1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs … Read More...
The first task : Seminar Topic 6 – Operation Information Systems Investigate teleworking and how teleworkers operate. From your findings identify the types of operations information systems that would be required to support and administer this type of operation within an organization

The first task : Seminar Topic 6 – Operation Information Systems Investigate teleworking and how teleworkers operate. From your findings identify the types of operations information systems that would be required to support and administer this type of operation within an organization

Now a day’s individuals and organizations uses information technology (IT) … Read More...
5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 Problem List 5.1 Total mass of a shell 5.2 Tunnel through the moon 5.3 Gravitational eld above the center of a thin hoop 5.4 Gravitational force near a metal-cored planet surrounded by a gaseous cloud 5.5 Sphere with linearly increasing mass density 5.6 Jumping o Vesta 5.7 Gravitational force between two massive rods 5.8 Potential energy { Check your answer! 5.9 Ways of solving gravitational problems 5.10 Rod with linearly increasing mass density 5.11 Sphere with constant internal gravitational eld 5.12 Throwing a rock o the moon These problems are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Un- ported License. Please share and/or modify. Back to Problem List 1 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.1 Total mass of a shell Given: Marino { Fall 2011 Consider a spherical shell that extends from r = R to r = 2R with a non-uniform density (r) = 0r. What is the total mass of the shell? Back to Problem List 2 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.2 Tunnel through the moon Given: Marino { Fall 2011 Imagine that NASA digs a straight tunnel through the center of the moon (see gure) to access the Moon’s 3He deposits. An astronaut places a rock in the tunnel at the surface of the moon, and releases it (from rest). Show that the rock obeys the force law for a mass connected to a spring. What is the spring constant? Find the oscillation period for this motion if you assume that Moon has a mass of 7.351022 kg and a radius of 1.74106 m. Assume the moon’s density is uniform throughout its volume, and ignore the moon’s rotation. Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Imagine (in a parallel universe of unlimited budgets) that NASA digs a straight tunnel through the center of the moon (see gure). A robot place a rock in the tunnel at position r = r0 from the center of the moon, and releases it (from rest). Use Newton’s second law to write the equation of motion of the rock and solve for r(t). Explain in words the rock’s motion. Does the rock return to its initial position at any later time? If so, how long does it takes to return to it? (Give a formula, and a number.) Assume the moon’s density is uniform throughout its volume, and ignore the moon’s rotation. Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Now lets consider our (real) planet Earth, with total mass M and radius R which we will approximate as a uniform mass density, (r) = 0. (a) Neglecting rotational and frictional e ects, show that a particle dropped into a hole drilled straight through the center of the earth all the way to the far side will oscillate between the two endpoints. (Hint: you will need to set up, and solve, an ODE for the motion) (b) Find the period of the oscillation of this motion. Get a number (in minutes) as a nal result, using data for the earth’s size and mass. (How does that compare to ying to Perth and back?!) Extra Credit: OK, even with unlimited budgets, digging a tunnel through the center of the earth is preposterous. But, suppose instead that the tunnel is a straight-line \chord” through the earth, say directly from New York to Los Angeles. Show that your nal answer for the time taken does not depend on the location of that chord! This is rather remarkable – look again at the time for a free-fall trip (no energy required, except perhaps to compensate for friction) How long would that trip take? Could this work?! Back to Problem List 3 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.3 Gravitational eld above the center of a thin hoop Given: Pollock { Spring 2011, Spring 2012 Consider a very (in nitesimally!) thin but massive loop, radius R (total mass M), centered around the origin, sitting in the x-y plane. Assume it has a uniform linear mass density  (which has units of kg/m) all around it. (So, it’s like a skinny donut that is mostly hole, centered around the z-axis) (a) What is  in terms of M and R? What is the direction of the gravitational eld generated by this mass distribution at a point in space a distance z above the center of the donut, i.e. at (0; 0; z) Explain your reasoning for the direction carefully, try not to simply \wave your hands.” (The answer is extremely intuitive, but can you justify that it is correct?) (b) Compute the gravitational eld, ~g, at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating Newton’s law of gravity, summing over all in nitesimal \chunks” of mass along the loop. (c) Compute the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating ?Gdm=r, sum- ming over all in nitesimal \chunks” dm along the loop. Then, take the z-component of the gradient of this potential to check that you agree with your result from the previous part. (d) In the two separate limits z << R and z >> R, Taylor expand your g- eld (in the z-direction)out only to the rst non-zero term, and convince us that both limits make good physical sense. (e) Can you use Gauss’ law to gure out the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z)? (If so, do it and check your previous answers. If not, why not?) Extra credit: If you place a small mass a small distance z away from the center, use your Taylor limit for z << R above to write a simple ODE for the equation of motion. Solve it, and discuss the motion Back to Problem List 4 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.4 Gravitational force near a metal-cored planet surrounded by a gaseous cloud Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Jupiter is composed of a dense spherical core (of liquid metallic hydrogen!) of radius Rc. It is sur- rounded by a spherical cloud of gaseous hydrogen of radius Rg, where Rg > Rc. Let’s assume that the core is of uniform density c and the gaseous cloud is also of uniform density g. What is the gravitational force on an object of mass m that is located at a radius r from the center of Jupiter? Note that you must consider the cases where the object is inside the core, within the gas layer, and outside of the planet. Back to Problem List 5 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.5 Sphere with linearly increasing mass density Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 A planet of mass M and radius R has a nonuniform density that varies with r, the distance from the center according to  = Ar for 0  r  R. (a) What is the constant A in terms of M and R? Does this density pro le strike you as physically plausible, or is just designed as a mathematical exercise? (Brie y, explain) (b) Determine the gravitational force on a satellite of mass m orbiting this planet. In words, please outline the method you plan to use for your solution. (Use the easiest method you can come up with!) In your calculation, you will need to argue that the magnitude of ~g(r; ; ) depends only on r. Be very explicit about this – how do you know that it doesn’t, in fact, depend on  or ? (c) Determine the gravitational force felt by a rock of mass m inside the planet, located at radius r < R. (If the method you use is di erent than in part b, explain why you switched. If not, just proceed!) Explicitly check your result for this part by considering the limits r ! 0 and r ! R. Back to Problem List 6 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.6 Jumping o Vesta Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 You are stranded on the surface of the asteroid Vesta. If the mass of the asteroid is M and its radius is R, how fast would you have to jump o its surface to be able to escape from its gravitational eld? (Your estimate should be based on parameters that characterize the asteroid, not parameters that describe your jumping ability.) Given your formula, look up the approximate mass and radius of the asteroid Vesta 3 and determine a numerical value of the escape velocity. Could you escape in this way? (Brie y, explain) If so, roughly how big in radius is the maximum the asteroid could be, for you to still escape this way? If not, estimate how much smaller an asteroid you would need, to escape from it in this way? Figure 1: Back to Problem List 7 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.7 Gravitational force between two massive rods Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Consider two identical uniform rods of length L and mass m lying along the same line and having their closest points separated by a distance d as shown in the gure (a) Calculate the mutual force between these rods, both its direction and magnitude. (b) Now do several checks. First, make sure the units worked out (!) The, nd the magnitude of the force in the limit L ! 0. What do you expect? Brie y, discuss. Lastly, nd the magnitude of the force in the limit d ! 1 ? Again, is it what you expect? Brie y, discuss. Figure 2: Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Determining the gravitational force between two rods: (a) Consider a thin, uniform rod of mass m and length L (and negligible other dimensions) lying on the x axis (from x=-L to 0), as shown in g 1a. Derive a formula for the gravitational eld \g" at any arbitrary point x to the right of the origin (but still on the x-axis!) due to this rod. (b) Now suppose a second rod of length L and mass m sits on the x axis as shown in g 1b, with the left edge a distance \d" away. Calculate the mutual gravitational force between these rods. (c) Let's do some checks! Show that the units work out in parts a and b. Find the magnitude of the force in part a, in the limit x >> L: What do you expect? Brie y, discuss! Finally, verify that your answer to part b gives what you expect in the limit d >> L. ( Hint: This is a bit harder! You need to consistently expand everything to second order, not just rst, because of some interesting cancellations) Fig 1a Fig 1b L m +x x=0 L x=0 x=d m Fig 1a Fig 1b L m +x x=0 L +x x=0 x=d L m m Back to Problem List 8 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.8 Potential energy { Check your answer! Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 On the last exam, we had a problem with a at ring, uniform mass per unit area of , inner radius of R, outer radius of 2R. A satellite (mass m) sat a distance z above the center of the ring. We asked for the gravitational potential energy, and the answer was U(z) = ?2Gm( p 4R2 + z2 ? p R2 + z2) (1) (a) If you are far from the disk (on the z axis), what do you expect for the formula for U(z)? (Don’t say \0″ – as usual, we want the functional form of U(z) as you move far away. Also, explicitly state what we mean by \far away”. (Please don’t compare something with units to something without units!) (b) Show explicitly that the formula above does indeed give precisely the functional dependence you expect. Back to Problem List 9 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.9 Ways of solving gravitational problems Given: Pollock { Spring 2011, Spring 2012 Infinite cylinder ρ=cr x z (a) Half-infinite line mass, uniform linear mass density, λ x (b) R z  P Figure 3: (a) An in nite cylinder of radius R centered on the z-axis, with non-uniform volume mass density  = cr, where r is the radius in cylindrical coordinates. (b) A half-in nite line of mass on the x-axis extending from x = 0 to x = +1, with uniform linear mass density . There are two general methods we use to solve gravitational problems (i.e. nd ~g given some distribution of mass). (a) Describe these two methods. We claim one of these methods is easiest to solve for ~g of mass distribution (a) above, and the other method is easiest to solve for ~g of the mass distribution (b) above. Which method goes with which mass distribution? Please justify your answer. (b) Find ~g of the mass distribution (a) above for any arbitrary point outside the cylinder. (c) Find the x component of the gravitational acceleration, gx, generated by the mass distribution labeled (b) above, at a point P a given distance z up the positive z-axis (as shown). Back to Problem List 10 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.10 Rod with linearly increasing mass density Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Consider a very (in nitesimally!) thin but massive rod, length L (total mass M), centered around the origin, sitting along the x-axis. (So the left end is at (-L/2, 0,0) and the right end is at (+L/2,0,0) Assume the mass density  (which has units of kg/m)is not uniform, but instead varies linearly with distance from the origin, (x) = cjxj. (a) What is that constant \c” in terms of M and L? What is the direction of the gravitational eld generated by this mass distribution at a point in space a distance z above the center of the rod, i.e. at (0; 0; z) Explain your reasoning for the direction carefully, try not to simply \wave your hands.” (The answer is extremely intuitive, but can you justify that it is correct?) (b) Compute the gravitational eld, ~g, at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating Newton’s law of gravity, summing over all in nitesimal \chunks” of mass along the rod. (c) Compute the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating ?Gdm=r, sum- ming over all in nitesimal \chunks” dm along the rod. Then, take the z-component of the gradient of this potential to check that you agree with your result from the previous part. (d) In the limit of large z what do you expect for the functional form for gravitational potential? (Hint: Don’t just say it goes to zero! It’s a rod of mass M, when you’re far away what does it look like? How does it go to zero?) What does \large z” mean here? Use the binomial (or Taylor) expansion to verify that your formula does indeed give exactly what you expect. (Hint: you cannot Taylor expand in something BIG, you have to Taylor expand in something small.) (e) Can you use Gauss’ law to gure out the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z)? (If so, do it and check your previous answers. If not, why not?) Back to Problem List 11 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.11 Sphere with constant internal gravitational eld Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 (a) Imagine a planet of total mass M and radius R which has a nonuniform mass density that varies just with r, the distance from the center. For this (admittedly very unusual!) planet, suppose the gravitational eld strength inside the planet turns out to be independent of the radial distance within the sphere. Find the function describing the mass density  = (r) of this planet. (Your nal answer should be written in terms of the given constants.) (b) Now, determine the gravitational force on a satellite of mass m orbiting this planet at distance r > R. (Use the easiest method you can come up with!) Explain your work in words as well as formulas. For instance, in your calculation, you will need to argue that the magnitude of ~g(r; ; ) depends only on r. Be explicit about this – how do you know that it doesn’t, in fact, depend on  or ? (c) As a nal check, explicitly show that your solutions inside and outside the planet (parts a and b) are consistent when r = R. Please also comment on whether this density pro le strikes you as physically plausible, or is it just designed as a mathematical exercise? Defend your reasoning. Back to Problem List 12 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.12 Throwing a rock o the moon Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Assuming that asteroids have roughly the same mass density as the moon, make an estimate of the largest asteroid that an astronaut could be standing on, and still have a chance of throwing a small object (with their arms, no machinery!) so that it completely escapes the asteroid’s gravitational eld. (This minimum speed is called \escape velocity”) Is the size you computed typical for asteroids in our solar system? Back to Problem List 13

5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 Problem List 5.1 Total mass of a shell 5.2 Tunnel through the moon 5.3 Gravitational eld above the center of a thin hoop 5.4 Gravitational force near a metal-cored planet surrounded by a gaseous cloud 5.5 Sphere with linearly increasing mass density 5.6 Jumping o Vesta 5.7 Gravitational force between two massive rods 5.8 Potential energy { Check your answer! 5.9 Ways of solving gravitational problems 5.10 Rod with linearly increasing mass density 5.11 Sphere with constant internal gravitational eld 5.12 Throwing a rock o the moon These problems are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Un- ported License. Please share and/or modify. Back to Problem List 1 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.1 Total mass of a shell Given: Marino { Fall 2011 Consider a spherical shell that extends from r = R to r = 2R with a non-uniform density (r) = 0r. What is the total mass of the shell? Back to Problem List 2 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.2 Tunnel through the moon Given: Marino { Fall 2011 Imagine that NASA digs a straight tunnel through the center of the moon (see gure) to access the Moon’s 3He deposits. An astronaut places a rock in the tunnel at the surface of the moon, and releases it (from rest). Show that the rock obeys the force law for a mass connected to a spring. What is the spring constant? Find the oscillation period for this motion if you assume that Moon has a mass of 7.351022 kg and a radius of 1.74106 m. Assume the moon’s density is uniform throughout its volume, and ignore the moon’s rotation. Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Imagine (in a parallel universe of unlimited budgets) that NASA digs a straight tunnel through the center of the moon (see gure). A robot place a rock in the tunnel at position r = r0 from the center of the moon, and releases it (from rest). Use Newton’s second law to write the equation of motion of the rock and solve for r(t). Explain in words the rock’s motion. Does the rock return to its initial position at any later time? If so, how long does it takes to return to it? (Give a formula, and a number.) Assume the moon’s density is uniform throughout its volume, and ignore the moon’s rotation. Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Now lets consider our (real) planet Earth, with total mass M and radius R which we will approximate as a uniform mass density, (r) = 0. (a) Neglecting rotational and frictional e ects, show that a particle dropped into a hole drilled straight through the center of the earth all the way to the far side will oscillate between the two endpoints. (Hint: you will need to set up, and solve, an ODE for the motion) (b) Find the period of the oscillation of this motion. Get a number (in minutes) as a nal result, using data for the earth’s size and mass. (How does that compare to ying to Perth and back?!) Extra Credit: OK, even with unlimited budgets, digging a tunnel through the center of the earth is preposterous. But, suppose instead that the tunnel is a straight-line \chord” through the earth, say directly from New York to Los Angeles. Show that your nal answer for the time taken does not depend on the location of that chord! This is rather remarkable – look again at the time for a free-fall trip (no energy required, except perhaps to compensate for friction) How long would that trip take? Could this work?! Back to Problem List 3 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.3 Gravitational eld above the center of a thin hoop Given: Pollock { Spring 2011, Spring 2012 Consider a very (in nitesimally!) thin but massive loop, radius R (total mass M), centered around the origin, sitting in the x-y plane. Assume it has a uniform linear mass density  (which has units of kg/m) all around it. (So, it’s like a skinny donut that is mostly hole, centered around the z-axis) (a) What is  in terms of M and R? What is the direction of the gravitational eld generated by this mass distribution at a point in space a distance z above the center of the donut, i.e. at (0; 0; z) Explain your reasoning for the direction carefully, try not to simply \wave your hands.” (The answer is extremely intuitive, but can you justify that it is correct?) (b) Compute the gravitational eld, ~g, at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating Newton’s law of gravity, summing over all in nitesimal \chunks” of mass along the loop. (c) Compute the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating ?Gdm=r, sum- ming over all in nitesimal \chunks” dm along the loop. Then, take the z-component of the gradient of this potential to check that you agree with your result from the previous part. (d) In the two separate limits z << R and z >> R, Taylor expand your g- eld (in the z-direction)out only to the rst non-zero term, and convince us that both limits make good physical sense. (e) Can you use Gauss’ law to gure out the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z)? (If so, do it and check your previous answers. If not, why not?) Extra credit: If you place a small mass a small distance z away from the center, use your Taylor limit for z << R above to write a simple ODE for the equation of motion. Solve it, and discuss the motion Back to Problem List 4 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.4 Gravitational force near a metal-cored planet surrounded by a gaseous cloud Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Jupiter is composed of a dense spherical core (of liquid metallic hydrogen!) of radius Rc. It is sur- rounded by a spherical cloud of gaseous hydrogen of radius Rg, where Rg > Rc. Let’s assume that the core is of uniform density c and the gaseous cloud is also of uniform density g. What is the gravitational force on an object of mass m that is located at a radius r from the center of Jupiter? Note that you must consider the cases where the object is inside the core, within the gas layer, and outside of the planet. Back to Problem List 5 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.5 Sphere with linearly increasing mass density Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 A planet of mass M and radius R has a nonuniform density that varies with r, the distance from the center according to  = Ar for 0  r  R. (a) What is the constant A in terms of M and R? Does this density pro le strike you as physically plausible, or is just designed as a mathematical exercise? (Brie y, explain) (b) Determine the gravitational force on a satellite of mass m orbiting this planet. In words, please outline the method you plan to use for your solution. (Use the easiest method you can come up with!) In your calculation, you will need to argue that the magnitude of ~g(r; ; ) depends only on r. Be very explicit about this – how do you know that it doesn’t, in fact, depend on  or ? (c) Determine the gravitational force felt by a rock of mass m inside the planet, located at radius r < R. (If the method you use is di erent than in part b, explain why you switched. If not, just proceed!) Explicitly check your result for this part by considering the limits r ! 0 and r ! R. Back to Problem List 6 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.6 Jumping o Vesta Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 You are stranded on the surface of the asteroid Vesta. If the mass of the asteroid is M and its radius is R, how fast would you have to jump o its surface to be able to escape from its gravitational eld? (Your estimate should be based on parameters that characterize the asteroid, not parameters that describe your jumping ability.) Given your formula, look up the approximate mass and radius of the asteroid Vesta 3 and determine a numerical value of the escape velocity. Could you escape in this way? (Brie y, explain) If so, roughly how big in radius is the maximum the asteroid could be, for you to still escape this way? If not, estimate how much smaller an asteroid you would need, to escape from it in this way? Figure 1: Back to Problem List 7 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.7 Gravitational force between two massive rods Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 Consider two identical uniform rods of length L and mass m lying along the same line and having their closest points separated by a distance d as shown in the gure (a) Calculate the mutual force between these rods, both its direction and magnitude. (b) Now do several checks. First, make sure the units worked out (!) The, nd the magnitude of the force in the limit L ! 0. What do you expect? Brie y, discuss. Lastly, nd the magnitude of the force in the limit d ! 1 ? Again, is it what you expect? Brie y, discuss. Figure 2: Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Determining the gravitational force between two rods: (a) Consider a thin, uniform rod of mass m and length L (and negligible other dimensions) lying on the x axis (from x=-L to 0), as shown in g 1a. Derive a formula for the gravitational eld \g" at any arbitrary point x to the right of the origin (but still on the x-axis!) due to this rod. (b) Now suppose a second rod of length L and mass m sits on the x axis as shown in g 1b, with the left edge a distance \d" away. Calculate the mutual gravitational force between these rods. (c) Let's do some checks! Show that the units work out in parts a and b. Find the magnitude of the force in part a, in the limit x >> L: What do you expect? Brie y, discuss! Finally, verify that your answer to part b gives what you expect in the limit d >> L. ( Hint: This is a bit harder! You need to consistently expand everything to second order, not just rst, because of some interesting cancellations) Fig 1a Fig 1b L m +x x=0 L x=0 x=d m Fig 1a Fig 1b L m +x x=0 L +x x=0 x=d L m m Back to Problem List 8 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.8 Potential energy { Check your answer! Given: Pollock { Spring 2011 On the last exam, we had a problem with a at ring, uniform mass per unit area of , inner radius of R, outer radius of 2R. A satellite (mass m) sat a distance z above the center of the ring. We asked for the gravitational potential energy, and the answer was U(z) = ?2Gm( p 4R2 + z2 ? p R2 + z2) (1) (a) If you are far from the disk (on the z axis), what do you expect for the formula for U(z)? (Don’t say \0″ – as usual, we want the functional form of U(z) as you move far away. Also, explicitly state what we mean by \far away”. (Please don’t compare something with units to something without units!) (b) Show explicitly that the formula above does indeed give precisely the functional dependence you expect. Back to Problem List 9 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.9 Ways of solving gravitational problems Given: Pollock { Spring 2011, Spring 2012 Infinite cylinder ρ=cr x z (a) Half-infinite line mass, uniform linear mass density, λ x (b) R z  P Figure 3: (a) An in nite cylinder of radius R centered on the z-axis, with non-uniform volume mass density  = cr, where r is the radius in cylindrical coordinates. (b) A half-in nite line of mass on the x-axis extending from x = 0 to x = +1, with uniform linear mass density . There are two general methods we use to solve gravitational problems (i.e. nd ~g given some distribution of mass). (a) Describe these two methods. We claim one of these methods is easiest to solve for ~g of mass distribution (a) above, and the other method is easiest to solve for ~g of the mass distribution (b) above. Which method goes with which mass distribution? Please justify your answer. (b) Find ~g of the mass distribution (a) above for any arbitrary point outside the cylinder. (c) Find the x component of the gravitational acceleration, gx, generated by the mass distribution labeled (b) above, at a point P a given distance z up the positive z-axis (as shown). Back to Problem List 10 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.10 Rod with linearly increasing mass density Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Consider a very (in nitesimally!) thin but massive rod, length L (total mass M), centered around the origin, sitting along the x-axis. (So the left end is at (-L/2, 0,0) and the right end is at (+L/2,0,0) Assume the mass density  (which has units of kg/m)is not uniform, but instead varies linearly with distance from the origin, (x) = cjxj. (a) What is that constant \c” in terms of M and L? What is the direction of the gravitational eld generated by this mass distribution at a point in space a distance z above the center of the rod, i.e. at (0; 0; z) Explain your reasoning for the direction carefully, try not to simply \wave your hands.” (The answer is extremely intuitive, but can you justify that it is correct?) (b) Compute the gravitational eld, ~g, at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating Newton’s law of gravity, summing over all in nitesimal \chunks” of mass along the rod. (c) Compute the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z) by directly integrating ?Gdm=r, sum- ming over all in nitesimal \chunks” dm along the rod. Then, take the z-component of the gradient of this potential to check that you agree with your result from the previous part. (d) In the limit of large z what do you expect for the functional form for gravitational potential? (Hint: Don’t just say it goes to zero! It’s a rod of mass M, when you’re far away what does it look like? How does it go to zero?) What does \large z” mean here? Use the binomial (or Taylor) expansion to verify that your formula does indeed give exactly what you expect. (Hint: you cannot Taylor expand in something BIG, you have to Taylor expand in something small.) (e) Can you use Gauss’ law to gure out the gravitational potential at the point (0; 0; z)? (If so, do it and check your previous answers. If not, why not?) Back to Problem List 11 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.11 Sphere with constant internal gravitational eld Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 (a) Imagine a planet of total mass M and radius R which has a nonuniform mass density that varies just with r, the distance from the center. For this (admittedly very unusual!) planet, suppose the gravitational eld strength inside the planet turns out to be independent of the radial distance within the sphere. Find the function describing the mass density  = (r) of this planet. (Your nal answer should be written in terms of the given constants.) (b) Now, determine the gravitational force on a satellite of mass m orbiting this planet at distance r > R. (Use the easiest method you can come up with!) Explain your work in words as well as formulas. For instance, in your calculation, you will need to argue that the magnitude of ~g(r; ; ) depends only on r. Be explicit about this – how do you know that it doesn’t, in fact, depend on  or ? (c) As a nal check, explicitly show that your solutions inside and outside the planet (parts a and b) are consistent when r = R. Please also comment on whether this density pro le strikes you as physically plausible, or is it just designed as a mathematical exercise? Defend your reasoning. Back to Problem List 12 5 { GRAVITATION Last Updated: July 16, 2012 5.12 Throwing a rock o the moon Given: Pollock { Spring 2012 Assuming that asteroids have roughly the same mass density as the moon, make an estimate of the largest asteroid that an astronaut could be standing on, and still have a chance of throwing a small object (with their arms, no machinery!) so that it completely escapes the asteroid’s gravitational eld. (This minimum speed is called \escape velocity”) Is the size you computed typical for asteroids in our solar system? Back to Problem List 13

Ch 2 Questions that might be on the test. If you cannot answer them, check your class notes or the textbook. 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has: a) a characteristic chemical composition, b) a highly ordered atomic structure c) specific physical properties d) all of the above 2. There are currently more than ______ known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, a) 40 b) 400 c) 4000 d) 40 000 3. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are: a) rare b) common c) valuable d) priceless 4. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as: a) gangue b) tailings c) ores d) granite 5. Electrons, which have a _____ charge, a size which is so small as to be currently unmeasurable, and which are the least massive of the three types of basic particles. a) positive b) negative c) neutral 6. Both protons and neutrons are themselves now thought to be composed of even more elementary particles called: a) quarks b) quakes c) parsons d) megans 7. In processes which change the number of protons in a nucleus, the atom becomes an atom of a different chemical: a) isotope b) compound c) element d) planet 8. Atoms which have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called: a) elements b) isotopes c) ions d) molecules 9. In the Bohr model of the atom, electrons can only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy, their distances from the nucleus being proportional to their respective energies. They can only make _____ leaps between the fixed energy levels. a) tiny b) quantum c) gradual 10. It is impossible to simultaneously derive precise values for both the position and momentum of a particle for any given point in time; this became known as the ______ principle. a) Bohr b) Einstein c) uncertainty d) quantum 11. The modern model of the atom describes the positions of electrons in an atom in terms of: a) quantum levels b) orbital paths c) probabilities d) GPS 12. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of: a) electrons b) neutrons c) ions d) photons 13. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many protons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 14. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many neutrons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 15. The relative abundance of an isotope is strongly correlated with its tendency toward nuclear _____, short-lived nuclides quickly go away, while their long-lived counterparts endure. a) fission b) fusion c) decay d) bombardment 16. The isotopic composition of elements is different on different planets. a) True b) False 17. As a general rule, the fewer electrons in an atom’s valence shell, the ____ reactive it is. Lithium, sodium, and potassium have one electron in their outer shells. a) more b) less 18. Every atom is much more stable, or less reactive, with a ____ valence shell. a) partly full b) completely full 19. A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a: a) anion b) cation c) fermion d) bation 20. Bonds vary widely in their strength. Generally covalent and ionic bonds are often described as “strong”, whereas ______ bonds are generally considered to be “weak”. a) van der Waals b) Faradays c) van Neumans 21. This bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 22. This bond results from electrostatic attraction between atoms: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 23. A sea of delocalized electrons causes this bonding: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 24. The chemical composition of minerals may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the ______ feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodiumrich albite to calcium-rich anorthite. a) plagioclase b) orthoclase c) alkaline d) acidic 25. Crystal structure is based on ____ internal atomic arrangement. a) irregular b) regular c) random d) curvilinear 26. Pyrite and marcasite are both _______, but their arrangement of atoms differs. a) iron sulfide b) lead sulfide c) copper silfide d) silver sulfide 27. The carbon atoms in ______ are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network. a) sapphire b) graphite c) aluminum d) carbonate 28. TGCFAOQTCD a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale 29. Dull to metallic, submetallic, adamantine, vitreous, pearly, resinous, or silky. a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale d) Heft scale 30. The color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on unglazed porcelain. a) color b) streak c) lustre d) iridescense 31. Describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. a) fracture b) streak c) lustre d) cleavage 32. In modern physics, the position of electrons about a nucleus are defined in terms of: a) probabilities b) circles c) ellipses d) chromodomes 33. The symbol H+ suggests a: a) hydrogen atom b) hydrogen isotope c) hydrogen cation d) hydrogen anion 34. The tabulated atomic mass of natural carbon is not exactly 12 because carbon in nature always has multiple ________ present. a) electrons b) isotopes c) quarks d) protons 35. This type of bonding due to delocalized electrons leads to malleability, ductility, and high melting points: a) covalent b) ionic c) van der Waals d) metallic 36. The mineral ___________ is 3 on Mohs Scale whereas the mineral ___________ is 9. a) calcite, corundum b) corundum, calcite c) caliche, calcite d) chalcedony, quartz 37. In hand specimens, geologists identify most minerals based on: a) physical properties b) chemical analyses c) xray diffraction 38. This type of chemical bonding is the weakest but occurs in all substances. a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) none of the above 39. Quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite: these minerals are: a) common in rocks b) occasionally found c) rare d) extremely rare 40. Characteristics of a mineral do NOT include: a) naturally occurring b) characteristic chemical formula c) crystalline d) organic e) all of the above 41. The chemical composition of a particular mineral may vary between end members. For example, the common mineral plagioclase feldspar varies from being _______-rich to being _________-rich. a) sodium, calcium b) potassium, sodium c) iron, magnesium d) carbon, oxygen 42. Sharing of electrons typifies the __________ bond whereas electrostatic attraction typifies the _______ bond. a) ionic, covalent b) ionic, triclinic c) covalent, ionic d) triclinic, covalent 43. If number of protons does not equal the number of electrons, the atom is a(n) : a) isotope b) ion c) quark d) simplex e) google 44. Atoms generally consist of: a) electrons b) protons c) neutrons d) all of the above 45. Not counting rare minerals, about how many mineral species are at least occasionally encountered in rocks? a) 20 b) 200 c) 2000 46. Carbon is atomic number 6. Carbon-13 has _______ protons and _______ neutrons. a) thirteen, six b) six, seven c) twelve, twenty-five d) twelve, twelve 47. Which of these particles are not nucleons? a) electrons b) neutrons c) protons 48. A mineral with visibly recognizable crystals is said to have good crystal habit; otherwise the mineral is said to be: a) massive b) granular c) compact d) any of the above 49. In chemical bonding, two atoms become linked by moving or sharing __________. a) neutrons b) protons c) electrons 50. The name of an element is determined by the number of ______ present in the ______ of an atom. a) electrons, nucleus b) neutrons, nucleus c) protons, nucleus d) protons, electron cloud e) neutrons, electron cloud 51. Generally ________ and ____________ bonds are strong whereas the ______________ bond is weak. a) covalent, ionic, van der Waals b) van der Waals, covalent, ionic c) ionic, van der Waals, covalent 52. Which of the following are held together by chemical bonds? a) molecules b) crystals c) diatomic gases 53. An ion with fewer electrons than protons is called an ______ and it carries a _________ electric charge. a) cation, positive b) anion, negative c) cation, negative d) anion, positive 54. Two or more minerals may have the same _________ composition but different _______ structure. These are called polymorphs. a) crystal, chemical b) chemical, crystal 55. Industrial minerals are: a) gem quality b) commercially valuable c) tailings d) worthless 56. All minerals are crystalline. If the crystals are too small to see, they can be detected by: a) x-ray diffraction b) cosmic rays c) sound waves d) odor 57. If two atomes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, the atoms are _______ of the same _________. a) elements, mineral b) atoms, isotope c) elements, isotope d) isotopes, element 58. Modern physics recognizes that electrons show both particle and ______ behavior. a) wave b) emotional c) thermal d) revolting 59. Sodium and potassium have one ______ electron in their outer shells and are extremely ________. a) valence, stable b) inverted, reactive c) valence, reactive d) contaminated, inactive 60. The luster of _______ would be described as ________. a) glass, vitreous b) diamond, dull c) pyrite, silky d) graphite, resinous 61. The minerals ________ and __________ are polymorphs of carbon. a) diamond, graphite b) calcite, silicate c) bonite, bronzite 62. In the ______ atom based on _______ physics, electrons were restricted to circular orbits of fixed energy levels. a) Bohr , quantum b) Rutherford, classical c) Bohr, classical d) Rutherford, quantum 63. Virtually all elements other than ______ and _______ were formed in stars and supernovae long after the Big Bang. a) hydrogen, helium b) carbon, phosphorus c) carbon, oxygen d) silica, carbon 64. Physicist Werner _________ developed the ___________ principle which means that it is impossible to know exactly the position and momentum of a particle. a) Heisenberg, certainty b) Heisenberg, uncertainty c) Bohr, uncertainty d) Bohr, certainty

Ch 2 Questions that might be on the test. If you cannot answer them, check your class notes or the textbook. 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has: a) a characteristic chemical composition, b) a highly ordered atomic structure c) specific physical properties d) all of the above 2. There are currently more than ______ known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, a) 40 b) 400 c) 4000 d) 40 000 3. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are: a) rare b) common c) valuable d) priceless 4. Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as: a) gangue b) tailings c) ores d) granite 5. Electrons, which have a _____ charge, a size which is so small as to be currently unmeasurable, and which are the least massive of the three types of basic particles. a) positive b) negative c) neutral 6. Both protons and neutrons are themselves now thought to be composed of even more elementary particles called: a) quarks b) quakes c) parsons d) megans 7. In processes which change the number of protons in a nucleus, the atom becomes an atom of a different chemical: a) isotope b) compound c) element d) planet 8. Atoms which have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called: a) elements b) isotopes c) ions d) molecules 9. In the Bohr model of the atom, electrons can only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy, their distances from the nucleus being proportional to their respective energies. They can only make _____ leaps between the fixed energy levels. a) tiny b) quantum c) gradual 10. It is impossible to simultaneously derive precise values for both the position and momentum of a particle for any given point in time; this became known as the ______ principle. a) Bohr b) Einstein c) uncertainty d) quantum 11. The modern model of the atom describes the positions of electrons in an atom in terms of: a) quantum levels b) orbital paths c) probabilities d) GPS 12. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of: a) electrons b) neutrons c) ions d) photons 13. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many protons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 14. In helium-3 (or 3He), how many neutrons are present? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 15. The relative abundance of an isotope is strongly correlated with its tendency toward nuclear _____, short-lived nuclides quickly go away, while their long-lived counterparts endure. a) fission b) fusion c) decay d) bombardment 16. The isotopic composition of elements is different on different planets. a) True b) False 17. As a general rule, the fewer electrons in an atom’s valence shell, the ____ reactive it is. Lithium, sodium, and potassium have one electron in their outer shells. a) more b) less 18. Every atom is much more stable, or less reactive, with a ____ valence shell. a) partly full b) completely full 19. A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a: a) anion b) cation c) fermion d) bation 20. Bonds vary widely in their strength. Generally covalent and ionic bonds are often described as “strong”, whereas ______ bonds are generally considered to be “weak”. a) van der Waals b) Faradays c) van Neumans 21. This bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 22. This bond results from electrostatic attraction between atoms: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 23. A sea of delocalized electrons causes this bonding: a) ionic b) covalent c) van der Waals d) metallic 24. The chemical composition of minerals may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the ______ feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodiumrich albite to calcium-rich anorthite. a) plagioclase b) orthoclase c) alkaline d) acidic 25. Crystal structure is based on ____ internal atomic arrangement. a) irregular b) regular c) random d) curvilinear 26. Pyrite and marcasite are both _______, but their arrangement of atoms differs. a) iron sulfide b) lead sulfide c) copper silfide d) silver sulfide 27. The carbon atoms in ______ are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network. a) sapphire b) graphite c) aluminum d) carbonate 28. TGCFAOQTCD a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale 29. Dull to metallic, submetallic, adamantine, vitreous, pearly, resinous, or silky. a) Crystal habit b) Hardness scale c) Luster scale d) Heft scale 30. The color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on unglazed porcelain. a) color b) streak c) lustre d) iridescense 31. Describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes. a) fracture b) streak c) lustre d) cleavage 32. In modern physics, the position of electrons about a nucleus are defined in terms of: a) probabilities b) circles c) ellipses d) chromodomes 33. The symbol H+ suggests a: a) hydrogen atom b) hydrogen isotope c) hydrogen cation d) hydrogen anion 34. The tabulated atomic mass of natural carbon is not exactly 12 because carbon in nature always has multiple ________ present. a) electrons b) isotopes c) quarks d) protons 35. This type of bonding due to delocalized electrons leads to malleability, ductility, and high melting points: a) covalent b) ionic c) van der Waals d) metallic 36. The mineral ___________ is 3 on Mohs Scale whereas the mineral ___________ is 9. a) calcite, corundum b) corundum, calcite c) caliche, calcite d) chalcedony, quartz 37. In hand specimens, geologists identify most minerals based on: a) physical properties b) chemical analyses c) xray diffraction 38. This type of chemical bonding is the weakest but occurs in all substances. a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) none of the above 39. Quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite: these minerals are: a) common in rocks b) occasionally found c) rare d) extremely rare 40. Characteristics of a mineral do NOT include: a) naturally occurring b) characteristic chemical formula c) crystalline d) organic e) all of the above 41. The chemical composition of a particular mineral may vary between end members. For example, the common mineral plagioclase feldspar varies from being _______-rich to being _________-rich. a) sodium, calcium b) potassium, sodium c) iron, magnesium d) carbon, oxygen 42. Sharing of electrons typifies the __________ bond whereas electrostatic attraction typifies the _______ bond. a) ionic, covalent b) ionic, triclinic c) covalent, ionic d) triclinic, covalent 43. If number of protons does not equal the number of electrons, the atom is a(n) : a) isotope b) ion c) quark d) simplex e) google 44. Atoms generally consist of: a) electrons b) protons c) neutrons d) all of the above 45. Not counting rare minerals, about how many mineral species are at least occasionally encountered in rocks? a) 20 b) 200 c) 2000 46. Carbon is atomic number 6. Carbon-13 has _______ protons and _______ neutrons. a) thirteen, six b) six, seven c) twelve, twenty-five d) twelve, twelve 47. Which of these particles are not nucleons? a) electrons b) neutrons c) protons 48. A mineral with visibly recognizable crystals is said to have good crystal habit; otherwise the mineral is said to be: a) massive b) granular c) compact d) any of the above 49. In chemical bonding, two atoms become linked by moving or sharing __________. a) neutrons b) protons c) electrons 50. The name of an element is determined by the number of ______ present in the ______ of an atom. a) electrons, nucleus b) neutrons, nucleus c) protons, nucleus d) protons, electron cloud e) neutrons, electron cloud 51. Generally ________ and ____________ bonds are strong whereas the ______________ bond is weak. a) covalent, ionic, van der Waals b) van der Waals, covalent, ionic c) ionic, van der Waals, covalent 52. Which of the following are held together by chemical bonds? a) molecules b) crystals c) diatomic gases 53. An ion with fewer electrons than protons is called an ______ and it carries a _________ electric charge. a) cation, positive b) anion, negative c) cation, negative d) anion, positive 54. Two or more minerals may have the same _________ composition but different _______ structure. These are called polymorphs. a) crystal, chemical b) chemical, crystal 55. Industrial minerals are: a) gem quality b) commercially valuable c) tailings d) worthless 56. All minerals are crystalline. If the crystals are too small to see, they can be detected by: a) x-ray diffraction b) cosmic rays c) sound waves d) odor 57. If two atomes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, the atoms are _______ of the same _________. a) elements, mineral b) atoms, isotope c) elements, isotope d) isotopes, element 58. Modern physics recognizes that electrons show both particle and ______ behavior. a) wave b) emotional c) thermal d) revolting 59. Sodium and potassium have one ______ electron in their outer shells and are extremely ________. a) valence, stable b) inverted, reactive c) valence, reactive d) contaminated, inactive 60. The luster of _______ would be described as ________. a) glass, vitreous b) diamond, dull c) pyrite, silky d) graphite, resinous 61. The minerals ________ and __________ are polymorphs of carbon. a) diamond, graphite b) calcite, silicate c) bonite, bronzite 62. In the ______ atom based on _______ physics, electrons were restricted to circular orbits of fixed energy levels. a) Bohr , quantum b) Rutherford, classical c) Bohr, classical d) Rutherford, quantum 63. Virtually all elements other than ______ and _______ were formed in stars and supernovae long after the Big Bang. a) hydrogen, helium b) carbon, phosphorus c) carbon, oxygen d) silica, carbon 64. Physicist Werner _________ developed the ___________ principle which means that it is impossible to know exactly the position and momentum of a particle. a) Heisenberg, certainty b) Heisenberg, uncertainty c) Bohr, uncertainty d) Bohr, certainty

info@checkyourstudy.com
Question 2 0 / 1 point The formation of our solar system began when electrons settled into orbit around hydrogen nuclei water condensed into an icy body a shock wave from a nearby exploding star started a cloud of dust and gas spinning all matter and energy exploded from a tiny singularity in the big bang

Question 2 0 / 1 point The formation of our solar system began when electrons settled into orbit around hydrogen nuclei water condensed into an icy body a shock wave from a nearby exploding star started a cloud of dust and gas spinning all matter and energy exploded from a tiny singularity in the big bang

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

info@checkyourstudy.com
Engineering/Science and Public Policy Paper NOTE: This assignment is an individual Assignment. You could discuss with peers but your submission must reflect your opinions and be completed on your own words. As an engineer/scientist, public policies will directly impact virtually every issue of your professional life: design and construction, public safety, environmental quality, materials application – just to name a few. Appreciating the importance of this process will be a key factor to your success as an engineer/scientist. The purpose of this activity is to provide you with a better understanding of: • Public policy processes that impact engineers/scientist as they practice their profession • State and federal agencies and other legal authorities with jurisdiction over engineering/science matters • The role of engineers/scientist in creating technical solutions that benefit citizens and the environment. Assignment For one of the following four contemporary issues, do the following: a) Identify federal and state agencies / legal authority b) Discuss the engineering/scientific response c) Research codes & standards that are applicable or organizations that should oversee them d) Expand on the societal impact: cost vs. benefit Contemporary Issues for Assignment 1. Policy on Federal Reserve Bank’s Prime Interest Rate and Its Impact on Global Economy 2. Policy on Oil Price vs. Shale Gas/Oil and Its Impact on U.S. and Global Economy 3. Policy on Privacy/Security of Cloud Computing Systems and Its Impact 4. Policy on Biodiesel and Trends: Past, Present, and Future Guidelines a) The document should be in single space format. b) The minimum length is 500 words and the maximum length is 1000 words. c) List of references should be included in a separate page. Appropriate citations must appear in the body of the main document.

Engineering/Science and Public Policy Paper NOTE: This assignment is an individual Assignment. You could discuss with peers but your submission must reflect your opinions and be completed on your own words. As an engineer/scientist, public policies will directly impact virtually every issue of your professional life: design and construction, public safety, environmental quality, materials application – just to name a few. Appreciating the importance of this process will be a key factor to your success as an engineer/scientist. The purpose of this activity is to provide you with a better understanding of: • Public policy processes that impact engineers/scientist as they practice their profession • State and federal agencies and other legal authorities with jurisdiction over engineering/science matters • The role of engineers/scientist in creating technical solutions that benefit citizens and the environment. Assignment For one of the following four contemporary issues, do the following: a) Identify federal and state agencies / legal authority b) Discuss the engineering/scientific response c) Research codes & standards that are applicable or organizations that should oversee them d) Expand on the societal impact: cost vs. benefit Contemporary Issues for Assignment 1. Policy on Federal Reserve Bank’s Prime Interest Rate and Its Impact on Global Economy 2. Policy on Oil Price vs. Shale Gas/Oil and Its Impact on U.S. and Global Economy 3. Policy on Privacy/Security of Cloud Computing Systems and Its Impact 4. Policy on Biodiesel and Trends: Past, Present, and Future Guidelines a) The document should be in single space format. b) The minimum length is 500 words and the maximum length is 1000 words. c) List of references should be included in a separate page. Appropriate citations must appear in the body of the main document.

info@checkyourstudy.com Whatsapp +919911743277
Cloud is becoming an attractive media to host Parallel and Distributed Simulation (PADS) applications. In the cloud, all processors and cores are virtual; that is , you can request having large number of processors for your application, but all are VMs. a. Describe how do you want to see the VMs: as shared or distributed memory? b. Discuss the pros and cons of your choice?

Cloud is becoming an attractive media to host Parallel and Distributed Simulation (PADS) applications. In the cloud, all processors and cores are virtual; that is , you can request having large number of processors for your application, but all are VMs. a. Describe how do you want to see the VMs: as shared or distributed memory? b. Discuss the pros and cons of your choice?

Cloud is becoming an attractive media to host Parallel and … Read More...