1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks and deliver your finding in a written report by August 6th. Research the six scenarios given below in option 1 for added capacity to uncover any additional costs/benefits to society these options might pose. Write a two page summary describing each scenario. Discuss the pros and cons of each scenario, including such items as renewable sources of fuel, environmental factors, etc. Give examples of each type of project by name and location and indicate the sources of your information. Please use either IEEE or APA style. Do an economic analysis of the six scenarios. Use a 20-year period and assume an inflation rate of 4 percent. Include your calculations and any assumptions in the report. Also answer the following questions: Which scenario is the best from an economic basis? Are there any other considerations, such as environmental/health/social issues, which should be considered? Which scenario have you selected based on the answers to a and b? What is the estimated timeframe to implement the different options? (base your timelines on existing projects of similar size if possible, use MS Project/Project Libre to generate the timelines) Make a recommendation regarding the best option for the utility. 2 Situations A utility company in one of the western states is considering the addition of 50 megawatts of generating capacity to meet expected demands for electrical energy by the year 2025. The three options that the utility has are: Add generating capacity. Constructing one of the scenarios below would do this. Purchase power from Canada under terms of a 20-year contract. Do neither of the above. This assumes that brownouts will occur during high demand periods. The utility presently has 200 megawatts of installed capacity and generates an average of 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours annually. Maximum generation capability is 1.3 billion kW-hours. By the year 2025, this reserve of 100,000,000 kW-hours will be used. 2.1 OPTION 1 – ADD GENERATING CAPACITY For this option there are six possible scenarios: Hydroelectric dam. Initial cost is $ 50 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.7 million. Project life is 30 years before a major rebuild is required. Wind farm. Initial cost is $ 28 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.5 million. Project life is 12 years. At this time new equipment will be required. Solar power. Initial cost is $ 32 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.1 million. Project life is 10 years. Natural gas turbines. Initial cost is $ 14 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $2.0 million. Project life is 12 years. Nuclear plant. Initial cost is $ 70 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.0 million. Project life is 25 years. Coal-fired turbines. Initial cost is $ 35 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.7 million. Project life is 28 years. 2.2 OPTION 2 – BUY POWER FROM CANADA The annual additional energy requirement is 350,000,000 kilowatt-hours. The cost of energy from Canada is 1.48 cents per kilowatt-hour for the first year. The price will be escalated at 4 percent annually for the 20-year contract period. 2.3 OPTION 3 – DO NOTHING Local municipalities are very opposed to this option since companies may have to close down for short periods of time. Also, it would be very difficult to attract new businesses. If nothing is done, by the year 2025 it is anticipated that some companies will be without power for short periods of time during the summer months. These are known as brownouts. It is estimated, based on historical data that these outages will occur once a week during July and August for periods of 6 hours.

1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks and deliver your finding in a written report by August 6th. Research the six scenarios given below in option 1 for added capacity to uncover any additional costs/benefits to society these options might pose. Write a two page summary describing each scenario. Discuss the pros and cons of each scenario, including such items as renewable sources of fuel, environmental factors, etc. Give examples of each type of project by name and location and indicate the sources of your information. Please use either IEEE or APA style. Do an economic analysis of the six scenarios. Use a 20-year period and assume an inflation rate of 4 percent. Include your calculations and any assumptions in the report. Also answer the following questions: Which scenario is the best from an economic basis? Are there any other considerations, such as environmental/health/social issues, which should be considered? Which scenario have you selected based on the answers to a and b? What is the estimated timeframe to implement the different options? (base your timelines on existing projects of similar size if possible, use MS Project/Project Libre to generate the timelines) Make a recommendation regarding the best option for the utility. 2 Situations A utility company in one of the western states is considering the addition of 50 megawatts of generating capacity to meet expected demands for electrical energy by the year 2025. The three options that the utility has are: Add generating capacity. Constructing one of the scenarios below would do this. Purchase power from Canada under terms of a 20-year contract. Do neither of the above. This assumes that brownouts will occur during high demand periods. The utility presently has 200 megawatts of installed capacity and generates an average of 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours annually. Maximum generation capability is 1.3 billion kW-hours. By the year 2025, this reserve of 100,000,000 kW-hours will be used. 2.1 OPTION 1 – ADD GENERATING CAPACITY For this option there are six possible scenarios: Hydroelectric dam. Initial cost is $ 50 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.7 million. Project life is 30 years before a major rebuild is required. Wind farm. Initial cost is $ 28 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.5 million. Project life is 12 years. At this time new equipment will be required. Solar power. Initial cost is $ 32 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.1 million. Project life is 10 years. Natural gas turbines. Initial cost is $ 14 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $2.0 million. Project life is 12 years. Nuclear plant. Initial cost is $ 70 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.0 million. Project life is 25 years. Coal-fired turbines. Initial cost is $ 35 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.7 million. Project life is 28 years. 2.2 OPTION 2 – BUY POWER FROM CANADA The annual additional energy requirement is 350,000,000 kilowatt-hours. The cost of energy from Canada is 1.48 cents per kilowatt-hour for the first year. The price will be escalated at 4 percent annually for the 20-year contract period. 2.3 OPTION 3 – DO NOTHING Local municipalities are very opposed to this option since companies may have to close down for short periods of time. Also, it would be very difficult to attract new businesses. If nothing is done, by the year 2025 it is anticipated that some companies will be without power for short periods of time during the summer months. These are known as brownouts. It is estimated, based on historical data that these outages will occur once a week during July and August for periods of 6 hours.

1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks … Read More...
Que 1: true of false a) Both silicon and germanium atoms have four valances electrons b) When forward-biased , a diode has a very high resistance c) A zener diode is designed to operate in the forward-bias region and has higher reverse breakdown voltage level than regular diode Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: d) In semiconductor, in addition to the electron flow, there is also another kind of charge flow referred as………………. e) A silicon diode in placed in series with 2kΩresistor and a 14 V dc power supply. The current ID is: i) 6.65 mA ii) 2.2 mA iii)7.5 mA iv) 14 mA f) The series resistor that limits the forward current length through a silicon diode to 8 mA if the power supply voltage is 9.5V is : i) 1.1 kΩ ii) 2.2 kΩ iii) 9.5 mA iv) 4.7 mA FIGURE g) Determine the diode current IZ for the circuit of figure 1-2: assume VZ = 3.9 V i) 8.1 mA ii) 3.55 mA iii) 24.5 mA iv) 13.64 mA h) Determine the current through a 20 mA yellow LED when the power supply voltage is 15 V the series resistor is 2k ohm and the diode is put in backward. Assume VLED = 2V i) 20 mA ii) 0 mA iii) 10 mA iv) 6.5 mA Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: i) Zener diode is a p-n junction diode that is desgined for specifc…………………voltage j) ………………………….is the process by which impurity atoms are introduced to the instrisic semiconductor in order to alter the balance between holes and electrons. 1) The average value of s full-wave rectifier with a peak vaue of 17V ia 108V 2) If the frequency of input signal of the full wave reflector is 60Hz, the output frequency is 120Hz 3) The cathode of a zener diode, when conducting is:y i) at 0.7V ii) more positive than anode iii) more negative than anode iv) -0.7V 4) A given transformer with turn ratio 12:1has an input of 115V at 60Hzthe paek output voltage v0 (p) is i) 9.58 V ii) 6.78V iii) 11.5 V iv) 13.55 V FIGURE 2-1 5) The output voltage of V0(DC)for the full wave rectifier of figure 2-1 is i) 18.07 V ii) 12.78 V iii) 8.3 V iv) 5.74 V FIGURE 2-2 6) The voltage V2(P) for the full-wavr bridge rectifier of figure 2-2 is i) 17.37 V ii)1 6.67 V iii) 12.78 V iv) 18.07 V 7) Assume the current I0(DC) in figure is 100mA and C= 2400µF .the ripple voltage vr (p-p) i) 694mV ii) 424 mV iii) 121 V iv) 347 V Use figure 2-3 for questions below: Assume that RS = 75, RL = 160 FIGURE 2-3 8) The output voltage V0 is i) 7.5 V ii) 10 V iii) 8.5 V iv) 12 V Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: 9) The magnitude of the peak-to-peak ripple voltage vr (p-p) is directly proportional to the output …………………. 10) The ripple voltage at the filter section vr (p-p) can be reduced by increasing the value

Que 1: true of false a) Both silicon and germanium atoms have four valances electrons b) When forward-biased , a diode has a very high resistance c) A zener diode is designed to operate in the forward-bias region and has higher reverse breakdown voltage level than regular diode Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: d) In semiconductor, in addition to the electron flow, there is also another kind of charge flow referred as………………. e) A silicon diode in placed in series with 2kΩresistor and a 14 V dc power supply. The current ID is: i) 6.65 mA ii) 2.2 mA iii)7.5 mA iv) 14 mA f) The series resistor that limits the forward current length through a silicon diode to 8 mA if the power supply voltage is 9.5V is : i) 1.1 kΩ ii) 2.2 kΩ iii) 9.5 mA iv) 4.7 mA FIGURE g) Determine the diode current IZ for the circuit of figure 1-2: assume VZ = 3.9 V i) 8.1 mA ii) 3.55 mA iii) 24.5 mA iv) 13.64 mA h) Determine the current through a 20 mA yellow LED when the power supply voltage is 15 V the series resistor is 2k ohm and the diode is put in backward. Assume VLED = 2V i) 20 mA ii) 0 mA iii) 10 mA iv) 6.5 mA Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: i) Zener diode is a p-n junction diode that is desgined for specifc…………………voltage j) ………………………….is the process by which impurity atoms are introduced to the instrisic semiconductor in order to alter the balance between holes and electrons. 1) The average value of s full-wave rectifier with a peak vaue of 17V ia 108V 2) If the frequency of input signal of the full wave reflector is 60Hz, the output frequency is 120Hz 3) The cathode of a zener diode, when conducting is:y i) at 0.7V ii) more positive than anode iii) more negative than anode iv) -0.7V 4) A given transformer with turn ratio 12:1has an input of 115V at 60Hzthe paek output voltage v0 (p) is i) 9.58 V ii) 6.78V iii) 11.5 V iv) 13.55 V FIGURE 2-1 5) The output voltage of V0(DC)for the full wave rectifier of figure 2-1 is i) 18.07 V ii) 12.78 V iii) 8.3 V iv) 5.74 V FIGURE 2-2 6) The voltage V2(P) for the full-wavr bridge rectifier of figure 2-2 is i) 17.37 V ii)1 6.67 V iii) 12.78 V iv) 18.07 V 7) Assume the current I0(DC) in figure is 100mA and C= 2400µF .the ripple voltage vr (p-p) i) 694mV ii) 424 mV iii) 121 V iv) 347 V Use figure 2-3 for questions below: Assume that RS = 75, RL = 160 FIGURE 2-3 8) The output voltage V0 is i) 7.5 V ii) 10 V iii) 8.5 V iv) 12 V Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: 9) The magnitude of the peak-to-peak ripple voltage vr (p-p) is directly proportional to the output …………………. 10) The ripple voltage at the filter section vr (p-p) can be reduced by increasing the value

A water treatment plant is to treat 0.5 m3/s of water . Chlorine is to be used as a disinfectant . At the temperature and pH of the source water , a CT of 200 mg.min.L-1 is required . The t10 for the contact chamber is 100 min. the ratio of t10 to t0 is 0.8. i. what is the required volume of the reactor ( in m3) ? ii. Determine the necessary average chlorine concentration ( in mg /L).

A water treatment plant is to treat 0.5 m3/s of water . Chlorine is to be used as a disinfectant . At the temperature and pH of the source water , a CT of 200 mg.min.L-1 is required . The t10 for the contact chamber is 100 min. the ratio of t10 to t0 is 0.8. i. what is the required volume of the reactor ( in m3) ? ii. Determine the necessary average chlorine concentration ( in mg /L).

5. (20 pts) (Nilsson & Riedel, p. 390-391, 10.29) For the circuit below: a) Find the average power dissipated in the line, PLINE. b) Find the capacitive impedance that when connected in parallel with the load will make the load look purely resistive. c) What is the equivalent impedance of the load in part b) d) Find the average power dissipated in the line when the capacitive reactance is connected across the load. e) Express the power loss in part d) as a percentage of the power loss found in a)

5. (20 pts) (Nilsson & Riedel, p. 390-391, 10.29) For the circuit below: a) Find the average power dissipated in the line, PLINE. b) Find the capacitive impedance that when connected in parallel with the load will make the load look purely resistive. c) What is the equivalent impedance of the load in part b) d) Find the average power dissipated in the line when the capacitive reactance is connected across the load. e) Express the power loss in part d) as a percentage of the power loss found in a)

During deployment processing, soldiers undergo medical screening.After a wait, each soldier see same dicaltechnician who reviews his or her records.If the records review shows no problems—the soldier is physically qualified to deploy—then the soldier departs to the next step in deployment processing.It he records do reveal a potential medical issue,the soldier instead sees a doctor,who assesses the soldier’s condition and determines both deployability and for those who are medically disqualified, treatment needs.In rare cases ,the doctor in itiate a medical board to evaluate the soldier for retention in the military. Currently, 80 soldiers per hour arrive for deployment screening,and 80% of them pass there cords review.On average,20 people are waiting for the medical records review,which takes 6 minutes. When the records review indicates a soldier must see a doctor,the soldier reports to a waiting room,where an average of 8 soldiers are waiting. After a wait,the soldier sees a doctor, who reviews the soldier’s condition and either approves the soldier for deployment(75%of the time) or disapproves deployment and conducts a morein-deptxeam to determine treatment(20%of the time)or the need for a medical board(5%ofthetime).Each doctor’s exam takes,on average,6minutes if the solider is medically able to deploy(the doctor pretty much replicates the records review),15 minutes if the soldier requires some kind of treatment,and 30 minutes in those rare cases that require the doctor to initiate a medical review board. Assume the process is stable;that is,average inflow rate equals average outflow rate.[Finally,thisisNOTaqueuingproblem.] a. On average,how long does a soldier spend in the deployment process?

During deployment processing, soldiers undergo medical screening.After a wait, each soldier see same dicaltechnician who reviews his or her records.If the records review shows no problems—the soldier is physically qualified to deploy—then the soldier departs to the next step in deployment processing.It he records do reveal a potential medical issue,the soldier instead sees a doctor,who assesses the soldier’s condition and determines both deployability and for those who are medically disqualified, treatment needs.In rare cases ,the doctor in itiate a medical board to evaluate the soldier for retention in the military. Currently, 80 soldiers per hour arrive for deployment screening,and 80% of them pass there cords review.On average,20 people are waiting for the medical records review,which takes 6 minutes. When the records review indicates a soldier must see a doctor,the soldier reports to a waiting room,where an average of 8 soldiers are waiting. After a wait,the soldier sees a doctor, who reviews the soldier’s condition and either approves the soldier for deployment(75%of the time) or disapproves deployment and conducts a morein-deptxeam to determine treatment(20%of the time)or the need for a medical board(5%ofthetime).Each doctor’s exam takes,on average,6minutes if the solider is medically able to deploy(the doctor pretty much replicates the records review),15 minutes if the soldier requires some kind of treatment,and 30 minutes in those rare cases that require the doctor to initiate a medical review board. Assume the process is stable;that is,average inflow rate equals average outflow rate.[Finally,thisisNOTaqueuingproblem.] a. On average,how long does a soldier spend in the deployment process?

6+0.75*6+.2*15+.05*30 = 15 miutes     Timeindeploymentsystem:15 (minutes)
Chapter 1 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, February 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Curved Motion Diagram The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a “compass rose” in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet. 

Chapter 1 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, February 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Curved Motion Diagram The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a “compass rose” in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet. 

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Dynamo: Amazon’s Highly Available Key-value Store http://www.read.seas.harvard.edu/~kohler/class/cs239-w08/decandia07dynamo.pdf 1. Why is commonly-accepted performance-oriented SLA specification using average, median, and expected variance inadequate at Amazon, who desires to provide all customers a good experience? (Section 2.2)

Dynamo: Amazon’s Highly Available Key-value Store http://www.read.seas.harvard.edu/~kohler/class/cs239-w08/decandia07dynamo.pdf 1. Why is commonly-accepted performance-oriented SLA specification using average, median, and expected variance inadequate at Amazon, who desires to provide all customers a good experience? (Section 2.2)

Amazon follows a decentralized service destined infrastructure. For example: wherever … Read More...
MAE 241 – Homework 2 Page 1 of 2 MAE 241 – Spring 2019 – Homework 2 Administered 1/18/2019 – Due 11PM, Sunday 1/27/2019 to Gradescope Problem 1 The average water head (vertical height of water column) maintained in Hoover dam reservoir is about 500 ft. Assume water density of 62.43 lb/ft3. a. Determine the maximum pressure at the bottom of reservoir. b. Find the power generation potential of the water at that pressure if the discharge rate is 500×103 ft3/s. Problem 2 The Vestas V164 is one of the largest wind turbines in the world, with diameter of 164 m. If the theoretical limit on the capacity of a wind turbine is 1/3rd of its power generation potential, determine the capacity of the turbine when it is placed in a location where the average wind speed is 10 m/s. Assume air density as 1.25 kg/m3. Problem 3 An automobile has a mass of 1200 kg. What is its kinetic energy, in kJ, relative to the road when traveling at a velocity of 50 km/h? If the vehicle accelerates to 100 km/h, what is the change in kinetic energy, in kJ? Problem 4 A 5 kg brick is dropped from a height of 12 m onto a spring with a spring constant 8 kN/m. If the spring has a unstretched length of 0.5m, find (a) the shortest length the spring will be compressed before recoil, and (b) the final length of spring once the whole system becomes static. Problem 5 A piping installation is used to transport 20 L/s of water from a reservoir (location 1) to a point of use (location 2) 20 meters above. The absolute pressure of water at the inlet of the installation is 110 kPa; the gauge pressure measured right before the point of use is 552 kPa. Determine the power input required, in kW. Assume that because the piping at locations (1) and (2) have the same diameter the average velocities of water are equal and the density of water is 1000 kg/m3. Problem 6 A system receives 10 MJ in the form of heat in a process and it produced 4 MJ of work. The system velocity changes from 10 m/s to 25 m/s. For a 50 kg mass of the system, determine the change in internal energy of the system. MAE 241 – Homework 2 Page 2 of 2 Problem 7 On a recent energy assessment performed to an industrial facility in Tempe by a team of ASU’s Industrial Assessment Center, the team evaluated a boiler whose rated input was 6 MBTUH (6 million BTU per hour). After measuring the composition of flue gases it was apparent that the boiler was not be operating at its best operating point; this suspicion was validated by determining that the combustion efficiency was equal to 0.65. As corrective measure the boiler received a tune up that increased the combustion efficiency to 0.8. The boiler operates 48 weeks per year continuously while the plant is in production. Taking the cost of energy to be $13 per MBTU, determine: a. The annual energy cost. b. The annual cost savings as a result of tuning up the boiler. c. List the assumptions used in your computations. Problem 8 Balloons are often filled with helium gas because it weighs only about one-seventh of what air weighs under identical conditions. The buoyancy force, which can be expressed as 𝐹𝑏 = 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑔𝑉𝑏𝑎𝑙, will push the balloon upward. (a) If the balloon has a diameter of 15 m and carries eight people, 75 kg each, determine the acceleration of the balloon when it is first released. (b) The change in air density with altitude can be approximated up to 10km using a linear function 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.173 − 8 × 10−5ℎ where ℎ is the altitude in m. At what theoretical altitude the balloon will stop climbing upwards? Assume the density of air is 1.173 kg/m3 at ground level, and neglect the weight of the ropes and the cage. Problem 9 A differential manometer is used to measure pressure difference between two fluid systems. Two parallel pipes carrying freshwater and seawater are connected to each other by a double U-tube differential manometer, as shown in Figure. (a) Determine the pressure difference between the two pipelines if ℎ = 10 cm. (b) If the pressure difference between the pipes is doubled, what will be the difference in heights (ℎ) of mercury? Take the density of seawater at that location to be 1035 kg/m3, and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.72. Assume all fluids are incompressible.

MAE 241 – Homework 2 Page 1 of 2 MAE 241 – Spring 2019 – Homework 2 Administered 1/18/2019 – Due 11PM, Sunday 1/27/2019 to Gradescope Problem 1 The average water head (vertical height of water column) maintained in Hoover dam reservoir is about 500 ft. Assume water density of 62.43 lb/ft3. a. Determine the maximum pressure at the bottom of reservoir. b. Find the power generation potential of the water at that pressure if the discharge rate is 500×103 ft3/s. Problem 2 The Vestas V164 is one of the largest wind turbines in the world, with diameter of 164 m. If the theoretical limit on the capacity of a wind turbine is 1/3rd of its power generation potential, determine the capacity of the turbine when it is placed in a location where the average wind speed is 10 m/s. Assume air density as 1.25 kg/m3. Problem 3 An automobile has a mass of 1200 kg. What is its kinetic energy, in kJ, relative to the road when traveling at a velocity of 50 km/h? If the vehicle accelerates to 100 km/h, what is the change in kinetic energy, in kJ? Problem 4 A 5 kg brick is dropped from a height of 12 m onto a spring with a spring constant 8 kN/m. If the spring has a unstretched length of 0.5m, find (a) the shortest length the spring will be compressed before recoil, and (b) the final length of spring once the whole system becomes static. Problem 5 A piping installation is used to transport 20 L/s of water from a reservoir (location 1) to a point of use (location 2) 20 meters above. The absolute pressure of water at the inlet of the installation is 110 kPa; the gauge pressure measured right before the point of use is 552 kPa. Determine the power input required, in kW. Assume that because the piping at locations (1) and (2) have the same diameter the average velocities of water are equal and the density of water is 1000 kg/m3. Problem 6 A system receives 10 MJ in the form of heat in a process and it produced 4 MJ of work. The system velocity changes from 10 m/s to 25 m/s. For a 50 kg mass of the system, determine the change in internal energy of the system. MAE 241 – Homework 2 Page 2 of 2 Problem 7 On a recent energy assessment performed to an industrial facility in Tempe by a team of ASU’s Industrial Assessment Center, the team evaluated a boiler whose rated input was 6 MBTUH (6 million BTU per hour). After measuring the composition of flue gases it was apparent that the boiler was not be operating at its best operating point; this suspicion was validated by determining that the combustion efficiency was equal to 0.65. As corrective measure the boiler received a tune up that increased the combustion efficiency to 0.8. The boiler operates 48 weeks per year continuously while the plant is in production. Taking the cost of energy to be $13 per MBTU, determine: a. The annual energy cost. b. The annual cost savings as a result of tuning up the boiler. c. List the assumptions used in your computations. Problem 8 Balloons are often filled with helium gas because it weighs only about one-seventh of what air weighs under identical conditions. The buoyancy force, which can be expressed as 𝐹𝑏 = 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑔𝑉𝑏𝑎𝑙, will push the balloon upward. (a) If the balloon has a diameter of 15 m and carries eight people, 75 kg each, determine the acceleration of the balloon when it is first released. (b) The change in air density with altitude can be approximated up to 10km using a linear function 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.173 − 8 × 10−5ℎ where ℎ is the altitude in m. At what theoretical altitude the balloon will stop climbing upwards? Assume the density of air is 1.173 kg/m3 at ground level, and neglect the weight of the ropes and the cage. Problem 9 A differential manometer is used to measure pressure difference between two fluid systems. Two parallel pipes carrying freshwater and seawater are connected to each other by a double U-tube differential manometer, as shown in Figure. (a) Determine the pressure difference between the two pipelines if ℎ = 10 cm. (b) If the pressure difference between the pipes is doubled, what will be the difference in heights (ℎ) of mercury? Take the density of seawater at that location to be 1035 kg/m3, and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.72. Assume all fluids are incompressible.

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