essay agreement about weigh in motion technology. I need it around 1500 words I need 5 paragraphs introduction paragraph has thesis statement 3 body each body has support your idea and example . The Conclusion The purpose of a conclusion is to refresh in the mind of the readers what your argument is. It is the part where you leave a footprint in their minds. Rounding off your writing is very important here. You wrap it up what you said in the introduction.

essay agreement about weigh in motion technology. I need it around 1500 words I need 5 paragraphs introduction paragraph has thesis statement 3 body each body has support your idea and example . The Conclusion The purpose of a conclusion is to refresh in the mind of the readers what your argument is. It is the part where you leave a footprint in their minds. Rounding off your writing is very important here. You wrap it up what you said in the introduction.

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PHET ElectroMagnetism Key to this Document Instructions are in black. Experimental questions that you need to solve through experimentation with an online animation are in green highlighted. Important instructions are in red highlighted. Items that need a response from you are in yellow highlighted. Please put your answers to this activity in RED. Part I- Comparing Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets: 1. Select the simulation “Magnets and Electromagnets.” It is at this link: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Magnets_and_Electromagnets 2. Move the compass slowly along a semicircular path above the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 3. Move the compass along a semicircular path below the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 4. What do you suppose the compass needles drawn all over the screen tell you? 5. Use page 10 in your book to look up what it looks like when scientists use a drawing to represent a magnetic field. Describe the field around a bar magnet here. 6. Put the compass to the left or right of the magnet. Click “flip polarity” and notice what happens to the compass. Using the compass needle as your observation tool, describe the effect that flipping the poles of the magnet has on the magnetic field. 7. Click on the electromagnet tab along the top of the simulation window. Place the compass on the left side of the coil so that the compass center lies along the axis of the coil. <--like this 8. Move the compass along a semicircular path above the coil until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the coil. Then do the same below the coil. Notice what happens to the compass needle. Compare this answer to the answer you got to Number 2 and 3. 9. Compare the shape of the magnetic field of a bar magnet to the magnetic field of an electromagnet. 10. Use the voltage slider to change the direction of the current and investigate the shape of the magnetic field the coil using the compass after you’ve let the compass stabilize. Summarize, the effect that the direction of current has on the shape of the magnetic field around an electrified coil of wires. 11. What happens to the current in the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? 12. What happens to the magnetic field around the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? Part II – Investigating relationships- No Answers are written on this document after this point. All three data tables, graphs and conclusion statements go on the Google Spreadsheet that you can download from Ms. Pogge’s website. Experimental Question #1: How does distance affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? 1. Using the Electromagnet simulation, click on “Show Field Meter.” 2. Set the battery voltage to 10V where the positive is on the right of the battery (slide the switch all the way to the right). 3. Magnetic field strength (symbol B on the top line of the meter) is measured in gauss (G). You’ll only need to record the value on the top line of the Field Meter. 4. Position zero will be right on top of the coil. Negative number positions will be to the left and positive number positions to the right of the coil. 5. Move the field meter one compass needle to the right and record the value of B at position 1. 6. This data table below will be used to help you fill in the first spreadsheet you downloaded from Ms. Pogge’s website. You will end up with 3 data tables, 3 graphs and 3 conclusion statements in your document, one for each mini-experiment you are doing. a. NOTE: Be sure to take all of your values along the horizontal axis of the coil. You’ll know you’re on the axis because the B-y measurement of the magnetic field is zero along the axis. Compass position (no units) Magnetic Field Strength ( )<--Fill in units! -5 (5 needles to the left of coil) Don’t fill in the table here...do it on the Google Spreadsheet you downloaded -4 -3 -2 -1 0 (middle of coil) 1 2 3 4 5 (5 needles to right of coil) 7. In your Google Spreadsheet: Graph the compass position on the horizontal (x) axis and magnetic field magnitude on the vertical (y) axis. 8. Make sure to label the axes and title the graph. Share this spreadsheet with your teacher. 9. Analyze your graph to discover how the two variables are related, and report the relationship between magnetic field strength and position using 1-3 complete sentences. Experimental Question #2: How does the number of coils affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the number of coils. Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet. Experimental Question #3: How does the amount of current affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the Current. (Recall that voltage is directly proportional to current….Ohm’s Law.) Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet.

PHET ElectroMagnetism Key to this Document Instructions are in black. Experimental questions that you need to solve through experimentation with an online animation are in green highlighted. Important instructions are in red highlighted. Items that need a response from you are in yellow highlighted. Please put your answers to this activity in RED. Part I- Comparing Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets: 1. Select the simulation “Magnets and Electromagnets.” It is at this link: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Magnets_and_Electromagnets 2. Move the compass slowly along a semicircular path above the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 3. Move the compass along a semicircular path below the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 4. What do you suppose the compass needles drawn all over the screen tell you? 5. Use page 10 in your book to look up what it looks like when scientists use a drawing to represent a magnetic field. Describe the field around a bar magnet here. 6. Put the compass to the left or right of the magnet. Click “flip polarity” and notice what happens to the compass. Using the compass needle as your observation tool, describe the effect that flipping the poles of the magnet has on the magnetic field. 7. Click on the electromagnet tab along the top of the simulation window. Place the compass on the left side of the coil so that the compass center lies along the axis of the coil. <--like this 8. Move the compass along a semicircular path above the coil until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the coil. Then do the same below the coil. Notice what happens to the compass needle. Compare this answer to the answer you got to Number 2 and 3. 9. Compare the shape of the magnetic field of a bar magnet to the magnetic field of an electromagnet. 10. Use the voltage slider to change the direction of the current and investigate the shape of the magnetic field the coil using the compass after you’ve let the compass stabilize. Summarize, the effect that the direction of current has on the shape of the magnetic field around an electrified coil of wires. 11. What happens to the current in the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? 12. What happens to the magnetic field around the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? Part II – Investigating relationships- No Answers are written on this document after this point. All three data tables, graphs and conclusion statements go on the Google Spreadsheet that you can download from Ms. Pogge’s website. Experimental Question #1: How does distance affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? 1. Using the Electromagnet simulation, click on “Show Field Meter.” 2. Set the battery voltage to 10V where the positive is on the right of the battery (slide the switch all the way to the right). 3. Magnetic field strength (symbol B on the top line of the meter) is measured in gauss (G). You’ll only need to record the value on the top line of the Field Meter. 4. Position zero will be right on top of the coil. Negative number positions will be to the left and positive number positions to the right of the coil. 5. Move the field meter one compass needle to the right and record the value of B at position 1. 6. This data table below will be used to help you fill in the first spreadsheet you downloaded from Ms. Pogge’s website. You will end up with 3 data tables, 3 graphs and 3 conclusion statements in your document, one for each mini-experiment you are doing. a. NOTE: Be sure to take all of your values along the horizontal axis of the coil. You’ll know you’re on the axis because the B-y measurement of the magnetic field is zero along the axis. Compass position (no units) Magnetic Field Strength ( )<--Fill in units! -5 (5 needles to the left of coil) Don’t fill in the table here...do it on the Google Spreadsheet you downloaded -4 -3 -2 -1 0 (middle of coil) 1 2 3 4 5 (5 needles to right of coil) 7. In your Google Spreadsheet: Graph the compass position on the horizontal (x) axis and magnetic field magnitude on the vertical (y) axis. 8. Make sure to label the axes and title the graph. Share this spreadsheet with your teacher. 9. Analyze your graph to discover how the two variables are related, and report the relationship between magnetic field strength and position using 1-3 complete sentences. Experimental Question #2: How does the number of coils affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the number of coils. Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet. Experimental Question #3: How does the amount of current affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the Current. (Recall that voltage is directly proportional to current….Ohm’s Law.) Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet.

Name: _____________________ Wire Resistance and Ohm’s Law PhET MiniLab Introduction: When an electrical potential exists in a circuit, a current may flow. Current is the flow of electrons in a circuit. Resistance in the circuit slows the flow of the electrons, reducing the current in the circuit. We will use the mathematical form of Ohm’s Law frequently when we investigate electric current and circuits later in this unit. Additional Material Needed: Clean Drinking Straw Procedure Part I Wire Resistance: • Blow through the drinking straw. • Cut the drinking straw in half and blow through a half-straw. • Describe the effect of length on ease to blow air through the straw. _________________________________________ • Cut the halves again in half. • With the four pieces, blow through one, then blow through all four made into a larger, square-shaped straw. • Describe the effect of straw size (diameter) on ease to blow air through the straw. ______________________________ • Now, open the PhET Simulation Electricity, Magnets, and Circuits  Resistance in a Wire As wire length (cm) increases, the resistance (Ω) _________________ As wire area (cm2) increases, the resistance (Ω) __________________ As wire density (Ωcm) increases, the resistance (Ω) _______________ Procedure Part II: Ohm’s Law: Electricity, Magnets, and Circuits  Ohm’s Law mA is milliamps, and _________ milliamps equals one Ampere. • Move the potential (volts) and resistance (ohms) sliders and observe the current (amps) As voltage increases, current __________________. As resistance increases, current ________________. Fill out the tables below and check your work in the simulation. ( ½ pt each ) • Remember, the simulation shows milliamps. • You should show Amperes V = I * R 8.0 V A 800 Ω 2.0 V .044 A Ω V .0058 A 430 Ω V .069 A 100 Ω 6.4 V A 300 Ω Conclusion Questions: ( ½ pt each) 1. Incandescent light bulbs have a very thin filament that glows when hot. Thin filaments have very high / low resistance. 2. The 12V battery in your car operates a 25 amp car stereo. What is the resistance of this stereo system? ___________ 3. A “2D” Maglite flashlight runs on 3.0V. What is the current through the bulb if resistance is 15 Ω ? ____________ 4. How many volts must an iPod charger provide to charge an iPOD using .85 Amps at 35 Ω? _____________ 5. You need to buy a long extension cord to power a stereo at your spring break BBQ. You need 200feet. You have a 50 ft cord that will work. You rationalize that four such 50 ft cords will do the job. Is this a good idea? Why or Why not? ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Name: _____________________ Wire Resistance and Ohm’s Law PhET MiniLab Introduction: When an electrical potential exists in a circuit, a current may flow. Current is the flow of electrons in a circuit. Resistance in the circuit slows the flow of the electrons, reducing the current in the circuit. We will use the mathematical form of Ohm’s Law frequently when we investigate electric current and circuits later in this unit. Additional Material Needed: Clean Drinking Straw Procedure Part I Wire Resistance: • Blow through the drinking straw. • Cut the drinking straw in half and blow through a half-straw. • Describe the effect of length on ease to blow air through the straw. _________________________________________ • Cut the halves again in half. • With the four pieces, blow through one, then blow through all four made into a larger, square-shaped straw. • Describe the effect of straw size (diameter) on ease to blow air through the straw. ______________________________ • Now, open the PhET Simulation Electricity, Magnets, and Circuits  Resistance in a Wire As wire length (cm) increases, the resistance (Ω) _________________ As wire area (cm2) increases, the resistance (Ω) __________________ As wire density (Ωcm) increases, the resistance (Ω) _______________ Procedure Part II: Ohm’s Law: Electricity, Magnets, and Circuits  Ohm’s Law mA is milliamps, and _________ milliamps equals one Ampere. • Move the potential (volts) and resistance (ohms) sliders and observe the current (amps) As voltage increases, current __________________. As resistance increases, current ________________. Fill out the tables below and check your work in the simulation. ( ½ pt each ) • Remember, the simulation shows milliamps. • You should show Amperes V = I * R 8.0 V A 800 Ω 2.0 V .044 A Ω V .0058 A 430 Ω V .069 A 100 Ω 6.4 V A 300 Ω Conclusion Questions: ( ½ pt each) 1. Incandescent light bulbs have a very thin filament that glows when hot. Thin filaments have very high / low resistance. 2. The 12V battery in your car operates a 25 amp car stereo. What is the resistance of this stereo system? ___________ 3. A “2D” Maglite flashlight runs on 3.0V. What is the current through the bulb if resistance is 15 Ω ? ____________ 4. How many volts must an iPod charger provide to charge an iPOD using .85 Amps at 35 Ω? _____________ 5. You need to buy a long extension cord to power a stereo at your spring break BBQ. You need 200feet. You have a 50 ft cord that will work. You rationalize that four such 50 ft cords will do the job. Is this a good idea? Why or Why not? ___________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Look up a journal article in Computer Education that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

3. Look up a journal article in Computer Education that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

Journal Article: Kelley Regan,Sheri Berkeley,Melissa Hughes,Suzanne Kirby;Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction … Read More...
1 BACKGROUND The new generation of enhanced mid core PICs such as the 16F1847 and the 12F1840 have an inbuilt temperature sensor. This sensor consists of a current source which flows through four diodes in series and the voltage drop across the diodes which is proportional to temperature can be measured by internally connecting the sensor to the ADC and determining the temperature based on the ADC value In this assignment the temperature sensor is used to create a simple thermometer application and to create an alarm should the sensor go outside the set value. Assignment Details 1) Determine the register settings needed to switch the sensor on and connect the temperature sensor to the ADC. Using appropriate values for Vref+ and Vref- display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display. 2) With reference to Microchip Application Note AN1333, “Use and Calibration of the Internal Temperature Indicator” (DS01333) determine an appropriate algorithm to convert from the ADC value to the temperature in degrees centigrade and implement it using a lookup table or otherwise. Display this value on the 7 segment display. Additional marks will be given for accuracy, calibration and averaging the temperature readings to give a more accurate, and a more stable temperature reading. . 2 In order to meet the specification the following will be required. i) Selection of appropriate microcontroller to meet the requirement of the task. ii) Development of an assembly language program to control the operation of the embedded system. iii) Thorough testing to ensure correct operation of the system. iv) Produce a project report to evidence all of the above. Follow Report Requirements (20 pages max) 1) Introduction – Clearly state the scope and aims and objectives of the project: Include Aims and Objectives, i.e. break down the project into smaller attainable aims and objectives for example one objective could be to develop a program to control the LED display. If all objectives are met then the overall project should have been completed. 2) Theory – Include any relevant theory 3) Procedure, Results Discussion – The report should show a methodical, systematic design approach. The microcontroller kits in the laboratory can be used as the hardware platform, however circuit diagrams should be included in the report and explanations of operation is expected. 4) Include flowcharts and detailed explanations of software development. Include appropriate simulation screen shots. Show and discuss results e.g. ADC program, LED program, etc. Include final/complete program. Were results as expected, do they compare favourably with simulated results, what could be done to improve the operation and accuracy of the system? 5) Conclusion – Reflect back on the original aims and objectives. Were they met if not why not? What further work could be carried out to meet aims and objectives etc? 3 Marks ALLOCATION Marks are allocated for the given activities as follows: MARK (%) PROJECT WORK 60 PROJECT REPORT 30 PRESENTATION MARK 10 ______ Total 100 The marks awarded for the microcontrollers in embedded system module will be made up as follows:- PROJECT MARK Have all of the specifications been met? Correct Register settings to switch on sensor and connect temperature sensor to ADC 5% Display two different characters on the 7 segment display 5% Display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display 10% Display the temperature on the seven segment display 20% Calibration 10% Accuraccy 10% Total 60% REPORT MARK Introduction and Theory 5% Procedure, Results and Discussion 20% Report Presentation 5% Total 30% PRESENTATION (POWER POINT) & DEMO Demonstration 10% Total 10% TOTAL 100% 4 Schematic for the Assignment Seven Segment Display Code ;************************************************ ;Appropriate values to illuminate a seven segment display ;with numbers 0 – 9 are extracted from a look up table ;and output on PORTB. ;A software delay is incorporated between displaying ;successive values so that they can be observed. ;(This program is useful demonstrating software delays, ; and look up tables. ; ;************************************************ ; list p=16F1937A #include <p=16f1937.inc> ; ; ****** PROGRAM EQUATES ****** ; temp equ 0x20 value equ 0x21 outer equ 0x22 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 a b c d e f g dp RA1 RA0 +5V 16F84 VDD Vss 220Ω x 8 CA2 CA1 100K x 2 5K6 5K6 +5V +5V a b c d e f g a b c d e f g middle equ 0x23 inner equ 0x24 w equ 0 f equ 1 ; ; ; ****** MAIN PROGRAM ****** ; org 0x00 banksel PORTB clrf PORTB banksel ANSELB clrf ANSELB clrf ANSELA banksel TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port b all outputs movwf TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port a all inputs movwf TRISA banksel PORTB ; movlw 0x00 movwf PORTB ;turn off display ; ; ; **** DISPLAY COUNT SEQUENCE *** ; display movlw 0x00 ;Use value as a counter ie movwf value ;value is incremented every begin movf value,w ;time a value is extracted from table bsf PORTA,0 ;turn on LSB display call get ;call subroutine to get value movwf PORTB ;output value to portb call wait ;call delay subroutine incf value ;increment counter btfsc value,3 ;test to see if counter = %1010 btfss value,1 ;if not get next value, if yes goto begin ; goto display ;go to display again ; ; **** LOOK UP TABLE FOR VALUES **** ; get brw ;look up table to illuminate retlw 0xc0 ;the numbers 0 – 9 on seven segment retlw 0xf9 ;display (outputs from port are retlw 0xa4 ;active low retlw 0xb0 retlw 0x99 retlw 0x92 retlw 0x82 retlw 0xf8 retlw 0x80 retlw 0x90 ; ; **** TIME DELAY ROUTINE **** ; ( THREE NESTED LOOPS ) ; wait ;delay subroutine movlw 0x02 ;-outer loop movwf outer ; wait3 movlw 0 xff ; -middle loop movwf middle wait2 movlw 0xff ;-inner loop movwf inner wait1 decfsz inner,f goto wait1 ;-inner loop decfsz middle,f goto wait2 ;-middle loop decfsz outer,f goto wait3 ;-outer loop return end

1 BACKGROUND The new generation of enhanced mid core PICs such as the 16F1847 and the 12F1840 have an inbuilt temperature sensor. This sensor consists of a current source which flows through four diodes in series and the voltage drop across the diodes which is proportional to temperature can be measured by internally connecting the sensor to the ADC and determining the temperature based on the ADC value In this assignment the temperature sensor is used to create a simple thermometer application and to create an alarm should the sensor go outside the set value. Assignment Details 1) Determine the register settings needed to switch the sensor on and connect the temperature sensor to the ADC. Using appropriate values for Vref+ and Vref- display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display. 2) With reference to Microchip Application Note AN1333, “Use and Calibration of the Internal Temperature Indicator” (DS01333) determine an appropriate algorithm to convert from the ADC value to the temperature in degrees centigrade and implement it using a lookup table or otherwise. Display this value on the 7 segment display. Additional marks will be given for accuracy, calibration and averaging the temperature readings to give a more accurate, and a more stable temperature reading. . 2 In order to meet the specification the following will be required. i) Selection of appropriate microcontroller to meet the requirement of the task. ii) Development of an assembly language program to control the operation of the embedded system. iii) Thorough testing to ensure correct operation of the system. iv) Produce a project report to evidence all of the above. Follow Report Requirements (20 pages max) 1) Introduction – Clearly state the scope and aims and objectives of the project: Include Aims and Objectives, i.e. break down the project into smaller attainable aims and objectives for example one objective could be to develop a program to control the LED display. If all objectives are met then the overall project should have been completed. 2) Theory – Include any relevant theory 3) Procedure, Results Discussion – The report should show a methodical, systematic design approach. The microcontroller kits in the laboratory can be used as the hardware platform, however circuit diagrams should be included in the report and explanations of operation is expected. 4) Include flowcharts and detailed explanations of software development. Include appropriate simulation screen shots. Show and discuss results e.g. ADC program, LED program, etc. Include final/complete program. Were results as expected, do they compare favourably with simulated results, what could be done to improve the operation and accuracy of the system? 5) Conclusion – Reflect back on the original aims and objectives. Were they met if not why not? What further work could be carried out to meet aims and objectives etc? 3 Marks ALLOCATION Marks are allocated for the given activities as follows: MARK (%) PROJECT WORK 60 PROJECT REPORT 30 PRESENTATION MARK 10 ______ Total 100 The marks awarded for the microcontrollers in embedded system module will be made up as follows:- PROJECT MARK Have all of the specifications been met? Correct Register settings to switch on sensor and connect temperature sensor to ADC 5% Display two different characters on the 7 segment display 5% Display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display 10% Display the temperature on the seven segment display 20% Calibration 10% Accuraccy 10% Total 60% REPORT MARK Introduction and Theory 5% Procedure, Results and Discussion 20% Report Presentation 5% Total 30% PRESENTATION (POWER POINT) & DEMO Demonstration 10% Total 10% TOTAL 100% 4 Schematic for the Assignment Seven Segment Display Code ;************************************************ ;Appropriate values to illuminate a seven segment display ;with numbers 0 – 9 are extracted from a look up table ;and output on PORTB. ;A software delay is incorporated between displaying ;successive values so that they can be observed. ;(This program is useful demonstrating software delays, ; and look up tables. ; ;************************************************ ; list p=16F1937A #include ; ; ****** PROGRAM EQUATES ****** ; temp equ 0x20 value equ 0x21 outer equ 0x22 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 a b c d e f g dp RA1 RA0 +5V 16F84 VDD Vss 220Ω x 8 CA2 CA1 100K x 2 5K6 5K6 +5V +5V a b c d e f g a b c d e f g middle equ 0x23 inner equ 0x24 w equ 0 f equ 1 ; ; ; ****** MAIN PROGRAM ****** ; org 0x00 banksel PORTB clrf PORTB banksel ANSELB clrf ANSELB clrf ANSELA banksel TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port b all outputs movwf TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port a all inputs movwf TRISA banksel PORTB ; movlw 0x00 movwf PORTB ;turn off display ; ; ; **** DISPLAY COUNT SEQUENCE *** ; display movlw 0x00 ;Use value as a counter ie movwf value ;value is incremented every begin movf value,w ;time a value is extracted from table bsf PORTA,0 ;turn on LSB display call get ;call subroutine to get value movwf PORTB ;output value to portb call wait ;call delay subroutine incf value ;increment counter btfsc value,3 ;test to see if counter = %1010 btfss value,1 ;if not get next value, if yes goto begin ; goto display ;go to display again ; ; **** LOOK UP TABLE FOR VALUES **** ; get brw ;look up table to illuminate retlw 0xc0 ;the numbers 0 – 9 on seven segment retlw 0xf9 ;display (outputs from port are retlw 0xa4 ;active low retlw 0xb0 retlw 0x99 retlw 0x92 retlw 0x82 retlw 0xf8 retlw 0x80 retlw 0x90 ; ; **** TIME DELAY ROUTINE **** ; ( THREE NESTED LOOPS ) ; wait ;delay subroutine movlw 0x02 ;-outer loop movwf outer ; wait3 movlw 0 xff ; -middle loop movwf middle wait2 movlw 0xff ;-inner loop movwf inner wait1 decfsz inner,f goto wait1 ;-inner loop decfsz middle,f goto wait2 ;-middle loop decfsz outer,f goto wait3 ;-outer loop return end

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Explain ethical egoism. Identify and explain at least one serious problem with the theory. Then answer this question: Do you think that ethical egoism is true? Why or why not? Use at least one example to support your line of reasoning. Papers will be graded on a scale of 0-100 using the following grading rubric: 1. mechanics: The paper is written with correct grammar, punctuation, spelling and other mechanical points. (10 points) 2. style: The sentences are clear and concise, using university-level language. (10 points) 3. coherence: The ordering of the paragraphs and the ordering of the sentences within the paragraphs make the ideas presented easy to understand. (10 points) 4. logic: The paper sticks to answering the assigned question and does not drift into irrelevant or marginally relevant issues. (20 points) 5. knowledge: The paper contains a clear, careful and thorough explanation of the moral theory. (25 points) 6. ideas: The paper includes a clearly stated conclusion and a coherent explanation of the reasons to support that conclusion. (This portion of your paper is addressing the last three questions in either assigned topic.) (25 points)

Explain ethical egoism. Identify and explain at least one serious problem with the theory. Then answer this question: Do you think that ethical egoism is true? Why or why not? Use at least one example to support your line of reasoning. Papers will be graded on a scale of 0-100 using the following grading rubric: 1. mechanics: The paper is written with correct grammar, punctuation, spelling and other mechanical points. (10 points) 2. style: The sentences are clear and concise, using university-level language. (10 points) 3. coherence: The ordering of the paragraphs and the ordering of the sentences within the paragraphs make the ideas presented easy to understand. (10 points) 4. logic: The paper sticks to answering the assigned question and does not drift into irrelevant or marginally relevant issues. (20 points) 5. knowledge: The paper contains a clear, careful and thorough explanation of the moral theory. (25 points) 6. ideas: The paper includes a clearly stated conclusion and a coherent explanation of the reasons to support that conclusion. (This portion of your paper is addressing the last three questions in either assigned topic.) (25 points)

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(Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells) its cell biology method class. presentation here is the outline 1- backgorund 2- experiment rational and hypothesis 3- methodology and alternative method 4- result (post the figure and explain each figures in the paper( 5- conclusion 6- future direction 7- refrences

(Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells) its cell biology method class. presentation here is the outline 1- backgorund 2- experiment rational and hypothesis 3- methodology and alternative method 4- result (post the figure and explain each figures in the paper( 5- conclusion 6- future direction 7- refrences

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1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.