Lectorial 5: The Gravitron The Gravitron (shown in figure 1 [1]) is a carnival ride designed to simulate the experience of zero gravity. The ride consists of a 15 metre diameter circular chamber which spins around a centre shaft. The spinning motion applies a force to the occupants of the ride pinning them up against their seat. Figure 1: The Gravitron carnival ride. For this lectorial task we want to study the forces being applied to the ride’s occupants and determine the g-forces they would be experiencing. According to physics, the rules for uniform circular motion are: where: 1. If the ride has a maximum rotational speed of 24 revolutions per minute (rpm), determine the force being applied to the ride’s occupants. What gforces are the people experiencing (assume occupants are 65 kg adults)? [1] “Gravitron” used under Creative Commons licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/). Photo by: bobdole369 Newtons 2 r v F = ma = m angular speed in radians per second rotational speed in revolutions per second (or Hz) radius of the Gravitron tangential velocity of the Gravitron mass of occupant = = = = = w f r v m -1 v = wr ms w = 2pf rad/sec Typically the Gravitron ride takes approximately 20 seconds to reach its maximum rotational speed of 24 rpms and the whole ride lasts for around 80 seconds. This means the ride’s occupants are exposed to non-uniform circular motion meaning there is changing linear velocity at certain parts of the ride. For non-uniform circular motion the following formulae are useful: where: A GPS tracking device was attached to a person in the Gravitron and data was obtained about their x,y displacement vs. time over the 80 second duration of the ride. The data was saved in a .csv file called ‘gravitron.csv.’ This file contains three columns: time, x-displacement and y-displacement, e.g.: Time, sec x-displacement y-displacement 0.00 0.10 0.20 … 2. Download this .csv file from Blackboard. Find the g-forces being applied to the ride’s occupants for the whole 80 second duration of the ride. Again assume the occupants are 65 kg adults. Think about how you could effectively present these results. -2 2 ms r v -1 a = 2 2 ms     +     = dt dy dt dx v centripetal acceleration time in seconds displacement in y direction displacement in x direction = = = = a t y x

Lectorial 5: The Gravitron The Gravitron (shown in figure 1 [1]) is a carnival ride designed to simulate the experience of zero gravity. The ride consists of a 15 metre diameter circular chamber which spins around a centre shaft. The spinning motion applies a force to the occupants of the ride pinning them up against their seat. Figure 1: The Gravitron carnival ride. For this lectorial task we want to study the forces being applied to the ride’s occupants and determine the g-forces they would be experiencing. According to physics, the rules for uniform circular motion are: where: 1. If the ride has a maximum rotational speed of 24 revolutions per minute (rpm), determine the force being applied to the ride’s occupants. What gforces are the people experiencing (assume occupants are 65 kg adults)? [1] “Gravitron” used under Creative Commons licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/). Photo by: bobdole369 Newtons 2 r v F = ma = m angular speed in radians per second rotational speed in revolutions per second (or Hz) radius of the Gravitron tangential velocity of the Gravitron mass of occupant = = = = = w f r v m -1 v = wr ms w = 2pf rad/sec Typically the Gravitron ride takes approximately 20 seconds to reach its maximum rotational speed of 24 rpms and the whole ride lasts for around 80 seconds. This means the ride’s occupants are exposed to non-uniform circular motion meaning there is changing linear velocity at certain parts of the ride. For non-uniform circular motion the following formulae are useful: where: A GPS tracking device was attached to a person in the Gravitron and data was obtained about their x,y displacement vs. time over the 80 second duration of the ride. The data was saved in a .csv file called ‘gravitron.csv.’ This file contains three columns: time, x-displacement and y-displacement, e.g.: Time, sec x-displacement y-displacement 0.00 0.10 0.20 … 2. Download this .csv file from Blackboard. Find the g-forces being applied to the ride’s occupants for the whole 80 second duration of the ride. Again assume the occupants are 65 kg adults. Think about how you could effectively present these results. -2 2 ms r v -1 a = 2 2 ms     +     = dt dy dt dx v centripetal acceleration time in seconds displacement in y direction displacement in x direction = = = = a t y x

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Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

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A proposed space station consists of a large circular disk with the living quarters on the rim of circular ring, 63.0m in diameter. What speed should the rim of the ring have, so that the occupants feel that they have the same weight as they do on Earth?

A proposed space station consists of a large circular disk with the living quarters on the rim of circular ring, 63.0m in diameter. What speed should the rim of the ring have, so that the occupants feel that they have the same weight as they do on Earth?

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Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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