1. Which of the following statements for electric field lines are true? (Give ALL correct answers, i.e., B, AC, BCD…) A) E-field lines point inward toward negative charges. B) E-field lines may cross. C) E-field lines do not begin or end in a charge-free region (except at infinity). D) Where the E-field lines are dense the E-field must be weak. E) E-field lines make circles around positive charges. F) A point charge q, released from rest will initially move along an E-field line. G) E-field lines point outward from positive charges. 2. Consider two uniformly charged parallel plates as shown above. The magnitudes of the charges are equal. (For each statement select T True, F False). A) If the plates are oppositely charged, there is no electric field at c. B) If both plates are negatively charged, the electric field at a points towards the top of the page. C) If both plates are positively charged, there is no electric field at b. 3. As shown in the figure above, a ball of mass 1.050 g and positive charge q =38.1microC is suspended on a string of negligible mass in a uniform electric field. We observe that the ball hangs at an angle of theta=15.0° from the vertical. What is the magnitude of the electric field?

1. Which of the following statements for electric field lines are true? (Give ALL correct answers, i.e., B, AC, BCD…) A) E-field lines point inward toward negative charges. B) E-field lines may cross. C) E-field lines do not begin or end in a charge-free region (except at infinity). D) Where the E-field lines are dense the E-field must be weak. E) E-field lines make circles around positive charges. F) A point charge q, released from rest will initially move along an E-field line. G) E-field lines point outward from positive charges. 2. Consider two uniformly charged parallel plates as shown above. The magnitudes of the charges are equal. (For each statement select T True, F False). A) If the plates are oppositely charged, there is no electric field at c. B) If both plates are negatively charged, the electric field at a points towards the top of the page. C) If both plates are positively charged, there is no electric field at b. 3. As shown in the figure above, a ball of mass 1.050 g and positive charge q =38.1microC is suspended on a string of negligible mass in a uniform electric field. We observe that the ball hangs at an angle of theta=15.0° from the vertical. What is the magnitude of the electric field?

info@checkyourstudy.com 1.  Which of the following statements for electric field … Read More...
a boat is advertised for $4700 can be bought under the following hire purchase agreement, no deposit charged but loan must be paid off monthly over period of three years. interest is charged at flat rate of 16% per annum what is monthly repayment

a boat is advertised for $4700 can be bought under the following hire purchase agreement, no deposit charged but loan must be paid off monthly over period of three years. interest is charged at flat rate of 16% per annum what is monthly repayment

Ch 2 Questions that might be on the test. If you cannot answer them, check your class notes or the textbook. 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has: a) a characteristic chemical composition, b) a highly ordered atomic structure c) specific physical properties d) all of the above 2. There are currently more than ______ known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, a) 40 b) 400 c) 4000 d) 40 000 3. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are: a) rare b) common c) valuable d) priceless 4. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as: a) gangue b) tailings c) ores d) granite 5. Electrons, which have a _____ charge, a size which is so small as to be currently unmeasurable, and which are the least massive of the three types of basic particles. a) positive b) negative c) neutral 6. Both protons and neutrons are themselves now thought to be composed of even more elementary particles called: a) quarks b) quakes c) parsons d) megans 7. In processes which change the number of protons in a nucleus, the atom becomes an atom of a different chemical: a) isotope b) compound c) element d) planet 8. Atoms which have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called: a) elements b) isotopes c) ions d) molecules 9. In the Bohr model of the atom, electrons can only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy, their distances from the nucleus being proportional to their respective energies. They can only make _____ leaps between the fixed energy levels. a) tiny b) quantum c) gradual 10. It is impossible to simultaneously derive precise values for both the position and momentum of a particle for any given point in time; this became known as the ______ principle. a) Bohr b) Einstein c) uncertainty d) quantum 11. The modern model of the atom describes the positions of electrons in an atom in terms of: a) quantum levels b) orbital paths c) probabilities d) GPS 12. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of: a) electrons b) neutrons c) ions d) photons 13. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many protons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 14. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many neutrons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 15. The relative abundance of an isotope is strongly correlated with its tendency toward nuclear _____, short-lived nuclides quickly go away, while their long-lived counterparts endure. a) fission b) fusion c) decay d) bombardment 16. The isotopic composition of elements is different on different planets. a) True b) False 17. As a general rule, the fewer electrons in an atom’s valence shell, the ____ reactive it is. Lithium, sodium, and potassium have one electron in their outer shells. a) more b) less 18. Every atom is much more stable, or less reactive, with a ____ valence shell. a) partly full b) completely full 19. A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a: a) anion b) cation c) fermion d) bation 20. Bonds vary widely in their strength. Generally covalent and ionic bonds are often described as “strong”, whereas ______ bonds are generally considered to be “weak”. a) van der Waals b) Faradays c) van Neumans 21. This bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 22. This bond results from electrostatic attraction between atoms: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 23. A sea of delocalized electrons causes this bonding: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 24. The chemical composition of minerals may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the ______ feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodiumrich albite to calcium-rich anorthite. a) plagioclase b) orthoclase c) alkaline d) acidic 25. Crystal structure is based on ____ internal atomic arrangement. a) irregular b) regular c) random d) curvilinear 26. Pyrite and marcasite are both _______, but their arrangement of atoms differs. a) iron sulfide b) lead sulfide c) copper silfide d) silver sulfide 27. The carbon atoms in ______ are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network. a) sapphire b) graphite c) aluminum d) carbonate 28. TGCFAOQTCD a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale 29. Dull to metallic, submetallic, adamantine, vitreous, pearly, resinous, or silky. a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale d) Heft scale 30. The color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on unglazed porcelain. a) color b) streak c) lustre d) iridescense 31. Describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. a) fracture b) streak c) lustre d) cleavage 32. In modern physics, the position of electrons about a nucleus are defined in terms of: a) probabilities b) circles c) ellipses d) chromodomes 33. The symbol H+ suggests a: a) hydrogen atom b) hydrogen isotope c) hydrogen cation d) hydrogen anion 34. The tabulated atomic mass of natural carbon is not exactly 12 because carbon in nature always has multiple ________ present. a) electrons b) isotopes c) quarks d) protons 35. This type of bonding due to delocalized electrons leads to malleability, ductility, and high melting points: a) covalent b) ionic c) van der Waals d) metallic 36. The mineral ___________ is 3 on Mohs Scale whereas the mineral ___________ is 9. a) calcite, corundum b) corundum, calcite c) caliche, calcite d) chalcedony, quartz 37. In hand specimens, geologists identify most minerals based on: a) physical properties b) chemical analyses c) xray diffraction 38. This type of chemical bonding is the weakest but occurs in all substances. a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) none of the above 39. Quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite: these minerals are: a) common in rocks b) occasionally found c) rare d) extremely rare 40. Characteristics of a mineral do NOT include: a) naturally occurring b) characteristic chemical formula c) crystalline d) organic e) all of the above 41. The chemical composition of a particular mineral may vary between end members. For example, the common mineral plagioclase feldspar varies from being _______-rich to being _________-rich. a) sodium, calcium b) potassium, sodium c) iron, magnesium d) carbon, oxygen 42. Sharing of electrons typifies the __________ bond whereas electrostatic attraction typifies the _______ bond. a) ionic, covalent b) ionic, triclinic c) covalent, ionic d) triclinic, covalent 43. If number of protons does not equal the number of electrons, the atom is a(n) : a) isotope b) ion c) quark d) simplex e) google 44. Atoms generally consist of: a) electrons b) protons c) neutrons d) all of the above 45. Not counting rare minerals, about how many mineral species are at least occasionally encountered in rocks? a) 20 b) 200 c) 2000 46. Carbon is atomic number 6. Carbon-13 has _______ protons and _______ neutrons. a) thirteen, six b) six, seven c) twelve, twenty-five d) twelve, twelve 47. Which of these particles are not nucleons? a) electrons b) neutrons c) protons 48. A mineral with visibly recognizable crystals is said to have good crystal habit; otherwise the mineral is said to be: a) massive b) granular c) compact d) any of the above 49. In chemical bonding, two atoms become linked by moving or sharing __________. a) neutrons b) protons c) electrons 50. The name of an element is determined by the number of ______ present in the ______ of an atom. a) electrons, nucleus b) neutrons, nucleus c) protons, nucleus d) protons, electron cloud e) neutrons, electron cloud 51. Generally ________ and ____________ bonds are strong whereas the ______________ bond is weak. a) covalent, ionic, van der Waals b) van der Waals, covalent, ionic c) ionic, van der Waals, covalent 52. Which of the following are held together by chemical bonds? a) molecules b) crystals c) diatomic gases 53. An ion with fewer electrons than protons is called an ______ and it carries a _________ electric charge. a) cation, positive b) anion, negative c) cation, negative d) anion, positive 54. Two or more minerals may have the same _________ composition but different _______ structure. These are called polymorphs. a) crystal, chemical b) chemical, crystal 55. Industrial minerals are: a) gem quality b) commercially valuable c) tailings d) worthless 56. All minerals are crystalline. If the crystals are too small to see, they can be detected by: a) x-ray diffraction b) cosmic rays c) sound waves d) odor 57. If two atomes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, the atoms are _______ of the same _________. a) elements, mineral b) atoms, isotope c) elements, isotope d) isotopes, element 58. Modern physics recognizes that electrons show both particle and ______ behavior. a) wave b) emotional c) thermal d) revolting 59. Sodium and potassium have one ______ electron in their outer shells and are extremely ________. a) valence, stable b) inverted, reactive c) valence, reactive d) contaminated, inactive 60. The luster of _______ would be described as ________. a) glass, vitreous b) diamond, dull c) pyrite, silky d) graphite, resinous 61. The minerals ________ and __________ are polymorphs of carbon. a) diamond, graphite b) calcite, silicate c) bonite, bronzite 62. In the ______ atom based on _______ physics, electrons were restricted to circular orbits of fixed energy levels. a) Bohr , quantum b) Rutherford, classical c) Bohr, classical d) Rutherford, quantum 63. Virtually all elements other than ______ and _______ were formed in stars and supernovae long after the Big Bang. a) hydrogen, helium b) carbon, phosphorus c) carbon, oxygen d) silica, carbon 64. Physicist Werner _________ developed the ___________ principle which means that it is impossible to know exactly the position and momentum of a particle. a) Heisenberg, certainty b) Heisenberg, uncertainty c) Bohr, uncertainty d) Bohr, certainty

Ch 2 Questions that might be on the test. If you cannot answer them, check your class notes or the textbook. 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has: a) a characteristic chemical composition, b) a highly ordered atomic structure c) specific physical properties d) all of the above 2. There are currently more than ______ known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, a) 40 b) 400 c) 4000 d) 40 000 3. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are: a) rare b) common c) valuable d) priceless 4. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as: a) gangue b) tailings c) ores d) granite 5. Electrons, which have a _____ charge, a size which is so small as to be currently unmeasurable, and which are the least massive of the three types of basic particles. a) positive b) negative c) neutral 6. Both protons and neutrons are themselves now thought to be composed of even more elementary particles called: a) quarks b) quakes c) parsons d) megans 7. In processes which change the number of protons in a nucleus, the atom becomes an atom of a different chemical: a) isotope b) compound c) element d) planet 8. Atoms which have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called: a) elements b) isotopes c) ions d) molecules 9. In the Bohr model of the atom, electrons can only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy, their distances from the nucleus being proportional to their respective energies. They can only make _____ leaps between the fixed energy levels. a) tiny b) quantum c) gradual 10. It is impossible to simultaneously derive precise values for both the position and momentum of a particle for any given point in time; this became known as the ______ principle. a) Bohr b) Einstein c) uncertainty d) quantum 11. The modern model of the atom describes the positions of electrons in an atom in terms of: a) quantum levels b) orbital paths c) probabilities d) GPS 12. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of: a) electrons b) neutrons c) ions d) photons 13. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many protons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 14. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many neutrons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 15. The relative abundance of an isotope is strongly correlated with its tendency toward nuclear _____, short-lived nuclides quickly go away, while their long-lived counterparts endure. a) fission b) fusion c) decay d) bombardment 16. The isotopic composition of elements is different on different planets. a) True b) False 17. As a general rule, the fewer electrons in an atom’s valence shell, the ____ reactive it is. Lithium, sodium, and potassium have one electron in their outer shells. a) more b) less 18. Every atom is much more stable, or less reactive, with a ____ valence shell. a) partly full b) completely full 19. A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a: a) anion b) cation c) fermion d) bation 20. Bonds vary widely in their strength. Generally covalent and ionic bonds are often described as “strong”, whereas ______ bonds are generally considered to be “weak”. a) van der Waals b) Faradays c) van Neumans 21. This bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 22. This bond results from electrostatic attraction between atoms: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 23. A sea of delocalized electrons causes this bonding: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 24. The chemical composition of minerals may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the ______ feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodiumrich albite to calcium-rich anorthite. a) plagioclase b) orthoclase c) alkaline d) acidic 25. Crystal structure is based on ____ internal atomic arrangement. a) irregular b) regular c) random d) curvilinear 26. Pyrite and marcasite are both _______, but their arrangement of atoms differs. a) iron sulfide b) lead sulfide c) copper silfide d) silver sulfide 27. The carbon atoms in ______ are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network. a) sapphire b) graphite c) aluminum d) carbonate 28. TGCFAOQTCD a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale 29. Dull to metallic, submetallic, adamantine, vitreous, pearly, resinous, or silky. a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale d) Heft scale 30. The color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on unglazed porcelain. a) color b) streak c) lustre d) iridescense 31. Describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. a) fracture b) streak c) lustre d) cleavage 32. In modern physics, the position of electrons about a nucleus are defined in terms of: a) probabilities b) circles c) ellipses d) chromodomes 33. The symbol H+ suggests a: a) hydrogen atom b) hydrogen isotope c) hydrogen cation d) hydrogen anion 34. The tabulated atomic mass of natural carbon is not exactly 12 because carbon in nature always has multiple ________ present. a) electrons b) isotopes c) quarks d) protons 35. This type of bonding due to delocalized electrons leads to malleability, ductility, and high melting points: a) covalent b) ionic c) van der Waals d) metallic 36. The mineral ___________ is 3 on Mohs Scale whereas the mineral ___________ is 9. a) calcite, corundum b) corundum, calcite c) caliche, calcite d) chalcedony, quartz 37. In hand specimens, geologists identify most minerals based on: a) physical properties b) chemical analyses c) xray diffraction 38. This type of chemical bonding is the weakest but occurs in all substances. a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) none of the above 39. Quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite: these minerals are: a) common in rocks b) occasionally found c) rare d) extremely rare 40. Characteristics of a mineral do NOT include: a) naturally occurring b) characteristic chemical formula c) crystalline d) organic e) all of the above 41. The chemical composition of a particular mineral may vary between end members. For example, the common mineral plagioclase feldspar varies from being _______-rich to being _________-rich. a) sodium, calcium b) potassium, sodium c) iron, magnesium d) carbon, oxygen 42. Sharing of electrons typifies the __________ bond whereas electrostatic attraction typifies the _______ bond. a) ionic, covalent b) ionic, triclinic c) covalent, ionic d) triclinic, covalent 43. If number of protons does not equal the number of electrons, the atom is a(n) : a) isotope b) ion c) quark d) simplex e) google 44. Atoms generally consist of: a) electrons b) protons c) neutrons d) all of the above 45. Not counting rare minerals, about how many mineral species are at least occasionally encountered in rocks? a) 20 b) 200 c) 2000 46. Carbon is atomic number 6. Carbon-13 has _______ protons and _______ neutrons. a) thirteen, six b) six, seven c) twelve, twenty-five d) twelve, twelve 47. Which of these particles are not nucleons? a) electrons b) neutrons c) protons 48. A mineral with visibly recognizable crystals is said to have good crystal habit; otherwise the mineral is said to be: a) massive b) granular c) compact d) any of the above 49. In chemical bonding, two atoms become linked by moving or sharing __________. a) neutrons b) protons c) electrons 50. The name of an element is determined by the number of ______ present in the ______ of an atom. a) electrons, nucleus b) neutrons, nucleus c) protons, nucleus d) protons, electron cloud e) neutrons, electron cloud 51. Generally ________ and ____________ bonds are strong whereas the ______________ bond is weak. a) covalent, ionic, van der Waals b) van der Waals, covalent, ionic c) ionic, van der Waals, covalent 52. Which of the following are held together by chemical bonds? a) molecules b) crystals c) diatomic gases 53. An ion with fewer electrons than protons is called an ______ and it carries a _________ electric charge. a) cation, positive b) anion, negative c) cation, negative d) anion, positive 54. Two or more minerals may have the same _________ composition but different _______ structure. These are called polymorphs. a) crystal, chemical b) chemical, crystal 55. Industrial minerals are: a) gem quality b) commercially valuable c) tailings d) worthless 56. All minerals are crystalline. If the crystals are too small to see, they can be detected by: a) x-ray diffraction b) cosmic rays c) sound waves d) odor 57. If two atomes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, the atoms are _______ of the same _________. a) elements, mineral b) atoms, isotope c) elements, isotope d) isotopes, element 58. Modern physics recognizes that electrons show both particle and ______ behavior. a) wave b) emotional c) thermal d) revolting 59. Sodium and potassium have one ______ electron in their outer shells and are extremely ________. a) valence, stable b) inverted, reactive c) valence, reactive d) contaminated, inactive 60. The luster of _______ would be described as ________. a) glass, vitreous b) diamond, dull c) pyrite, silky d) graphite, resinous 61. The minerals ________ and __________ are polymorphs of carbon. a) diamond, graphite b) calcite, silicate c) bonite, bronzite 62. In the ______ atom based on _______ physics, electrons were restricted to circular orbits of fixed energy levels. a) Bohr , quantum b) Rutherford, classical c) Bohr, classical d) Rutherford, quantum 63. Virtually all elements other than ______ and _______ were formed in stars and supernovae long after the Big Bang. a) hydrogen, helium b) carbon, phosphorus c) carbon, oxygen d) silica, carbon 64. Physicist Werner _________ developed the ___________ principle which means that it is impossible to know exactly the position and momentum of a particle. a) Heisenberg, certainty b) Heisenberg, uncertainty c) Bohr, uncertainty d) Bohr, certainty

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ELEC 2000 Semiconductor Devices Homework #1 Choose the answer that best completes the statement or answers the question. (1) Assume the valence electron is removed from a copper atom. The net charge of the atom becomes a. 0 b. +1 c. -1 d. +4 (2) The valence electron of a copper atom experiences what kind of attraction toward the nucleus? a. None b. Weak c. Strong d. Impossible to say (3) How many valence electrons does a silicon atom have? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 4 (4) Silicon atoms combine into an orderly pattern called a a. Covalent bond b. Crystal c. Semiconductor d. Valence orbit (5) An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature. What causes these holes? a. Doping b. Free electrons c. Thermal energy d. Valence electrons (6) The merging of a free electron and a hole is called a. Covalent bonding b. Lifetime c. Recombination d. Thermal energy (7) At room temperature an intrinsic silicon crystal acts approximately a. A Battery b. A conductor c. An insulator d. Copper wire (8) The amount of time between the creation of a hole and its disappearance is called a. Doping b. Lifetime c. Recombination d. Valence (9) A conductor has how many type of flow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 (10) A semiconductor has how many types of flow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 (11) For semiconductor material, its valence orbit is saturated when it contains a. 1 electron b. Equal (+) and (-) ions c. 4 electrons d. 8 electrons (12) In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of holes a. Equal the number of free electrons b. Is greater than the number of free electrons c. Is less than the number of free electrons d. None of the above (13) The number of free electrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductor decreases when the temperature a. Decreases b. Increases c. Stays the same d. None of the above (14) The flow of valence electrons to the right means that holes are flowing to the a. Left b. Right c. Either way d. None of the above (15) Holes act like a. Atoms b. Crystals c. Negative charges d. Positive charges (16) An donor atom has how many valence electrons? a. 1 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 (17) If you wanted to produce a p-type semiconductor, which of these would you use? a. Acceptor atoms b. Donor atoms c. Pentavalent impurity d. Silicon (18) Electrons are the minority carriers in which type of semiconductor? a. Extrinsic b. Intrinsic c. n-Type d. p-type (19) Silver is the best conductor. How many valence electrons do you think it has? a. 1 b. 4 c. 18 d. 29 (20) Which of the following describes an n-type semiconductor? a. Neutral b. Positively charged c. Negatively charged d. has many holes (21) What is the barrier potential of a silicon diode a room temperature? a. 0.3 V b. 0.7 V c. 1 V d. 2 mV per degree Celsius

ELEC 2000 Semiconductor Devices Homework #1 Choose the answer that best completes the statement or answers the question. (1) Assume the valence electron is removed from a copper atom. The net charge of the atom becomes a. 0 b. +1 c. -1 d. +4 (2) The valence electron of a copper atom experiences what kind of attraction toward the nucleus? a. None b. Weak c. Strong d. Impossible to say (3) How many valence electrons does a silicon atom have? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 4 (4) Silicon atoms combine into an orderly pattern called a a. Covalent bond b. Crystal c. Semiconductor d. Valence orbit (5) An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature. What causes these holes? a. Doping b. Free electrons c. Thermal energy d. Valence electrons (6) The merging of a free electron and a hole is called a. Covalent bonding b. Lifetime c. Recombination d. Thermal energy (7) At room temperature an intrinsic silicon crystal acts approximately a. A Battery b. A conductor c. An insulator d. Copper wire (8) The amount of time between the creation of a hole and its disappearance is called a. Doping b. Lifetime c. Recombination d. Valence (9) A conductor has how many type of flow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 (10) A semiconductor has how many types of flow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 (11) For semiconductor material, its valence orbit is saturated when it contains a. 1 electron b. Equal (+) and (-) ions c. 4 electrons d. 8 electrons (12) In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of holes a. Equal the number of free electrons b. Is greater than the number of free electrons c. Is less than the number of free electrons d. None of the above (13) The number of free electrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductor decreases when the temperature a. Decreases b. Increases c. Stays the same d. None of the above (14) The flow of valence electrons to the right means that holes are flowing to the a. Left b. Right c. Either way d. None of the above (15) Holes act like a. Atoms b. Crystals c. Negative charges d. Positive charges (16) An donor atom has how many valence electrons? a. 1 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 (17) If you wanted to produce a p-type semiconductor, which of these would you use? a. Acceptor atoms b. Donor atoms c. Pentavalent impurity d. Silicon (18) Electrons are the minority carriers in which type of semiconductor? a. Extrinsic b. Intrinsic c. n-Type d. p-type (19) Silver is the best conductor. How many valence electrons do you think it has? a. 1 b. 4 c. 18 d. 29 (20) Which of the following describes an n-type semiconductor? a. Neutral b. Positively charged c. Negatively charged d. has many holes (21) What is the barrier potential of a silicon diode a room temperature? a. 0.3 V b. 0.7 V c. 1 V d. 2 mV per degree Celsius

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1A. You administer an IV with 3 liters of 50 mM NaCl to a person whose osmolarity is 300 mOsM and whose total body water is 30 L. Fill in the table below: 3 L of 50 mM NaCl Total body ECF ICF Solute (osmoles) Volume (L) Concentration (OsM) 1B. The same person from the previous problem instead is given 1 liter of an IV contained 250 mOsM NaCl and 50 mOsM urea. Com Total body ECF ICF Solute Volume Concentration 2. You isolate intact mitochondria as described in class and equilibrate them in a buffered solution at pH 9, containing 0.1 M KCl and ADP plus Pi but without succinate. You then collect them by centrifugation, and quickly resuspend them in a new buffer at pH 7, without KCl , but with valinomycin (a K+ ionophore). Note: the K+ rushing out will create a huge positive charge differential. a. Describe what happens to proton concentrations in the intermembrane space and the matrix at each step of the study. b. What do you predict will be the result on oxygen consumption and the production of ATP?   3. A negatively charged nutrient (equivalent charge of one electron) is actively transported from the outside to the inside of a cell membrane; i.e. a cell captures energy from the hydrolysis of ATP in order to bring a molecule from the outside of the cell, where it is present at a low concentration, to the inside of the cell, where it is present at higher concentration. If the molecular species to be transported is present at a concentration of 34.5 nM on the outside of the cell, the potential on the outside of the cell is +75 mV, the potential on the inside of the cell is -35 mV, and the efficiency at which energy from the hydrolysis of ATP is captured for this active transport process is 59%, what is the maximum concentration of the transported species that may be achieved inside the cell?   4. . ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi G0 = -7.3 kcal/mol In a chemical system that has two different solute concentrations, the Gibbs free energy that is available to do work is: ΔG = RT ln [C1/C2], where R and T are the gas constant (2 cal/mol K) and temperature (Kelvin). C1 and C2 refer to the concentrations (e.g. molarities, M) of a solute on different sides of a membrane. (a) For a one unit difference in pH across a cellular membrane, what is the energy (in kcal/mol) that is available to do chemical work? (b) This gradient is to be used to drive the reaction synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. A concentration gradient of any solute has potential energy. When the solute is charged, a voltage is also established across the membrane, which also adds to the total potential energy. What fraction of the energy needed to drive the reaction is provided by the voltage across the membrane?

1A. You administer an IV with 3 liters of 50 mM NaCl to a person whose osmolarity is 300 mOsM and whose total body water is 30 L. Fill in the table below: 3 L of 50 mM NaCl Total body ECF ICF Solute (osmoles) Volume (L) Concentration (OsM) 1B. The same person from the previous problem instead is given 1 liter of an IV contained 250 mOsM NaCl and 50 mOsM urea. Com Total body ECF ICF Solute Volume Concentration 2. You isolate intact mitochondria as described in class and equilibrate them in a buffered solution at pH 9, containing 0.1 M KCl and ADP plus Pi but without succinate. You then collect them by centrifugation, and quickly resuspend them in a new buffer at pH 7, without KCl , but with valinomycin (a K+ ionophore). Note: the K+ rushing out will create a huge positive charge differential. a. Describe what happens to proton concentrations in the intermembrane space and the matrix at each step of the study. b. What do you predict will be the result on oxygen consumption and the production of ATP?   3. A negatively charged nutrient (equivalent charge of one electron) is actively transported from the outside to the inside of a cell membrane; i.e. a cell captures energy from the hydrolysis of ATP in order to bring a molecule from the outside of the cell, where it is present at a low concentration, to the inside of the cell, where it is present at higher concentration. If the molecular species to be transported is present at a concentration of 34.5 nM on the outside of the cell, the potential on the outside of the cell is +75 mV, the potential on the inside of the cell is -35 mV, and the efficiency at which energy from the hydrolysis of ATP is captured for this active transport process is 59%, what is the maximum concentration of the transported species that may be achieved inside the cell?   4. . ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi G0 = -7.3 kcal/mol In a chemical system that has two different solute concentrations, the Gibbs free energy that is available to do work is: ΔG = RT ln [C1/C2], where R and T are the gas constant (2 cal/mol K) and temperature (Kelvin). C1 and C2 refer to the concentrations (e.g. molarities, M) of a solute on different sides of a membrane. (a) For a one unit difference in pH across a cellular membrane, what is the energy (in kcal/mol) that is available to do chemical work? (b) This gradient is to be used to drive the reaction synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. A concentration gradient of any solute has potential energy. When the solute is charged, a voltage is also established across the membrane, which also adds to the total potential energy. What fraction of the energy needed to drive the reaction is provided by the voltage across the membrane?

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A capacitor is charged with a battery. Then, with the battery connection maintained the plates are moved closer together. Then results in, a) a decrease in capacitance , b) a decrease in charge on the plates. c) a decrease in the electric fields between the plates. , d) an increase in the energy stored. e) a change in the potential between the plates.

A capacitor is charged with a battery. Then, with the battery connection maintained the plates are moved closer together. Then results in, a) a decrease in capacitance , b) a decrease in charge on the plates. c) a decrease in the electric fields between the plates. , d) an increase in the energy stored. e) a change in the potential between the plates.

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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Chapter 03 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Isotopes of an element differ from each other by the _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which one of the following statements about pH is correct? ANSWER: Correct Lemon juice is an acid. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A In which form are water molecules most closely bonded to each other? ANSWER: number of electrons number of neutrons types of electrons number of protons Stomach acid has more OH- ions than H+ ions. Baking soda has more H+ ions than OH- ions. Lemon juice has more H+ ions than OH- ions. Seawater is slightly acidic. Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which one of the following is a molecule but NOT a compound? ANSWER: Correct Oxygen is a molecule made up of just one element. Therefore, it is not a compound. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A Which one of the following is a carbohydrate and one of Earth’s most abundant organic molecule? ANSWER: Correct equally closely bonded in water vapor and ice solid ice forming part of an Antarctic sheet liquid water a few degrees above the freezing point water vapor above a boiling pot of water CH4 O2 CO2 H2O oil protein cellulose DNA Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Which one of the following is a protein that functions as a catalyst? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The process of translation involves the use of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A The cooling effect of sweating best represents _____. ANSWER: glucose cellulose enzyme RNA proteins to make lipids lipids to make carbohydrates carbohydrates to make proteins nucleic acids to make proteins latent heat transfer conduction radiation convection Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A When plants use sunlight in photosynthesis, the plants are using a form of _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following converts mass to energy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A When a windmill turns to generate electricity, the amount of kinetic energy input _____. ANSWER: chemical energy in sunlight nuclear fission electromagnetic radiation conduction conduction the breaking of chemical bonds nuclear fission photosynthesis Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A Which of the following best represents kinetic energy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Which of the following processes reduces entropy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 9 is unrelated to the amount of electrical energy produced is more than the amount of electrical energy produced equals the amount of electrical energy produced is less than the amount of electrical energy produced a charged battery gunpowder in a bullet the energy in the wax molecules of a candle a hot burner on a stove burning gasoline in an automobile engine photosynthesis in a leaf a person walking up a flight of stairs cell respiration in a leaf Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A Which one of the following planets is a gas giant? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A What is the main driving force that causes Earth’s tectonic plates to drift? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In which of the following locations would you expect to find large quantities of young rocks? ANSWER: Venus Jupiter Mars Mercury Heat from Earth’s core causes the mantle rock to circulate. The weight of the tectonic plates causes them to sink and melt. Currents of magma from the core of Earth circulate just beneath the tectonic plates. Electromagnetic radiation from the sun heats the tectonic plates, causing them to expand. the Appalachian Mountains the Himalayas deep in the central parts of India the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The oxygen-rich atmosphere of Earth is mainly the result of _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A A scientist working on the chemical reactions in the ozone layer is studying the _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The total amount of moisture in the air is highest when relative humidity is _____. ANSWER: volcanic activity chemical reactions between the early Earth atmosphere and iron photosynthetic organisms erosion of rocks into soil troposphere thermosphere stratosphere mesosphere Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A You are enjoying a spring day but expect a storm to arrive soon . As the storm arrives and the rain begins to fall, you notice that the temperature drops dramatically. Most likely, you have just experienced the arrival of a _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A Every day tremendous amounts of the sun’s energy strikes Earth. Why doesn’t Earth overheat? ANSWER: Correct Earth’s energy budget is balanced. Over the course of a year, the energy input is equal to the energy output. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 7 low and temperatures are low high and temperatures are high high and temperatures are low low and temperatures are high cold front Hadley cell intertropical convergence stratospheric event The energy is ultimately radiated back to space. Much of the heat melts rocks, forming lava deep inside of Earth. Most of the energy is used in photosynthesis to help plants grow and survive. The energy mostly is absorbed in various weather systems. Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A How many calories are required to heat up 1,000 grams of liquid water (about 1 liter) from 20 °C to 70 °C? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Hadley cells near the Equator consist of _____. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 85.5%. You received 19.67 out of a possible total of 23 points. 100 1,000 5,000 50,000 rising dry air associated with deserts and falling moist air that produces precipitation and rainforests rising moist air that produces precipitation and rainforests, and falling dry air associated with deserts warm, moist air rising up the sides of mountains and cool, dry air descending on the leeward sides cool, dry air rising up the sides of mountains and warm, moist air descending on the leeward sides Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

Chapter 03 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Isotopes of an element differ from each other by the _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which one of the following statements about pH is correct? ANSWER: Correct Lemon juice is an acid. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A In which form are water molecules most closely bonded to each other? ANSWER: number of electrons number of neutrons types of electrons number of protons Stomach acid has more OH- ions than H+ ions. Baking soda has more H+ ions than OH- ions. Lemon juice has more H+ ions than OH- ions. Seawater is slightly acidic. Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which one of the following is a molecule but NOT a compound? ANSWER: Correct Oxygen is a molecule made up of just one element. Therefore, it is not a compound. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A Which one of the following is a carbohydrate and one of Earth’s most abundant organic molecule? ANSWER: Correct equally closely bonded in water vapor and ice solid ice forming part of an Antarctic sheet liquid water a few degrees above the freezing point water vapor above a boiling pot of water CH4 O2 CO2 H2O oil protein cellulose DNA Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Which one of the following is a protein that functions as a catalyst? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The process of translation involves the use of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A The cooling effect of sweating best represents _____. ANSWER: glucose cellulose enzyme RNA proteins to make lipids lipids to make carbohydrates carbohydrates to make proteins nucleic acids to make proteins latent heat transfer conduction radiation convection Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A When plants use sunlight in photosynthesis, the plants are using a form of _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following converts mass to energy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A When a windmill turns to generate electricity, the amount of kinetic energy input _____. ANSWER: chemical energy in sunlight nuclear fission electromagnetic radiation conduction conduction the breaking of chemical bonds nuclear fission photosynthesis Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A Which of the following best represents kinetic energy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Which of the following processes reduces entropy? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 9 is unrelated to the amount of electrical energy produced is more than the amount of electrical energy produced equals the amount of electrical energy produced is less than the amount of electrical energy produced a charged battery gunpowder in a bullet the energy in the wax molecules of a candle a hot burner on a stove burning gasoline in an automobile engine photosynthesis in a leaf a person walking up a flight of stairs cell respiration in a leaf Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A Which one of the following planets is a gas giant? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A What is the main driving force that causes Earth’s tectonic plates to drift? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In which of the following locations would you expect to find large quantities of young rocks? ANSWER: Venus Jupiter Mars Mercury Heat from Earth’s core causes the mantle rock to circulate. The weight of the tectonic plates causes them to sink and melt. Currents of magma from the core of Earth circulate just beneath the tectonic plates. Electromagnetic radiation from the sun heats the tectonic plates, causing them to expand. the Appalachian Mountains the Himalayas deep in the central parts of India the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The oxygen-rich atmosphere of Earth is mainly the result of _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A A scientist working on the chemical reactions in the ozone layer is studying the _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The total amount of moisture in the air is highest when relative humidity is _____. ANSWER: volcanic activity chemical reactions between the early Earth atmosphere and iron photosynthetic organisms erosion of rocks into soil troposphere thermosphere stratosphere mesosphere Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A You are enjoying a spring day but expect a storm to arrive soon . As the storm arrives and the rain begins to fall, you notice that the temperature drops dramatically. Most likely, you have just experienced the arrival of a _____. ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A Every day tremendous amounts of the sun’s energy strikes Earth. Why doesn’t Earth overheat? ANSWER: Correct Earth’s energy budget is balanced. Over the course of a year, the energy input is equal to the energy output. Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 7 low and temperatures are low high and temperatures are high high and temperatures are low low and temperatures are high cold front Hadley cell intertropical convergence stratospheric event The energy is ultimately radiated back to space. Much of the heat melts rocks, forming lava deep inside of Earth. Most of the energy is used in photosynthesis to help plants grow and survive. The energy mostly is absorbed in various weather systems. Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A How many calories are required to heat up 1,000 grams of liquid water (about 1 liter) from 20 °C to 70 °C? ANSWER: Correct Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Hadley cells near the Equator consist of _____. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 85.5%. You received 19.67 out of a possible total of 23 points. 100 1,000 5,000 50,000 rising dry air associated with deserts and falling moist air that produces precipitation and rainforests rising moist air that produces precipitation and rainforests, and falling dry air associated with deserts warm, moist air rising up the sides of mountains and cool, dry air descending on the leeward sides cool, dry air rising up the sides of mountains and warm, moist air descending on the leeward sides Chapter 03 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

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