πr^3, where r is the radius. Use MATLAB to compute the radius of a sphere having a volume 36 percent greater than that of a sphere of radius 4 ft. Suppose x takes on the values x=1, 1.2, 1.4…, 5. Use MATLAB to compute the array y that results from the function y=sin⁡〖(4x).〗 Use MATLAB to determine how many elements are in the array and the value of the third element in the array y. Use MATLAB to determine how many elements are in the array sin⁡(-π/2):0.05: cos⁡(0). Use MATLAB to determine the 10th element. Use MATLAB to calculate e^(〖(-2.5)〗^3 )+3.47 log⁡〖14+ ∜287〗 (3.4)^7 log⁡〖14+ ∜287〗 〖sin〗^2⁡(4.12Π/6) sin⁡〖(4.12Π/6)^2 〗 Use MATLAB to plot the functions u=2 log_10⁡(6x+5)and v=3 sin⁡(7x) over the interval 0≤x≤2. Properly label the plot and each curve. The variables u and v represent speed in miles per hour; the variable x represents distance in miles. Example1, Suppose that x = 2 and y = 5. Use MATLAB to compute the following. You should put the following in your Word file >> x = 2; >> y = 5; >>(y*x^3)/(x-y) ans = -13.3333 Example 2, Use MATLAB to plot the function Put a title on the plot and properly label the axes. The variable T represents temperature in degrees Celsius; the variable t represents time in minutes. You should report like the following: >> t=linspace(1,3,100); >> T=6*log(t)-7*exp(0.2*t); >> plot(t,T); >> xlabel(‘t (minutes)’); >> ylabel(‘T (^oC)’); >> title(‘Change of temperature with time’); Also paste the resultant figure in the Word file (select from the figure window: Edit .Copy Figure, then paste in your Word file), you should have

## Lab Assignment-Matlab 1 Note: You should write your solutions in a Word file and upload it to D2L. For each problem, you shall specify the commands you used in MATLAB as well as the solutions shown in MATLAB. This can be done by copying the text from MATLAB’s command window then paste them onto your Word file. Read chapters 1.1-1.5 of the textbook (Introduction to MATLAB 7 for Engineers), solve the following problems in MATLAB. Suppose that x=9 and y=7. Use MATLAB to compute the following, and check the results with a calculator. a) 1/(1-1/x^5 ) b) 3Πx^3 c) 4y/(5x-9) d) (3(y-7))/(9x-5) Assuming that the variables a, b, c, d, and f are scalars, write MATLAB statements to compute and display the following expressions. Test your statements for the values a=1.2, b=2.34, c=0.72, d=0.81, e= 1.29 and f=19.83. a) x=1+a/b+c/d^2 + e/f^3 b) s= (b-a+e)/(d-c+f) c) r=1/(1/a+1/b+1/c+1/d-1/f) d) ab/d f^2/2 The volume of a sphere is given by V= (4/3)*Πr^3, where r is the radius. Use MATLAB to compute the radius of a sphere having a volume 36 percent greater than that of a sphere of radius 4 ft. Suppose x takes on the values x=1, 1.2, 1.4…, 5. Use MATLAB to compute the array y that results from the function y=sin⁡〖(4x).〗 Use MATLAB to determine how many elements are in the array and the value of the third element in the array y. Use MATLAB to determine how many elements are in the array sin⁡(-π/2):0.05: cos⁡(0). Use MATLAB to determine the 10th element. Use MATLAB to calculate e^(〖(-2.5)〗^3 )+3.47 log⁡〖14+ ∜287〗 (3.4)^7 log⁡〖14+ ∜287〗 〖sin〗^2⁡(4.12Π/6) sin⁡〖(4.12Π/6)^2 〗 Use MATLAB to plot the functions u=2 log_10⁡(6x+5)and v=3 sin⁡(7x) over the interval 0≤x≤2. Properly label the plot and each curve. The variables u and v represent speed in miles per hour; the variable x represents distance in miles. Example1, Suppose that x = 2 and y = 5. Use MATLAB to compute the following. You should put the following in your Word file >> x = 2; >> y = 5; >>(y*x^3)/(x-y) ans = -13.3333 Example 2, Use MATLAB to plot the function Put a title on the plot and properly label the axes. The variable T represents temperature in degrees Celsius; the variable t represents time in minutes. You should report like the following: >> t=linspace(1,3,100); >> T=6*log(t)-7*exp(0.2*t); >> plot(t,T); >> xlabel(‘t (minutes)’); >> ylabel(‘T (^oC)’); >> title(‘Change of temperature with time’); Also paste the resultant figure in the Word file (select from the figure window: Edit .Copy Figure, then paste in your Word file), you should have

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Programming Assignment 7: Poker (5-Card Draw) II. Prerequisites: Before starting this programming assignment, participants should be able to: Apply and implement pointers in C Pass output parameters to functions Analyze a basic set of requirements and apply top-down design principles for a problem Apply repetition structures within an algorithm Construct while (), for (), or do-while () loops in C Compose C programs consisting of sequential, conditional, and iterative statements Eliminate redundancy within a program by applying loops and functions Create structure charts for a given problem Open and close files Read, write to, and update files Manipulate file handles Apply standard library functions: fopen (), fclose (), fscanf (), and fprintf () Apply and implement pointers 2-dimenional arrays Define and apply structs in C Compose decision statements (“if” conditional statements) Create and utilize compound conditions Summarize topics from Hanly & Koffman Chapter 8 including: What is an array? Distinguishing between single dimensional and 2-dimentional arrays What is an index? III. Overview & Requirements: Write a program that allows a user to play 5-Card-Draw Poker against the computer. Start with the following example code supplied by Deitel & Deitel (example code). This will help you get started with the game of Poker. Please read this site to learn the rules of Poker http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5_card_draw. Complete the following step and you will have a working Poker game!!! Adapted from Deitel & Deitel’s C How to Program (6th Edition): (1) In order to complete the game of 5-card-draw poker, you should complete the following functions: (a) (5 pts) Modify the card dealing function provided in the example code so that a five-card poker hand is dealt. (b) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a pair. (c) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains two pairs. (d) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains three of a kind (e.g. three jacks). (e) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains four of a kind (e.g. four aces). (f) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a flush (i.e. all five cards of the same suit). (g) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a straight (i.e. five cards of consecutive face values). (2) (20 pts) Use the functions developed in (1) to deal two five-card poker hands, evaluate each hand, and determine which is the better hand. (3) (25 pts) Simulate the dealer. The dealer’s five-card hand is dealt “face down” so the player cannot see it. The program should then evaluate the dealer’s hand, and based on the quality of the hand, the dealer should draw one, two, or three more cards to replace the corresponding number of unneeded cards in the original hand. The program should then re-evaluate the dealer’s hand. (4) (10 pts) Make the program handle the dealer’s five-card hand automatically. The player should be allowed to decide which cards of the player’s hand to replace. The program should then evaluate both hands and determine who wins. Now use the program to play 10 games against the computer. You should be able to test and modify or refine your Poker game based on these results!

## Programming Assignment 7: Poker (5-Card Draw) II. Prerequisites: Before starting this programming assignment, participants should be able to: Apply and implement pointers in C Pass output parameters to functions Analyze a basic set of requirements and apply top-down design principles for a problem Apply repetition structures within an algorithm Construct while (), for (), or do-while () loops in C Compose C programs consisting of sequential, conditional, and iterative statements Eliminate redundancy within a program by applying loops and functions Create structure charts for a given problem Open and close files Read, write to, and update files Manipulate file handles Apply standard library functions: fopen (), fclose (), fscanf (), and fprintf () Apply and implement pointers 2-dimenional arrays Define and apply structs in C Compose decision statements (“if” conditional statements) Create and utilize compound conditions Summarize topics from Hanly & Koffman Chapter 8 including: What is an array? Distinguishing between single dimensional and 2-dimentional arrays What is an index? III. Overview & Requirements: Write a program that allows a user to play 5-Card-Draw Poker against the computer. Start with the following example code supplied by Deitel & Deitel (example code). This will help you get started with the game of Poker. Please read this site to learn the rules of Poker http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5_card_draw. Complete the following step and you will have a working Poker game!!! Adapted from Deitel & Deitel’s C How to Program (6th Edition): (1) In order to complete the game of 5-card-draw poker, you should complete the following functions: (a) (5 pts) Modify the card dealing function provided in the example code so that a five-card poker hand is dealt. (b) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a pair. (c) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains two pairs. (d) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains three of a kind (e.g. three jacks). (e) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains four of a kind (e.g. four aces). (f) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a flush (i.e. all five cards of the same suit). (g) (5 pts) Write a function to determine if the hand contains a straight (i.e. five cards of consecutive face values). (2) (20 pts) Use the functions developed in (1) to deal two five-card poker hands, evaluate each hand, and determine which is the better hand. (3) (25 pts) Simulate the dealer. The dealer’s five-card hand is dealt “face down” so the player cannot see it. The program should then evaluate the dealer’s hand, and based on the quality of the hand, the dealer should draw one, two, or three more cards to replace the corresponding number of unneeded cards in the original hand. The program should then re-evaluate the dealer’s hand. (4) (10 pts) Make the program handle the dealer’s five-card hand automatically. The player should be allowed to decide which cards of the player’s hand to replace. The program should then evaluate both hands and determine who wins. Now use the program to play 10 games against the computer. You should be able to test and modify or refine your Poker game based on these results!

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Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 Assignment 4 – Noise and Correlation 1. If a signal is measured as 2.5 V and the noise is 28 mV (28 × 10−3 V), what is the SNR in dB? 2. A single sinusoidal signal is found with some noise. If the RMS value of the noise is 0.5 V and the SNR is 10 dB, what is the RMS amplitude of the sinusoid? 3. The file signal_noise.mat contains a variable x that consists of a 1.0-V peak sinusoidal signal buried in noise. What is the SNR for this signal and noise? Assume that the noise RMS is much greater than the signal RMS. Note: “signal_noise.mat” and other files used in these assignments can be downloaded from the content area of Brightspace, within the “Data Files for Exercises” folder. These files can be opened in Matlab by copying into the active folder and double-clicking on the file or using the Matlab load command using the format: load(‘signal_noise.mat’). To discover the variables within the files use the Matlab who command. 4. An 8-bit ADC converter that has an input range of ±5 V is used to convert a signal that ranges between ±2 V. What is the SNR of the input if the input noise equals the quantization noise of the converter? Hint: Refer to Equation below to find the quantization noise: 5. The file filter1.mat contains the spectrum of a fourth-order lowpass filter as variable x in dB. The file also contains the corresponding frequencies of x in variable freq. Plot the spectrum of this filter both as dB versus log frequency and as linear amplitude versus linear frequency. The frequency axis should range between 10 and 400 Hz in both plots. Hint: Use Equation below to convert: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 6. Generate one cycle of the square wave similar to the one shown below in a 500-point MATLAB array. Determine the RMS value of this waveform. [Hint: When you take the square of the data array, be sure to use a period before the up arrow so that MATLAB does the squaring point-by-point (i.e., x.^2).]. 7. A resistor produces 10 μV noise (i.e., 10 × 10−6 V noise) when the room temperature is 310 K and the bandwidth is 1 kHz (i.e., 1000 Hz). What current noise would be produced by this resistor? 8. A 3-ma current flows through both a diode (i.e., a semiconductor) and a 20,000-Ω (i.e., 20-kΩ) resistor. What is the net current noise, in? Assume a bandwidth of 1 kHz (i.e., 1 × 103 Hz). Which of the two components is responsible for producing the most noise? 9. Determine if the two signals, x and y, in file correl1.mat are correlated by checking the angle between them. 10. Modify the approach used in Practice Problem 3 to find the angle between short signals: Do not attempt to plot these vectors as it would require a 6-dimensional plot!

## Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 Assignment 4 – Noise and Correlation 1. If a signal is measured as 2.5 V and the noise is 28 mV (28 × 10−3 V), what is the SNR in dB? 2. A single sinusoidal signal is found with some noise. If the RMS value of the noise is 0.5 V and the SNR is 10 dB, what is the RMS amplitude of the sinusoid? 3. The file signal_noise.mat contains a variable x that consists of a 1.0-V peak sinusoidal signal buried in noise. What is the SNR for this signal and noise? Assume that the noise RMS is much greater than the signal RMS. Note: “signal_noise.mat” and other files used in these assignments can be downloaded from the content area of Brightspace, within the “Data Files for Exercises” folder. These files can be opened in Matlab by copying into the active folder and double-clicking on the file or using the Matlab load command using the format: load(‘signal_noise.mat’). To discover the variables within the files use the Matlab who command. 4. An 8-bit ADC converter that has an input range of ±5 V is used to convert a signal that ranges between ±2 V. What is the SNR of the input if the input noise equals the quantization noise of the converter? Hint: Refer to Equation below to find the quantization noise: 5. The file filter1.mat contains the spectrum of a fourth-order lowpass filter as variable x in dB. The file also contains the corresponding frequencies of x in variable freq. Plot the spectrum of this filter both as dB versus log frequency and as linear amplitude versus linear frequency. The frequency axis should range between 10 and 400 Hz in both plots. Hint: Use Equation below to convert: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 6. Generate one cycle of the square wave similar to the one shown below in a 500-point MATLAB array. Determine the RMS value of this waveform. [Hint: When you take the square of the data array, be sure to use a period before the up arrow so that MATLAB does the squaring point-by-point (i.e., x.^2).]. 7. A resistor produces 10 μV noise (i.e., 10 × 10−6 V noise) when the room temperature is 310 K and the bandwidth is 1 kHz (i.e., 1000 Hz). What current noise would be produced by this resistor? 8. A 3-ma current flows through both a diode (i.e., a semiconductor) and a 20,000-Ω (i.e., 20-kΩ) resistor. What is the net current noise, in? Assume a bandwidth of 1 kHz (i.e., 1 × 103 Hz). Which of the two components is responsible for producing the most noise? 9. Determine if the two signals, x and y, in file correl1.mat are correlated by checking the angle between them. 10. Modify the approach used in Practice Problem 3 to find the angle between short signals: Do not attempt to plot these vectors as it would require a 6-dimensional plot!

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