Critical Thinking: Comprehensive Sexual Education versus Abstinence-Only The Bush Administration spent over 175 million dollars annually on abstinence-only sex education programs. These programs could only discuss the failure rates of other methods, nothing more (Ott and Santelli, 2007). Comprehensive programs educate students on a range of contraceptive options – including abstinence. Two separate studies now indicate that comprehensive programs delay the start of sexual activity and cut teen pregnancy when compared to abstinence-only education programs (Ott and Santelli, 2007; Center for the Advancement of Health, 2008).

Critical Thinking: Comprehensive Sexual Education versus Abstinence-Only The Bush Administration spent over 175 million dollars annually on abstinence-only sex education programs. These programs could only discuss the failure rates of other methods, nothing more (Ott and Santelli, 2007). Comprehensive programs educate students on a range of contraceptive options – including abstinence. Two separate studies now indicate that comprehensive programs delay the start of sexual activity and cut teen pregnancy when compared to abstinence-only education programs (Ott and Santelli, 2007; Center for the Advancement of Health, 2008).

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Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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Critical Thinking: Comprehensive Sexual Education versus Abstinence-Only The Bush Administration spent over 175 million dollars annually on abstinence-only sex education programs. These programs could only discuss the failure rates of other methods, nothing more (Ott and Santelli, 2007). Comprehensive programs educate students on a range of contraceptive options – including abstinence. Two separate studies now indicate that comprehensive programs delay the start of sexual activity and cut teen pregnancy when compared to abstinence-only education programs (Ott and Santelli, 2007; Center for the Advancement of Health, 2008). Research this topic and use the newly learned information to support your opinions. Use reliable scientific resources such as scientific research-based articles; or relevant web sites such as .gov, .edu, .org. When looking at the issues surrounding sex education, you can consider ethical arguments for or against how society should deal with the possibilities, but refrain from religious comments on this issue (or any other one) in this science course. When using ideas from a web site or the text book, you must include page numbers in the citation for your reference at the end of your post. In ~ 300 to 350 words, answer the following questions: 1. What program should school children be taught? 2. Why?

Critical Thinking: Comprehensive Sexual Education versus Abstinence-Only The Bush Administration spent over 175 million dollars annually on abstinence-only sex education programs. These programs could only discuss the failure rates of other methods, nothing more (Ott and Santelli, 2007). Comprehensive programs educate students on a range of contraceptive options – including abstinence. Two separate studies now indicate that comprehensive programs delay the start of sexual activity and cut teen pregnancy when compared to abstinence-only education programs (Ott and Santelli, 2007; Center for the Advancement of Health, 2008). Research this topic and use the newly learned information to support your opinions. Use reliable scientific resources such as scientific research-based articles; or relevant web sites such as .gov, .edu, .org. When looking at the issues surrounding sex education, you can consider ethical arguments for or against how society should deal with the possibilities, but refrain from religious comments on this issue (or any other one) in this science course. When using ideas from a web site or the text book, you must include page numbers in the citation for your reference at the end of your post. In ~ 300 to 350 words, answer the following questions: 1. What program should school children be taught? 2. Why?

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http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and … Read More...
Question 1 1. When males reach puberty, _________ increases their muscle mass and skeletal development. A. prolactin B. protein C. androgen D. adipose tissue E. estrogen 3 points Question 2 1. Which of the following is the only 100percent effective method of fertility control and STI protection? A. Abstinence B. Condoms and spermicide together C. Condoms and a hormonal contraceptive together D. Oral contraceptives E. Condoms 3 points Question 3 1. The efficacy rate for implants is less than ________ pregnancy per 100 users per year. A. 1 B. 10 C. 11 D. 17 E. 4 3 points Question 4 1. Over-the-counter medications are ________ A. sold legally without a prescription. B. safe for pregnant women to use. C. sold illegally without a prescription. D. the safest drugs for self-medication purposes. E. harmful even when approved by the pregnant women’s physician. 3 points Question 5 1. The ________ activates the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system through messages sent via nerves or substances released into the bloodstream. A. cerebral cortex B. pons C. thalamus D. subcortex E. hypothalamus 3 points Question 6 1. Ovulation methods center around ______ A. a female’s basal body temperature. B. a female’s cervical secretions. C. a female tracking her menstrual cycle by using a calendar. D. A and B. E. A and C. 3 points Question 7 1. Emergency contraception ______ A. can be used as a regular contraception method. B. provides protection against STDs. C. is the only method available if unprotected intercourse has occurred when fertility is likely. D. is significantly more effective than other contraceptive methods. E. All of the above 3 points Question 8 1. Although a simultaneous orgasm between sexual partners is an exciting event, it _______ A. is a relatively uncommon event and can actually detract from the coital experience if one is preoccupied by sharing this experience. B. is common and should be a priority as far as coitus is concerned. C. is of no particular importance. D. is immensely overrated. E. None of the above 3 points Question 9 1. Cervical caps are similar to ________, but the cervical cap is smaller. A. IUDs B. diaphragms C. Norplant D. oral contraceptives E. Depo-Provera 3 points Question 10 1. Which of the following increases the risk of having a low-birth-weight baby? A. The mother does not eat well during pregnancy. B. The mother does not take care of herself. C. The mother does not receive comprehensive prenatal care. D. The mother smokes. E. All of the above 3 points Question 11 1. An advantage to using IUDs and IUSs is that they ______ A. remain in place, so planning before sexual intercourse is unnecessary. B. have a high level of effectiveness. C. allow fertility to return immediately after they are removed. D. can remain in place during a woman’s period. E. all of the above 3 points Question 12 1. Contraception is the means of preventing _______ from occurring during sexual intercourse. A. conception B. pain C. infertility D. STDs E. pleasure 3 points Question 13 1. ________ is the contraceptive method of removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. A. Abstinence B. Sterilization C. Avoidance D. Withdrawal E. Monogamy 3 points Question 14 1. Compared to men, women employed full time __________ A. spend fewer hours on household tasks. B. work more hours in the workplace. C. work a proportionate number of hours on household tasks. D. spend more hours on household tasks. E. work fewer hours in the workplace. 3 points Question 15 1. At ________, the female central nervous system (CNS) is typically more advanced than the male CNS. A. birth B. conception C. adolescence D. adulthood E. puberty 3 points Question 16 1. Females sometimes experience a sexual response cycle similar to that of males, EXCEPT A. when they are menstruating. B. they can have multiple orgasms without a refractory period. C. they can have multiple orgasms with a refractory period. D. the resolution phase is shorter in duration than in males. E. they generally move from excitement to plateau and then to orgasm. 3 points Question 17 1. Fertilization normally takes place in the ________ A. ovary. B. cervix. C. vagina. D. uterus. E. fallopian tubes. 3 points Question 18 1. ________ come in the form of foam, gels, films, suppositories, creams, sponges, and tablets. A. Condoms B. Diaphragms C. Spermicides D. IUDs E. Sterilization agents 3 points Question 19 1. The three major settings in the United States where labor and delivery occur are ________ A. the hospital, health-care clinics, and the home. B. the home, the hospital, and the birthing room. C. free-standing birth centers, the home, and health-care clinics. D. the hospital, the home, and free-standing birth centers. E. the birthing room, the hospital, and free-standing birth centers. 3 points Question 20 1. Mode, a fashion magazine, _______ A. was developed for women who wear normal and large sizes. B. was developed for women who wear over a size 16. C. shows only pictures of clothing, with no models. D. was sued by a group of women who claimed the magazine contributed to their bouts with eating disorders. E. none of the above 3 points Question 21 1. All of the following are advantages to breastfeeding EXCEPT that: A. over-the-counter medications do not affect breast milk. B. babies are less likely to contract respiratory infection. C. mothers’ milk provides antibodies against disease. D. encourages bonding of infant and mother. E. breast milk is cheaper than formula. 3 points Question 22 1. Kaplan’s Triphasic Model consists of the A. excitement, plateau, and resolution phases. B. desire, plateau, and orgasm phases. C. plateau, orgasm, and resolution phases. D. desire, excitement, and resolution phases. E. desire, excitement, and orgasm phases. 3 points Question 23 1. The unique component of Kaplan’s triphasic model is the ______phase—a psychological, prephysical sexual response stage. A. excitement B. desire C. resolution D. plateau E. None of the above 3 points Question 24 1. Together, the ________ and the ______ form the lifeline between the mother and the fetus. A. placenta, cervix B. cervix, uterus C. umbilical cord, vagina D. fallopiantubes, vagina E. placenta, umbilical cord 3 points Question 25 1. When an employee switches genders, which of the following is a difficult issue that employers may face? A. How clients might react B. How others will handle a transitioning employee using the restroom C. How an employee informs coworkers about switching genders D. All of the above E. None of the above 3 points Question 26 1. In men, sex flush occurs during the ________ phase, whereas in women it occurs during the ________ phase. A. refractory, excitement B. excitement, resolution C. excitement, plateau D. plateau, excitement E. plateau, resolution 3 points Question 27 1. The process that results in vaginal lubrication during the excitement phase is: A. myotonia. B. uterine orgasm. C. orgasmic platform. D. transudation. E. tachycardia. 3 points Question 28 1. The ________ is the waxy protective substance that coats the fetus. A. amniotic sac B. amniocentesis C. amniotic fluid D. vernixcaseosa. E. chorionic fluid 3 points Question 29 1. ________ adolescent females seem to be happier with their bodies and less likely to diet than ________ adolescent females. A. Hispanic, European Americans B. Asian American; African American C. African American, European American D. European American, Hispanic 3 points Question 30 1. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) and intrauterine systems (IUSs) are ______ methods of contraception. A. not B. permanent C. effective D. reversible E. both c and d 3 points Question 31 1. In early adolescence, girls outperform boys at which of the following types of tasks? A. Visual-spatial B. Math C. Physical D. Language and verbal E. None of the above 3 points Question 32 1. Which of the following are common signs that a person may have an eating disorder? A. The person wears tight clothes to show off his or her “new” body. B. A female may quit menstruating C. Excessive exercise D. B and C E. A and C 3 points Question 33 1. The ________ is the valve that prevents urine from entering the urethra and sperm from entering the bladder during ejaculation. A. orgasmic platform B. vasocongestive valve C. sex flush D. internal urethral sphincter E. None of the above 3 points Question 34 1. Which of the following statements reflect gender bias? A. Boys in school will “act out.” B. Girls in school will be docile. C. Girls are neat. D. All of the above. E. None of the above 3 points Question 35 1. The calendar method and ovulation methods are examples of ______ A. natural planning. B. fertility awareness methods. C. natural family planning. D. fertility planning. E. both B and C 3 points Question 36 1. Dieting during pregnancy can be harmful because the breakdown of fat produces toxic substances called ______ A. fibers. B. pheromones. C. ketones. D. monosaccharides. E. hormones. 3 points Question 37 1. Oral contraceptives _____ A. suppress ovulation. B. mimic the changes that occur in pregnancy. C. can be taken by both males and females. D. A and B E. A and C 3 points Question 38 1. According to Fisher (2001), men usually _______, whereas women ________. A. cut straight to the point, see issues as a part of a larger whole B. discuss their feelings, are more stoic C. mull things over, tend to speak their mind D. waiver while making decisions, mull things over E. None of the above 3 points Question 39 1. The increase in heart rate that occurs during sexual activity is known as _______ A. hyperventilation. B. vasocongestion. C. myotonia. D. tachycardia. E. sex flush. 3 points Question 40 1. Women earned about _________ of all college degrees in 2008. A. 10% B. 35% C. 57% D. 85% E. None of the above

Question 1 1. When males reach puberty, _________ increases their muscle mass and skeletal development. A. prolactin B. protein C. androgen D. adipose tissue E. estrogen 3 points Question 2 1. Which of the following is the only 100percent effective method of fertility control and STI protection? A. Abstinence B. Condoms and spermicide together C. Condoms and a hormonal contraceptive together D. Oral contraceptives E. Condoms 3 points Question 3 1. The efficacy rate for implants is less than ________ pregnancy per 100 users per year. A. 1 B. 10 C. 11 D. 17 E. 4 3 points Question 4 1. Over-the-counter medications are ________ A. sold legally without a prescription. B. safe for pregnant women to use. C. sold illegally without a prescription. D. the safest drugs for self-medication purposes. E. harmful even when approved by the pregnant women’s physician. 3 points Question 5 1. The ________ activates the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system through messages sent via nerves or substances released into the bloodstream. A. cerebral cortex B. pons C. thalamus D. subcortex E. hypothalamus 3 points Question 6 1. Ovulation methods center around ______ A. a female’s basal body temperature. B. a female’s cervical secretions. C. a female tracking her menstrual cycle by using a calendar. D. A and B. E. A and C. 3 points Question 7 1. Emergency contraception ______ A. can be used as a regular contraception method. B. provides protection against STDs. C. is the only method available if unprotected intercourse has occurred when fertility is likely. D. is significantly more effective than other contraceptive methods. E. All of the above 3 points Question 8 1. Although a simultaneous orgasm between sexual partners is an exciting event, it _______ A. is a relatively uncommon event and can actually detract from the coital experience if one is preoccupied by sharing this experience. B. is common and should be a priority as far as coitus is concerned. C. is of no particular importance. D. is immensely overrated. E. None of the above 3 points Question 9 1. Cervical caps are similar to ________, but the cervical cap is smaller. A. IUDs B. diaphragms C. Norplant D. oral contraceptives E. Depo-Provera 3 points Question 10 1. Which of the following increases the risk of having a low-birth-weight baby? A. The mother does not eat well during pregnancy. B. The mother does not take care of herself. C. The mother does not receive comprehensive prenatal care. D. The mother smokes. E. All of the above 3 points Question 11 1. An advantage to using IUDs and IUSs is that they ______ A. remain in place, so planning before sexual intercourse is unnecessary. B. have a high level of effectiveness. C. allow fertility to return immediately after they are removed. D. can remain in place during a woman’s period. E. all of the above 3 points Question 12 1. Contraception is the means of preventing _______ from occurring during sexual intercourse. A. conception B. pain C. infertility D. STDs E. pleasure 3 points Question 13 1. ________ is the contraceptive method of removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. A. Abstinence B. Sterilization C. Avoidance D. Withdrawal E. Monogamy 3 points Question 14 1. Compared to men, women employed full time __________ A. spend fewer hours on household tasks. B. work more hours in the workplace. C. work a proportionate number of hours on household tasks. D. spend more hours on household tasks. E. work fewer hours in the workplace. 3 points Question 15 1. At ________, the female central nervous system (CNS) is typically more advanced than the male CNS. A. birth B. conception C. adolescence D. adulthood E. puberty 3 points Question 16 1. Females sometimes experience a sexual response cycle similar to that of males, EXCEPT A. when they are menstruating. B. they can have multiple orgasms without a refractory period. C. they can have multiple orgasms with a refractory period. D. the resolution phase is shorter in duration than in males. E. they generally move from excitement to plateau and then to orgasm. 3 points Question 17 1. Fertilization normally takes place in the ________ A. ovary. B. cervix. C. vagina. D. uterus. E. fallopian tubes. 3 points Question 18 1. ________ come in the form of foam, gels, films, suppositories, creams, sponges, and tablets. A. Condoms B. Diaphragms C. Spermicides D. IUDs E. Sterilization agents 3 points Question 19 1. The three major settings in the United States where labor and delivery occur are ________ A. the hospital, health-care clinics, and the home. B. the home, the hospital, and the birthing room. C. free-standing birth centers, the home, and health-care clinics. D. the hospital, the home, and free-standing birth centers. E. the birthing room, the hospital, and free-standing birth centers. 3 points Question 20 1. Mode, a fashion magazine, _______ A. was developed for women who wear normal and large sizes. B. was developed for women who wear over a size 16. C. shows only pictures of clothing, with no models. D. was sued by a group of women who claimed the magazine contributed to their bouts with eating disorders. E. none of the above 3 points Question 21 1. All of the following are advantages to breastfeeding EXCEPT that: A. over-the-counter medications do not affect breast milk. B. babies are less likely to contract respiratory infection. C. mothers’ milk provides antibodies against disease. D. encourages bonding of infant and mother. E. breast milk is cheaper than formula. 3 points Question 22 1. Kaplan’s Triphasic Model consists of the A. excitement, plateau, and resolution phases. B. desire, plateau, and orgasm phases. C. plateau, orgasm, and resolution phases. D. desire, excitement, and resolution phases. E. desire, excitement, and orgasm phases. 3 points Question 23 1. The unique component of Kaplan’s triphasic model is the ______phase—a psychological, prephysical sexual response stage. A. excitement B. desire C. resolution D. plateau E. None of the above 3 points Question 24 1. Together, the ________ and the ______ form the lifeline between the mother and the fetus. A. placenta, cervix B. cervix, uterus C. umbilical cord, vagina D. fallopiantubes, vagina E. placenta, umbilical cord 3 points Question 25 1. When an employee switches genders, which of the following is a difficult issue that employers may face? A. How clients might react B. How others will handle a transitioning employee using the restroom C. How an employee informs coworkers about switching genders D. All of the above E. None of the above 3 points Question 26 1. In men, sex flush occurs during the ________ phase, whereas in women it occurs during the ________ phase. A. refractory, excitement B. excitement, resolution C. excitement, plateau D. plateau, excitement E. plateau, resolution 3 points Question 27 1. The process that results in vaginal lubrication during the excitement phase is: A. myotonia. B. uterine orgasm. C. orgasmic platform. D. transudation. E. tachycardia. 3 points Question 28 1. The ________ is the waxy protective substance that coats the fetus. A. amniotic sac B. amniocentesis C. amniotic fluid D. vernixcaseosa. E. chorionic fluid 3 points Question 29 1. ________ adolescent females seem to be happier with their bodies and less likely to diet than ________ adolescent females. A. Hispanic, European Americans B. Asian American; African American C. African American, European American D. European American, Hispanic 3 points Question 30 1. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) and intrauterine systems (IUSs) are ______ methods of contraception. A. not B. permanent C. effective D. reversible E. both c and d 3 points Question 31 1. In early adolescence, girls outperform boys at which of the following types of tasks? A. Visual-spatial B. Math C. Physical D. Language and verbal E. None of the above 3 points Question 32 1. Which of the following are common signs that a person may have an eating disorder? A. The person wears tight clothes to show off his or her “new” body. B. A female may quit menstruating C. Excessive exercise D. B and C E. A and C 3 points Question 33 1. The ________ is the valve that prevents urine from entering the urethra and sperm from entering the bladder during ejaculation. A. orgasmic platform B. vasocongestive valve C. sex flush D. internal urethral sphincter E. None of the above 3 points Question 34 1. Which of the following statements reflect gender bias? A. Boys in school will “act out.” B. Girls in school will be docile. C. Girls are neat. D. All of the above. E. None of the above 3 points Question 35 1. The calendar method and ovulation methods are examples of ______ A. natural planning. B. fertility awareness methods. C. natural family planning. D. fertility planning. E. both B and C 3 points Question 36 1. Dieting during pregnancy can be harmful because the breakdown of fat produces toxic substances called ______ A. fibers. B. pheromones. C. ketones. D. monosaccharides. E. hormones. 3 points Question 37 1. Oral contraceptives _____ A. suppress ovulation. B. mimic the changes that occur in pregnancy. C. can be taken by both males and females. D. A and B E. A and C 3 points Question 38 1. According to Fisher (2001), men usually _______, whereas women ________. A. cut straight to the point, see issues as a part of a larger whole B. discuss their feelings, are more stoic C. mull things over, tend to speak their mind D. waiver while making decisions, mull things over E. None of the above 3 points Question 39 1. The increase in heart rate that occurs during sexual activity is known as _______ A. hyperventilation. B. vasocongestion. C. myotonia. D. tachycardia. E. sex flush. 3 points Question 40 1. Women earned about _________ of all college degrees in 2008. A. 10% B. 35% C. 57% D. 85% E. None of the above

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1. According to Ryan & Siebens (2012) __________ of adults 25 years old completed at least a high school degree and more than __________ of all adults had attained at least a bachelor’s degree. A.50.2%; 15.5%. B.70.3%; 18.4%. C.C) 85.3%; 27.9%. D.78.4%; 20.7%. 2. Which of the following was not identified as a manifest function of the social institution of education? A.personal development. B.educate. C.proper socialization. D.supervision. 3. Which of the following sociological perspectives is/are concerned that schools often indoctrinate students in the U.S. in Western bureaucratic ideology? A.Functionalism. B.Interactionism. C.Conflict. D.Conflict and Interactionism. 4. The sociological concept of “definition of the situation” was developed by: A.W.I. Thomas and Dorothy Swaine Thomas. B.W.I. Thomas. C.Rosabeth Moss Kanter. D.R. S. Smith. 5. According to the research of Myra and David Sadker (1994): A.boys receive less praise, corrections, and feedback than girls in school. B.girls receive less attention than boys in school. C.boys receive less attention than girls in school. D.girls and boys receive about the same amount of attention, praise, correction, and feedback in school. 6. The number of elderly Americans in the workforce has decreased over the last decade. True False 7. According to the author, the current call for educational reform was initiated during the __________ administration. A.Clinton. B.Reagan. C.Bush. D.Nixon. 8. The No Child Left Behind Act was passed during the __________ administration. A.Bush. B.Clinton. C.Reagan. D.Ford. 9. While the U.S. spends __________ on education than other high-income countries, our literacy scores are __________ in a world comparison. A.less; above average. B.less; average. C.more; average. D.more; below average. 10. According to the textbook, which of the following countries did not score higher than the U.S. on literacy scores? A.Sweden. B.Japan. C.Canada. D.Norway. 11. The U.S. Bureau of Statistics reported a __________ unemployment rate in December 2009. A.18. 2 million B.7.1 million C.12.7 million. D.18.4 million 12. Frances is working at a job that is below her skill level. Frances can be considered to be __________. A.unemployed. B.underemployed. C.not in the workforce. D.disemployed. 13. Persons who are __________ and __________ have high underemployment rates compared to those outside their groups. A.female; college educated. B.elderly; non-college educated. C.college educated; young. D.young; ethnic/racial minorities. 14. According to the 1993 report cited in your textbook, which of the following groups had the highest rates of labor force nonparticipation? A.blacks and Puerto Ricans. B.blacks and Native-Americans. C.Asians and blacks. D.Asians and Puerto Ricans. 15. Which of the following countries is expected to be the recipient of the largest number of outsourced jobs from the United States? A.Canada. B.India. C.China. D.Brazil. 16. Low-wage workers are characterized as: A.minority. B.female. C.disabled. D.both a and b are correct. 17. __________ defines job stress as the harmful emotional or physical responses that occurs when one’s job characteristics do not match with the capabilities, resources, or needs or the worker. A.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. B.Department of Commerce. C.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. D.Department of Health and Human Services. 18. Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment discrimination based on __________ is prohibited. A.religion and sexual orientation. B.sex. C.national origin and disability. D.both b and c are correct. 19. While laws were created to stop workplace discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, and national origin in 1964, the

1. According to Ryan & Siebens (2012) __________ of adults 25 years old completed at least a high school degree and more than __________ of all adults had attained at least a bachelor’s degree. A.50.2%; 15.5%. B.70.3%; 18.4%. C.C) 85.3%; 27.9%. D.78.4%; 20.7%. 2. Which of the following was not identified as a manifest function of the social institution of education? A.personal development. B.educate. C.proper socialization. D.supervision. 3. Which of the following sociological perspectives is/are concerned that schools often indoctrinate students in the U.S. in Western bureaucratic ideology? A.Functionalism. B.Interactionism. C.Conflict. D.Conflict and Interactionism. 4. The sociological concept of “definition of the situation” was developed by: A.W.I. Thomas and Dorothy Swaine Thomas. B.W.I. Thomas. C.Rosabeth Moss Kanter. D.R. S. Smith. 5. According to the research of Myra and David Sadker (1994): A.boys receive less praise, corrections, and feedback than girls in school. B.girls receive less attention than boys in school. C.boys receive less attention than girls in school. D.girls and boys receive about the same amount of attention, praise, correction, and feedback in school. 6. The number of elderly Americans in the workforce has decreased over the last decade. True False 7. According to the author, the current call for educational reform was initiated during the __________ administration. A.Clinton. B.Reagan. C.Bush. D.Nixon. 8. The No Child Left Behind Act was passed during the __________ administration. A.Bush. B.Clinton. C.Reagan. D.Ford. 9. While the U.S. spends __________ on education than other high-income countries, our literacy scores are __________ in a world comparison. A.less; above average. B.less; average. C.more; average. D.more; below average. 10. According to the textbook, which of the following countries did not score higher than the U.S. on literacy scores? A.Sweden. B.Japan. C.Canada. D.Norway. 11. The U.S. Bureau of Statistics reported a __________ unemployment rate in December 2009. A.18. 2 million B.7.1 million C.12.7 million. D.18.4 million 12. Frances is working at a job that is below her skill level. Frances can be considered to be __________. A.unemployed. B.underemployed. C.not in the workforce. D.disemployed. 13. Persons who are __________ and __________ have high underemployment rates compared to those outside their groups. A.female; college educated. B.elderly; non-college educated. C.college educated; young. D.young; ethnic/racial minorities. 14. According to the 1993 report cited in your textbook, which of the following groups had the highest rates of labor force nonparticipation? A.blacks and Puerto Ricans. B.blacks and Native-Americans. C.Asians and blacks. D.Asians and Puerto Ricans. 15. Which of the following countries is expected to be the recipient of the largest number of outsourced jobs from the United States? A.Canada. B.India. C.China. D.Brazil. 16. Low-wage workers are characterized as: A.minority. B.female. C.disabled. D.both a and b are correct. 17. __________ defines job stress as the harmful emotional or physical responses that occurs when one’s job characteristics do not match with the capabilities, resources, or needs or the worker. A.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. B.Department of Commerce. C.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. D.Department of Health and Human Services. 18. Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment discrimination based on __________ is prohibited. A.religion and sexual orientation. B.sex. C.national origin and disability. D.both b and c are correct. 19. While laws were created to stop workplace discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, and national origin in 1964, the

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Consider the cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, (1) where a, b, c, and d are real input coefficients. Develop a matlab program to find all roots of equation (1) using the methods discussed in the Numerical Analysis class. Your program can not use the matlab built-in functions fzero and roots. You should turn in a .m file cubic24903674.m which contains a matlab function of the form function [rts,info] = cubic24903674(C) where, C = (a, b, c, d) is the input vector of coefficients, rts is the vector of roots and info is your output message. Your program will be stress-tested against cubic equations that may have: 1. (40 points) random roots; or 2. (20 points) very large or very small roots; or 3. (20 points) multiple roots or nearly multiple roots; or 4. (20 points) less than 3 roots or more than 3 roots. You will receive credit for a test polynomial only if your program gets the number of roots correctly, and only then will each correct root (accurate to within a relative error of at most 10^(−6) , as compared to the roots function in matlab) receive additional credit. Your program will receive 0 points if the strings fzero or roots (both in lower case letters) show up anywhere in your .m file.

Consider the cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, (1) where a, b, c, and d are real input coefficients. Develop a matlab program to find all roots of equation (1) using the methods discussed in the Numerical Analysis class. Your program can not use the matlab built-in functions fzero and roots. You should turn in a .m file cubic24903674.m which contains a matlab function of the form function [rts,info] = cubic24903674(C) where, C = (a, b, c, d) is the input vector of coefficients, rts is the vector of roots and info is your output message. Your program will be stress-tested against cubic equations that may have: 1. (40 points) random roots; or 2. (20 points) very large or very small roots; or 3. (20 points) multiple roots or nearly multiple roots; or 4. (20 points) less than 3 roots or more than 3 roots. You will receive credit for a test polynomial only if your program gets the number of roots correctly, and only then will each correct root (accurate to within a relative error of at most 10^(−6) , as compared to the roots function in matlab) receive additional credit. Your program will receive 0 points if the strings fzero or roots (both in lower case letters) show up anywhere in your .m file.

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Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

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Instructions 1. The next sheet is an example problem from the text. Select the cells at the top of the columns to see the formulas and format. 2. Columns A,B, and C are the input data. Note that the upper boundary is used. Columns D and E are used to calculate the average and sample standard deviation. Column F calculates the z value using the upper boundary (Column B), the average, and the sample standard deviation. Column G is the area (cumulative probability) under the normal curve to the left of the z value in the same manner as Table A. Column H is the area [probability] for each cell. Note that the formula for Row 3 is different than the rest of the rows. Column I is the expected frequency for each cell. It equals the value in Column H times the total number of observed values (110). Column J is the chi-squared value which can be compared to a chi-squared table to determine the observed values (110). This column is really not necessary because the program calculates the observed values (110) and performs the chi-squared test at I21 and K21. Column K is an adjustment to bring the total number of observed values to 110. The chi-squared test for the adjustment gives a probability of 0.971that the distribution is normal. 3. The following sheet, called template, should be copied before using the program. This activity is accomplished by selecting EDIT, selecting MOVE OR COPY SHEET, selecting CREATE A COPY, and locating the new sheet, called template (2), in the dialog box. 4. The template is designed for 9 cells. If more or less cells are required, the appropriate changes must be made.

Instructions 1. The next sheet is an example problem from the text. Select the cells at the top of the columns to see the formulas and format. 2. Columns A,B, and C are the input data. Note that the upper boundary is used. Columns D and E are used to calculate the average and sample standard deviation. Column F calculates the z value using the upper boundary (Column B), the average, and the sample standard deviation. Column G is the area (cumulative probability) under the normal curve to the left of the z value in the same manner as Table A. Column H is the area [probability] for each cell. Note that the formula for Row 3 is different than the rest of the rows. Column I is the expected frequency for each cell. It equals the value in Column H times the total number of observed values (110). Column J is the chi-squared value which can be compared to a chi-squared table to determine the observed values (110). This column is really not necessary because the program calculates the observed values (110) and performs the chi-squared test at I21 and K21. Column K is an adjustment to bring the total number of observed values to 110. The chi-squared test for the adjustment gives a probability of 0.971that the distribution is normal. 3. The following sheet, called template, should be copied before using the program. This activity is accomplished by selecting EDIT, selecting MOVE OR COPY SHEET, selecting CREATE A COPY, and locating the new sheet, called template (2), in the dialog box. 4. The template is designed for 9 cells. If more or less cells are required, the appropriate changes must be made.

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