In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

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1 MECE2320U-THERMODYNAMICS HOMEWORK # 5 Instructor: Dr. Ibrahim Dincer Assignment Date: Thursday, 22 October 2015 Assignment Type: Individual Due Date: Thursday, 29 October 2015 (3.00 pm latest, leave in dropbox 8) 1) As shown in figure, the inlet and outlet conditions of a steam turbine are given. The heat loss from turbine is 35 kJ per kg of steam. a) Show all the state points on T-v diagram b) Write mass and energy balance equations c) Calculate the turbine work 2) As shown in figure, refrigerant R134a enters to a compressor. Write both mass and energy balance equations. Calculate the compressor work and the mass flow rate of refrigerant. 3) As shown in figure, the heat exchanger uses the heat of hot exhaust gases to produce steam. Where, 15% of heat is lost to the surroundings. Exhaust gases enters the heat exchanger at 500°C. Water enters at 15°C as saturated liquid and exit at saturated vapor at 2 MPa. Mass flow rate of water is 0.025 kg/s, and for exhaust gases, it is 0.42 kg/s. The specific heat for exhaust gases is 1.045 kJ/kg K, which can be treated as ideal gas. 1 Turbine 2 ? 1 = 1 ??/? ?1 = 1 ??? ?1 = 300 ℃ ?1 = 40 ?/? ? ??? =? ????? = 35 ??/?? ?2 = 150 ??? ?2 = 0.9 ?2 = 180 ?/? 1 Compressor 2 ???? ???? = 1.3 ?3/??? ?1 = 100 ??? ?1 = −20 ℃ ? ?? =? ? ???? = 3 ?? ?2 = 800 ??? ?2 = 60 ℃ 2 a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the rate of heat transfer to the water. c) Calculate the exhaust gases exit temperature. 4) As shown in figure, two refrigerant R134a streams mix in a mixing chamber. If the mass flow rate of cold stream is twice that of the hot stream. a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the temperature of the mixture at the exit of the mixing chamber c) Calculate the quality at the exit of the mixing chamber 5) As shown in figure, an air conditioning system requires airflow at the main supply duct at a rate of 140 m3/min. The velocity inside circular duct is not to exceed 9 m/s. Assume that the fan converts 85% of electrical energy it consumes into kinetic energy of air. a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the size of electric motor require to drive the fan c) Calculate the diameter of the main duct ?2 = 1 ??? ?2 = 90 ℃ ?1 = 1 ??? ?1 = 30 ℃ ?3 =? ?3 =? 140 ?3/??? 9 ?/? Air Fan

1 MECE2320U-THERMODYNAMICS HOMEWORK # 5 Instructor: Dr. Ibrahim Dincer Assignment Date: Thursday, 22 October 2015 Assignment Type: Individual Due Date: Thursday, 29 October 2015 (3.00 pm latest, leave in dropbox 8) 1) As shown in figure, the inlet and outlet conditions of a steam turbine are given. The heat loss from turbine is 35 kJ per kg of steam. a) Show all the state points on T-v diagram b) Write mass and energy balance equations c) Calculate the turbine work 2) As shown in figure, refrigerant R134a enters to a compressor. Write both mass and energy balance equations. Calculate the compressor work and the mass flow rate of refrigerant. 3) As shown in figure, the heat exchanger uses the heat of hot exhaust gases to produce steam. Where, 15% of heat is lost to the surroundings. Exhaust gases enters the heat exchanger at 500°C. Water enters at 15°C as saturated liquid and exit at saturated vapor at 2 MPa. Mass flow rate of water is 0.025 kg/s, and for exhaust gases, it is 0.42 kg/s. The specific heat for exhaust gases is 1.045 kJ/kg K, which can be treated as ideal gas. 1 Turbine 2 ? 1 = 1 ??/? ?1 = 1 ??? ?1 = 300 ℃ ?1 = 40 ?/? ? ??? =? ????? = 35 ??/?? ?2 = 150 ??? ?2 = 0.9 ?2 = 180 ?/? 1 Compressor 2 ???? ???? = 1.3 ?3/??? ?1 = 100 ??? ?1 = −20 ℃ ? ?? =? ? ???? = 3 ?? ?2 = 800 ??? ?2 = 60 ℃ 2 a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the rate of heat transfer to the water. c) Calculate the exhaust gases exit temperature. 4) As shown in figure, two refrigerant R134a streams mix in a mixing chamber. If the mass flow rate of cold stream is twice that of the hot stream. a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the temperature of the mixture at the exit of the mixing chamber c) Calculate the quality at the exit of the mixing chamber 5) As shown in figure, an air conditioning system requires airflow at the main supply duct at a rate of 140 m3/min. The velocity inside circular duct is not to exceed 9 m/s. Assume that the fan converts 85% of electrical energy it consumes into kinetic energy of air. a) Write mass and energy balance equations. b) Calculate the size of electric motor require to drive the fan c) Calculate the diameter of the main duct ?2 = 1 ??? ?2 = 90 ℃ ?1 = 1 ??? ?1 = 30 ℃ ?3 =? ?3 =? 140 ?3/??? 9 ?/? Air Fan

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Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

Assignment One Suggested Due Date: July 17th In this assignment you will read three articles You will answer questions about Hayek, Lucas, and Mankiw et. al. which consider just those particular articles. Then at the end of the assignment there is a cluster of questions that deal with both Lucas and Mankiw et al where you will have an opportunity to compare and contrast those two articles. When you have completed the assignment, place it in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. Hayek: The Use of Knowledge in Society http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html Adapted from Michael K. Salemi “The Use of Knowledge in Society” F. A. Hayek Discussion Questions 1.1. “The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)” a. What does Hayek mean by a “rational economic order”? b. What does Hayek mean by “dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge”? c. Why is Hayek critical of the common assumptions in economic analysis that buyers, sellers, producers and the economist all know every relevant thing about the economy? d. What, in summary, does Hayek mean by the quoted statement? 1.2. What, according to Hayek, is the information needed to operate effectively in a complex market economy? a. What does Hayek mean by “planning”? b. What is the minimum information needed by economic planners and individuals? c. Does the minimum differ for planners and for individuals? How? Why? d. What happens when some individuals possess more information than other individuals? e. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.16) “…the sort of knowledge with which I have been concerned is knowledge of the kind which by its nature cannot enter into statistics and therefore cannot be conveyed to any central authority in statistical form”? f. Why, according to Hayek, can the “information problem” be solved by “the price system”? 1.3. Why, according to Hayek, is the true function of the price system the communication of information? a. Why does Hayek use the term ‘marvel’ in his discussion of the economy of knowledge? b. What does Hayek mean when he says (H.26) “…man has been able to develop that division of labor on which our civilization is based because he happened to stumble upon a method which made it possible”? Read Robert Lucas’ “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century” in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. (Skip the appendix.) All four of these links go to the same article. Some of the links might not be accessible to you, but I think that at least one of them should work for all of you. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.14.1.159 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2647059 http://www.econ.psu.edu/~aur10/Econ%20570%20Fall%202009/Lucas%20JEP%202000.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/mh5/class/econ102/readings/Macro_21st_Century.pdf 1. According to Lucas, why has the world’s economy grown so much since 1960? 2. According to Lucas, why do some nations grow faster than others? 3. According to Lucas, why will growth and inequality decrease in the next 100 years? 4. Is Lucas’ model in this paper “economics?” Read Greg Mankiw, Romer and Wiel’s article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics. http://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/MankiwRomerWeil.pdf 1. Many economists think the Solow Growth Model is of limited use. (One of my professors at OU stated that it took economists 50 years to figure out that their growth model has nothing to do with growth.) But does the Solow model give “…the right answer to the questions it is designed to address?” 2. Why is human capital important when testing the Solow model against the data? 3. Explain how the authors conclude that the incomes of the world’s nations are converging? Now that you’ve answered questions about Lucas and Mankiw et al separately, consider this question: Both of these papers develop the notion that the economies of the world’s nations will tend to “converge” over time. Compare and contrast the way(s) in which the papers advance the idea of convergence. Assignment Two Due Date July 24th This assignment is very straight forward. You’ll read two papers and answer questions about each of them. Read Krugman’s paper on unemployment http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/EconRevArchive/1994/4Q94KRUG.pdf 1. What is the difference between structural and cyclical unemployment? In this context, what is the difference between Europe and the US? What is the evidence that Krugman uses to back his opinion? 2. What is the natural rate of unemployment? Why is it higher/rising in Europe? Again, what is the evidence? 3. What is the relationship between the rising unemployment in Europe and the rise in inequality in the US. (What does Krugman mean by inequality?) 4. What is NOT to blame for either the rise in unemployment or inequality? 5. What policies, if any, can be put into place to combat rising inequality/unemployment? 6. Are you convinced by Krugman’s argument which rules out globalization as the likely cause for high European unemployment and high US wage inequality? 7. Consider Table 2 in Krugman. Why does Krugman include Table 2 in his paper? In other words, what point is strengthened by the data in Table 2 and why is it crucial to Krugman’s larger thesis? NOW, recreate the data for Table 2 for either the UK or US for the latest year possible. Has anything changed as a result of the Great Recession? Read Thomas Sargent’s paper about the credibility of “Reaganonomics.” http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15334coll1/id/366 http://minneapolisfed.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15334coll1/id/366/rec/1 You might like this: http://www.ispot.tv/ad/7Lj9/ally-bank-predictions-featuring-thomas-sargent 1. What is a dynamic game? 2. Why should we think of monetary and fiscal policy as dynamic game? Who are the players and what are the strategies? 3. When are government budgets inflationary? (Again, think in terms of a game.) 4. What are the consequences if the monetary authority does not coordinate with fiscal policy agents? 5. Has Sargent done of good job characterizing the interplay between policymakers in the government, the central bank, and the public? 6. What is the connection between policy coordination and credibility? 7. Why, according to Sargent, were Reagan’s fiscal and monetary policy regimes “incredible?” Explain carefully. Assignment Three Due Date July 31 Read Taylor, Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Answer the questions for each article, then answer the final cluster that requires you to consider Miskin, Obstfeld and Rogoff. Suggested due date: January 2nd. Read John Taylor’s article about monetary transmission mechanisms. http://web.econ.unito.it/bagliano/ecmon_readings/taylor_jep95.pdf Also, to understand traditional monetary policy, listen to this: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2008/08/john_taylor_on.html These questions refer to the article, not the podcast. 1. How does monetary policy (or changes in monetary policy) affect output and inflation? In other words, what is the monetary policy transmission mechanism? 2. What is the importance of financial market prices in Taylor’s view? 3. What is the importance of rational expectations and rigidities in the prices of labor and goods? 4. What is a reaction function? Why is a reaction function important? 5. What is an “optimal monetary policy rule?” 6. Has the monetary transmission mechanism changed? How? 7. What are the criticisms of Taylor’s views? How does he respond? What do you think? Read Mishkin’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.3 1. What is a financial crisis? 2. How did adverse selection and moral hazard contribute to the financial crisis in Mexico and East Asia in the 1990s? What are adverse selection and moral hazard? 3. Did irresponsible monetary and fiscal policy contribute to the crisis in the 90s? Why or why not? 4. How is it possible for the IMF to help in a crisis when a domestic central bank might not be able to help. 5. What should the US learn (or have learned??) from the crisis in the 90s? Read Rogoff’s article about global financial instability. http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.13.4.21 Answer the questions and place the answers in the appropriate drop box in WTClass. 1. According to Rogoff, is the status quo in international lending viable or not? Explain. 2. Can the IMF handle international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. Rogoff gives six solutions to save the global financial system (deep pockets lender of last resort, an international financial crisis manager, an international bankruptcy court, an international regulator, international deposit insurance corporation, and a world monetary authority.) What is wrong with all of these? 4. Can developing economies cope with speculative capital flows without help? Explain. 5. What will be (should be) the role that equity financing play in developing country projects? Read Obstfeld on Global Capital Markets: http://www.nber.org/papers/w6559.pdf 1. Look at table 1 and figure 1. How does Obstfeld use the data in that table to suggest that 1) markets became less open then more open in the 20th century. 2. What is the “openness trilemma?” What are the economic and/or policy trade-offs with having a global, open and integrated financial system? 3. How does economic integration impact a nation’s ability to tax capital? Can you think of some high profile cases in the news lately that illustrate this fact? (Hint: you should be able to.) 4. What is the international diversification puzzle? What market failures have arisen (if any) have arisen due to more integration and openness? Comparing Obstfeld, Miskin, and Rogoff 1. Would the authors’ advice about policies to reduce the costs of financial integration be the same? Why or why not? 2. Would the authors’ agree that we need an international regulatory body to stave off international financial crises? Why or why not? 3. What is your opinion? Is it good to have a global financial market? Why or why not? Assignment Four Due Date August 7 Straight forward assignment: Read and answer the questions. Read Arnold Kling’s history of the policies that created the great recession http://mercatus.org/publication/not-what-they-had-mind-history-policies-produced-financial-crisis-2008 1. Using only the executive summary, what does Kling think caused the Financial Crisis of 2008? (Use only one sentence.) 2. One page 5, what is “the fact?” and what does this “fact” mean to you? 3. Briefly summarize the four components of the Financial Crisis? 4. On page 10, Kling states, “These property bubbles (in the U.K. and Spain) cannot be blamed on U.S. policy.” How confident are you on that point? Is Kling wrong? 5. Kling’s matrix of causes, gives almost all weight to what two factors? What three factors are almost completely not responsible? 6. Many have blamed designer financial (my term) like CDS and CDO and the shadow banking system for the collapse. How do these fit into Kling’s narrative? 7. Outline the progression of policy that caused/responded to economic conditions in the 30s, 70s and 80s and 00s. 8. What role did the mortgage interest deduction have on housing market? 9. What institution invented and allowed the expansion of mortgage-backed securities? 10. What is regulatory arbitrage? 11. Why did the Basel agreement create an advantage for mortgage securitization? 12. Did the Federal Reserve (and presumably other regulatory agencies know and even encourage regulatory capital arbitrage? What author does Kling cite to establish this? 13. What did the 2002 modification of the Basel Rules do to capital requirements? (See figure 4) 14. Summarize the Shadow Regulatory Committee’s statement 160. 15. Did non market institutions, such as the IMF and Bernanke, think, in 2006, that financial innovation had make the banking sector more or less fragile? 16. What is time inconsistency? (You can look this up elsewhere.) 17. How might “barriers to entry” by related to “safety and soundness?” 18. A Curmudgeon is an old man who is easily annoyed and angered. He also complains a lot. (I had to look it up.) I think I’ll change my xbox gamertag to this word, but I’ll bet it is taken. 19. How did credit scoring and credit default swaps enlarge the mortgage securities market? 20. Why, up until 2007, did we think that monetary expansion was all that was needed to mitigate the impact of financial crises? 21. Suppose that financial markets are inherently unstable. What does this mean are two goals of regulation and regulators? 22. Why are type two errors so problematic? (Two reasons.) 23. How could we make the banking sector easy to fix? Assignment Five Due August 13 Read the linked lectures and answer the questions. Lecture 1 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac.html 1.1 Why do you think macroeconomic realities must be reconciled with microeconomic analysis? (This is not a rhetorical question, but it will be hard for you to answer. There is no “wrong” answer you could give. Just think about it for a few minutes.) Lecture 2 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_in_mac_1.html 2.1 Consider this article after you have read Hayek. How do prices and wages perform the function of “central planning?” 2.2 Kling makes that claim that, because most workers do not do manual labor anymore, the economy is different that it was in 1930. Assuming he is correct, do you think central planning would be harder today or easier? Why? Lecture 3 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac.html 3.1 Give a one sentence definition of structural unemployment, of frictional unemployment and of cyclical unemployment. Lecture 4 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_1.html 4.1 So, why does the economy adjust employment rather than wages? Lecture 5 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_2.html 5.1 Kling gives 5 reasons the DotCom recession was worse than the previous two recessions (at least in duration). Which reason do you think is the most compelling? Lecture 6 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_3.html 6.1 Why are Keynesian remedies (blunt fiscal and monetary policy measures) less appropriate in a post industrial economy, according to Kling? Lecture 7 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_4.html 7.1 Why is it so hard to separate finance and government, according to Kling? Lecture 8 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/11/lectures_on_mac_5.html 8.1 Why is American Express Travelers Checks so interesting? Do credit cards work in a similar way? (I really don’t know the answer to this one. I just know that credit cards have made travelers checks obsolete.) Lecture 9. http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_6.html 9.1 According to this article, why do we have banks (financial sector or financial intermediation?) Lecture 10 http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/12/lectures_on_mac_7.html 10.1 Why are banks better than barter, according to this leture? 10.2 Politics tends to favor bailouts of failed firms. Why is this exactly wrong?

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Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

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F7.10 The flame spread rate through porous solids increases with concurrent wind velocity. decreases with concurrent wind velocity. is independent of concurrent wind velocity. F7.11 Surface tension accelerates opposed-flow flame spread over liquid fuels. True False F7.12 Opposed-flow flame spread rates over a solid surface are typically much smaller than 1 mm/s. around 1mm/s. much greater than 1 mm/s. F7.13 Upward flame spread rate over a vertical surface is typically between 10 and 1000 mm/s. True False F7.14 The Steiner tunnel test described in ASTM standard E 84 is used to assess the fire performance of interior finish materials based on lateral flame spread over a vertical sample. True False F8.1 Describe the triad of fire growth. F8.2 Liquid pool fires reach steady burning conditions within seconds after ignition. True False F8.3 The heat of gasification of liquid fuels is typically less than 1 kJ/g. between 1 and 3 kJ/g. greater than 3 kJ/g. F8.4 The heat flux from the flame to the surface of real burning objects can usually be determined with sufficient accuracy so that reasonable burning rate predictions can be made. True False F8.5 The mass burning flux generally associated with extinction is 0.5 g/m2s. 5 g/m2s. 50 g/m2s. F8.6 The mass burning flux of a liquid pool fire is a function of only the pool diameter. only the fuel type. pool diameter and fuel type. F8.7 The energy release rate of real objects can be measured in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. an oxygen consumption calorimeter. a room/corner test. F8.8 The peak energy release rate of typical domestic upholstered furniture can be as high as 3000 kW. True False F8.9 Draw a typical curve of the mass burning flux of a char forming fuel as a function of time. F8.10 A fast fire as defined in NFPA 72B grows proportionally to t2 and reaches an energy release rate of 1 MW in 75 sec. 150 sec. 300 sec. F9.1 Air entrainment into turbulent pool fire flames is due to buoyancy. True False F9.2 The frequency of vortex shedding in turbulent pool fire flames increases with pool diameter. decreases with pool diameter. is independent of pool diameter. F9.3 The height of turbulent jet flames for a given fuel type and orifice size is independent of energy release rate. True False F9.4 The exit velocities of fuel vapors leaving a solid or liquid pool fire surface are responsible for entrainment of air in the plume. True False F9.5 The height of a turbulent pool fire flame is a function of only energy release rate. only pool diameter. energy release rate and pool diameter. F9.6 Turbulent pool fire flame heights fluctuate in time within a factor of 2. True False F9.7 The Q* value for jet fires is 102 or greater. 104 or greater. 106 or greater. F9.8 The temperature in the continuous flame region of moderate size turbulent pool fires is approximately 820°C. True False F9.9 The temperature at the maximum flame height of a turbulent pool fire flame is approximately 1200°C. 800°C. 300°C. F9.10 The adiabatic flame temperature of hydrocarbon fuels is 1700-2000°C. 2000-2300°C. 2300-2600°C. F10.1 The stoichiometric air to fuel mass ratio of hydrocarbon fuels is of the order of 1.5 g/g. 15 g/g. 150 g/g. F10.2 Give two examples of products of incomplete combustion that occur in fires. F10.3 Slight amounts of products of incomplete combustion are generated in overventilated fires. True False F10.4 The CO yield of a fire is a function of only the fuel involved. only the ventilation conditions. the fuel and the ventilation conditions. F10.5 A carboxyhemoglobin level of 40% in the blood is usually lethal. True (doubt) False F10.6 Carbon monoxide is the leading killer of people in fires. True False F10.7 HCN is a narcotic gas. an irritant gas. a fuel vapor. F10.8 The hazard to humans from narcotic gases is a function of only the concentration of the gas. only the duration of exposure. the product of concentration and duration of exposure. F10.9 The effects on lethality of CO, HCN, and reduced O2 are additive. True False F10.10 Irritant gases typically cause post-exposure fatalities. True False F10.11 Visibility through smoke improves with increasing optical density. True False F10.12 Heat stress occurs when the skin is exposed to a heat flux of 1 kW/m2. the skin reaches a temperature of 45°C. the body’s core temperature reaches 41°C.

F7.10 The flame spread rate through porous solids increases with concurrent wind velocity. decreases with concurrent wind velocity. is independent of concurrent wind velocity. F7.11 Surface tension accelerates opposed-flow flame spread over liquid fuels. True False F7.12 Opposed-flow flame spread rates over a solid surface are typically much smaller than 1 mm/s. around 1mm/s. much greater than 1 mm/s. F7.13 Upward flame spread rate over a vertical surface is typically between 10 and 1000 mm/s. True False F7.14 The Steiner tunnel test described in ASTM standard E 84 is used to assess the fire performance of interior finish materials based on lateral flame spread over a vertical sample. True False F8.1 Describe the triad of fire growth. F8.2 Liquid pool fires reach steady burning conditions within seconds after ignition. True False F8.3 The heat of gasification of liquid fuels is typically less than 1 kJ/g. between 1 and 3 kJ/g. greater than 3 kJ/g. F8.4 The heat flux from the flame to the surface of real burning objects can usually be determined with sufficient accuracy so that reasonable burning rate predictions can be made. True False F8.5 The mass burning flux generally associated with extinction is 0.5 g/m2s. 5 g/m2s. 50 g/m2s. F8.6 The mass burning flux of a liquid pool fire is a function of only the pool diameter. only the fuel type. pool diameter and fuel type. F8.7 The energy release rate of real objects can be measured in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. an oxygen consumption calorimeter. a room/corner test. F8.8 The peak energy release rate of typical domestic upholstered furniture can be as high as 3000 kW. True False F8.9 Draw a typical curve of the mass burning flux of a char forming fuel as a function of time. F8.10 A fast fire as defined in NFPA 72B grows proportionally to t2 and reaches an energy release rate of 1 MW in 75 sec. 150 sec. 300 sec. F9.1 Air entrainment into turbulent pool fire flames is due to buoyancy. True False F9.2 The frequency of vortex shedding in turbulent pool fire flames increases with pool diameter. decreases with pool diameter. is independent of pool diameter. F9.3 The height of turbulent jet flames for a given fuel type and orifice size is independent of energy release rate. True False F9.4 The exit velocities of fuel vapors leaving a solid or liquid pool fire surface are responsible for entrainment of air in the plume. True False F9.5 The height of a turbulent pool fire flame is a function of only energy release rate. only pool diameter. energy release rate and pool diameter. F9.6 Turbulent pool fire flame heights fluctuate in time within a factor of 2. True False F9.7 The Q* value for jet fires is 102 or greater. 104 or greater. 106 or greater. F9.8 The temperature in the continuous flame region of moderate size turbulent pool fires is approximately 820°C. True False F9.9 The temperature at the maximum flame height of a turbulent pool fire flame is approximately 1200°C. 800°C. 300°C. F9.10 The adiabatic flame temperature of hydrocarbon fuels is 1700-2000°C. 2000-2300°C. 2300-2600°C. F10.1 The stoichiometric air to fuel mass ratio of hydrocarbon fuels is of the order of 1.5 g/g. 15 g/g. 150 g/g. F10.2 Give two examples of products of incomplete combustion that occur in fires. F10.3 Slight amounts of products of incomplete combustion are generated in overventilated fires. True False F10.4 The CO yield of a fire is a function of only the fuel involved. only the ventilation conditions. the fuel and the ventilation conditions. F10.5 A carboxyhemoglobin level of 40% in the blood is usually lethal. True (doubt) False F10.6 Carbon monoxide is the leading killer of people in fires. True False F10.7 HCN is a narcotic gas. an irritant gas. a fuel vapor. F10.8 The hazard to humans from narcotic gases is a function of only the concentration of the gas. only the duration of exposure. the product of concentration and duration of exposure. F10.9 The effects on lethality of CO, HCN, and reduced O2 are additive. True False F10.10 Irritant gases typically cause post-exposure fatalities. True False F10.11 Visibility through smoke improves with increasing optical density. True False F10.12 Heat stress occurs when the skin is exposed to a heat flux of 1 kW/m2. the skin reaches a temperature of 45°C. the body’s core temperature reaches 41°C.

F7.10 The flame spread rate through porous solids increases with … Read More...
BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Homework Assignment 7. Due March 19 1. Consider the differential equation: ?? ?? = − 1 2 ? sin? ? with initial condition given by ?(0) = 1 Solve this equation from t = 0 to t = 8π using the following methods: (a) Solve analytically by separating variables and integrating. (b) Solve using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method (write your own code for this, do not use the MATLAB provided ODE solvers) for the following two step sizes: I. Maximum step size for stability (don’t try and do this analytically – try out your code for different step sizes to find the stability limit). II. Maximum step size for a time-accurate solution. “Good” accuracy can be defined in several ways, but use the definition that the numerical solution remains within 2% of the true solution a t = nπ. (c) Solve using the MATLAB function ode45. 2. A car and its suspension system traveling over a bumpy road can be modeled as a mass/spring/damper system. In this model, ?? is the vertical motion of the wheel center of mass, ?? is the vertical motion of the car chassis, and ?? represents the displacement of the bottom of the tire due to the variation in the road surface. Applying Newton’s law to the two masses yields a system of second-order equations: ???̈? + ??(?̇? − ?̇?) + ??(?? − ??) + ???? = ???? ???̈? − ??(?̇? − ?̇?) − ??(?? − ??) + ???? = 0 (a) Convert the two second-order ODE’s into a system of 4 first-order ODE’s. Write them in standard “state-space” form. (b) Assume the car hits a large pothole at t = 0 so that ??(?) = ?−0.2 m 0 ≤ ? < 0.2 s 0 ? > 0.2 s Create a MATLAB function that returns the right hand sides of the state-space equations for an input t and an input state vector. (c) Solve the system on the time interval [0 60] seconds using the MATLAB function ode45. Find the displacement and velocity of the chassis and the wheel as a function of time. Use the following data: ?? = 100 kg, ?? = 1900 kg, ?? = 145 N/m, ?? = 25 N/m, ?? = 150 N-s/m 3. Write a MATLAB program to simulate the dynamics of a helicopter lifting a survivor. When lifting the survivor into the helicopter with a constant speed winch, the resulting dynamics are non-linear, and stability is dependent upon the winch speed. Using polar coordinates, we can find the equations of motion to be: −?? sin ? = ????̈ + 2?̇?̇? ?̇ = constant (negative) Notice that the mass of the survivor factors out and thus the solution is independent of the mass of the person being lifted. In these equations, r is the instantaneous length of the winch cable, g, is the gravitational constant, and θ is the angle of the swing. You may choose to use either your Runge-Kutta solver from problem 1 or ode45 to integrate the equations of motion. This problem is of particular interest to the survivor since an unstable condition can cause the angle of the swing to exceed 90⁰, essentially placing him/her in danger of being beheaded by the rotor blades of the rescue helicopter. Also, it is desirable to retrieve the survivor as fast as possible to get away from the danger. Use your program to determine the maximum winch speed for which the survivor will not swing above the helicopter attach point for a lift from the initial conditions: ?? = 0.1 ??? ?? ̇ = 0 ?? = 34 ? And ending when ? = 0.5 ?. The maximum lifting speed of the winch is 5 m/s. Present your results for the above problems in an appropriate fashion. For problem 1, be sure to include a comparison of the numerical methods with each other and with the true solution. Be sure to discuss your findings with respect to the notions of stability and accuracy of the numerical methods. For problem 2, ensure that your results are easily interpreted by a reader. Students receiving a score of 70% or above on these two problems will receive credit for outcome #5. For problem 3, if you receive at least 70% of the points, you will receive credit for outcome #4.

Homework Assignment 7. Due March 19 1. Consider the differential equation: ?? ?? = − 1 2 ? sin? ? with initial condition given by ?(0) = 1 Solve this equation from t = 0 to t = 8π using the following methods: (a) Solve analytically by separating variables and integrating. (b) Solve using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method (write your own code for this, do not use the MATLAB provided ODE solvers) for the following two step sizes: I. Maximum step size for stability (don’t try and do this analytically – try out your code for different step sizes to find the stability limit). II. Maximum step size for a time-accurate solution. “Good” accuracy can be defined in several ways, but use the definition that the numerical solution remains within 2% of the true solution a t = nπ. (c) Solve using the MATLAB function ode45. 2. A car and its suspension system traveling over a bumpy road can be modeled as a mass/spring/damper system. In this model, ?? is the vertical motion of the wheel center of mass, ?? is the vertical motion of the car chassis, and ?? represents the displacement of the bottom of the tire due to the variation in the road surface. Applying Newton’s law to the two masses yields a system of second-order equations: ???̈? + ??(?̇? − ?̇?) + ??(?? − ??) + ???? = ???? ???̈? − ??(?̇? − ?̇?) − ??(?? − ??) + ???? = 0 (a) Convert the two second-order ODE’s into a system of 4 first-order ODE’s. Write them in standard “state-space” form. (b) Assume the car hits a large pothole at t = 0 so that ??(?) = ?−0.2 m 0 ≤ ? < 0.2 s 0 ? > 0.2 s Create a MATLAB function that returns the right hand sides of the state-space equations for an input t and an input state vector. (c) Solve the system on the time interval [0 60] seconds using the MATLAB function ode45. Find the displacement and velocity of the chassis and the wheel as a function of time. Use the following data: ?? = 100 kg, ?? = 1900 kg, ?? = 145 N/m, ?? = 25 N/m, ?? = 150 N-s/m 3. Write a MATLAB program to simulate the dynamics of a helicopter lifting a survivor. When lifting the survivor into the helicopter with a constant speed winch, the resulting dynamics are non-linear, and stability is dependent upon the winch speed. Using polar coordinates, we can find the equations of motion to be: −?? sin ? = ????̈ + 2?̇?̇? ?̇ = constant (negative) Notice that the mass of the survivor factors out and thus the solution is independent of the mass of the person being lifted. In these equations, r is the instantaneous length of the winch cable, g, is the gravitational constant, and θ is the angle of the swing. You may choose to use either your Runge-Kutta solver from problem 1 or ode45 to integrate the equations of motion. This problem is of particular interest to the survivor since an unstable condition can cause the angle of the swing to exceed 90⁰, essentially placing him/her in danger of being beheaded by the rotor blades of the rescue helicopter. Also, it is desirable to retrieve the survivor as fast as possible to get away from the danger. Use your program to determine the maximum winch speed for which the survivor will not swing above the helicopter attach point for a lift from the initial conditions: ?? = 0.1 ??? ?? ̇ = 0 ?? = 34 ? And ending when ? = 0.5 ?. The maximum lifting speed of the winch is 5 m/s. Present your results for the above problems in an appropriate fashion. For problem 1, be sure to include a comparison of the numerical methods with each other and with the true solution. Be sure to discuss your findings with respect to the notions of stability and accuracy of the numerical methods. For problem 2, ensure that your results are easily interpreted by a reader. Students receiving a score of 70% or above on these two problems will receive credit for outcome #5. For problem 3, if you receive at least 70% of the points, you will receive credit for outcome #4.

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ENGR216: Mechanics and Vibrations Tutorial sheet 1 Michaelmas Term AY 2015/2016 Problems will be solved in class in week 5 PROBLEM 1 A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity E1 has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of cross-sectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. A force P is applied on a rigid plate attached to both tube and rod, as shown in the sketch below. Determine: a) the horizontal displacement of the rigid plate; b) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=E2; c) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=2E2; HINT: deformation of tube and rod is constrained to be the same. PROBLEM 2 A steel beam has a rectangular cross section of height lx=20 mm and width ly=30 mm, and length lz=1 m (lengths lx, ly and lz are measured respectively along x, y and z axes of a Cartesian system). The material of the beam has Young modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson ratio ν=0.29, and maximum allowable normal stress of 175 MPa. The beam is subject to a compressive centric axial load Pz of 80 KN applied at its ends (load acts along z axis). a) State whether the area of the cross section of the beam will increase or decrease under the effect of the applied centric axial load and explain why. b) Determine the variation of the section height lx in mm, indicating if such variation is a contraction or an elongation. c) Determine the maximum axial load (Pz)max applicable to the beam and the maximum shear stress in these conditions. d) In the loading condition (c), state whether the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis leading to a zero variation of the section height lx is compressive or tensile and justify your answer. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis resulting in zero variation of the section height lx. f) After application of the uniformly distributed normal load, determine the bulk modulus and the beam dilatation indicating its sign. PROBLEM 3 A beam has a constant circular cross section of radius 20 mm, and is subject to a tensile axial load of 4 KN. a) Determine the magnitude of the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at the centre of the section. b) In the loading condition (a), state whether a neutral axis exists or not, and explain why. c) State whether the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at 10 mm from the centre of the section is compressive or tensile and explain why. d) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the cross section. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the distance of the neutral axis from the centre of the cross section. PROBLEM 4 Consider a simply supported beam subject to the distributed load sketched below. a) Determine the equations of shear force V(x) and bending-moment M(x); b) plot V(x) and M(x) along the beam axis; c) assuming the cross section is square and has length a , determine the position along the beam where the maximum normal stress occurs and the value of such maximum normal stress; d) determine the position along the beam where the maximum shear stress occurs and the value of such maximum shear stress.

ENGR216: Mechanics and Vibrations Tutorial sheet 1 Michaelmas Term AY 2015/2016 Problems will be solved in class in week 5 PROBLEM 1 A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity E1 has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of cross-sectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. A force P is applied on a rigid plate attached to both tube and rod, as shown in the sketch below. Determine: a) the horizontal displacement of the rigid plate; b) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=E2; c) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=2E2; HINT: deformation of tube and rod is constrained to be the same. PROBLEM 2 A steel beam has a rectangular cross section of height lx=20 mm and width ly=30 mm, and length lz=1 m (lengths lx, ly and lz are measured respectively along x, y and z axes of a Cartesian system). The material of the beam has Young modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson ratio ν=0.29, and maximum allowable normal stress of 175 MPa. The beam is subject to a compressive centric axial load Pz of 80 KN applied at its ends (load acts along z axis). a) State whether the area of the cross section of the beam will increase or decrease under the effect of the applied centric axial load and explain why. b) Determine the variation of the section height lx in mm, indicating if such variation is a contraction or an elongation. c) Determine the maximum axial load (Pz)max applicable to the beam and the maximum shear stress in these conditions. d) In the loading condition (c), state whether the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis leading to a zero variation of the section height lx is compressive or tensile and justify your answer. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis resulting in zero variation of the section height lx. f) After application of the uniformly distributed normal load, determine the bulk modulus and the beam dilatation indicating its sign. PROBLEM 3 A beam has a constant circular cross section of radius 20 mm, and is subject to a tensile axial load of 4 KN. a) Determine the magnitude of the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at the centre of the section. b) In the loading condition (a), state whether a neutral axis exists or not, and explain why. c) State whether the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at 10 mm from the centre of the section is compressive or tensile and explain why. d) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the cross section. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the distance of the neutral axis from the centre of the cross section. PROBLEM 4 Consider a simply supported beam subject to the distributed load sketched below. a) Determine the equations of shear force V(x) and bending-moment M(x); b) plot V(x) and M(x) along the beam axis; c) assuming the cross section is square and has length a , determine the position along the beam where the maximum normal stress occurs and the value of such maximum normal stress; d) determine the position along the beam where the maximum shear stress occurs and the value of such maximum shear stress.

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