Chapter 06 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A Which of the following represents an example of intraspecific exploitation competition? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A A species’s realized niche _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Two species of ant compete for limited resources in a front yard, until only one species is able to remain. This is an example of _____. ANSWER: Hungry and fighting for a meal, a jackal quickly consumes the carcass of a young antelope while fighting off the feeding efforts of a vulture. Two species of worker ants converge on pieces of a donut left behind from the people in the park. The leaves of the huge hickory tree overshadow the young hickory tree saplings struggling for light just below. Spotting a fresh source of grasses, the large male bison moves over to graze, pushing the smaller bison out of the way. is smaller than the fundamental niche because of the constraints of competition is broader than a species’s fundamental niche does not overlap with similar species includes environmental conditions that are not included in the fundamental niche Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A In which of the following situations would we expect a parasite to spread the fastest? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Many plants have evolved adaptations to discourage herbivore feeding. Which one of the following is an example of such coevolution between bison and prairie plants? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A When predators selectively prey on the old and sick members of a prey population, they _____. ANSWER: mutualism intraspecific competition the competitive exclusion principle niche differentiation concentrated hosts with slowly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with rapidly moving vectors concentrated hosts with rapidly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with slow-moving vectors the ability to regrow after a wildfire thorns the production of nutritious fruits longer and thicker roots Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Cattle egrets are large white birds that follow grazing cattle. The cattle disturb the grass and stir up insects upon which the egrets feed. The cattle do not seem to mind the birds and gain nothing from this relationship. This relationship between cattle and cattle egrets is a type of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following is a mutualistic relationship that has a significant effect on an entire ecological community? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Which one of the following relationships would be considered a win/win? ANSWER: cause the overall health of the prey population to increase illustrate the process of prey switching increase the likelihood of parasitic infections of the prey cause the overall health of the prey population to decrease parasitism commensalism mimicry mutualism Polar bears are the top predator influencing the abundance of seals and sea lions in a region. Hermit crabs inhabit the abandoned shells of marine snails that died long ago. Fungus-plant root associations benefit most of the plants living in a prairie. Mosquitoes function as a vector in the widespread transmission of malaria to people living in Ecuador. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In examining a terrestrial food web, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Energy is lost as it moves from one trophic level to the next because _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The research on the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park reveals that in this ecosystem, wolves represent _____. ANSWER: mutualism predation parasitism commensalism biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of producers number of secondary consumers exceeds the number of producers biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of secondary consumers number of tertiary consumers exceeds the number of secondary consumers one trophic level does not consume the entire trophic level below it some of the calories consumed drive cellular activities and do not add mass some ingested materials are undigested and eliminated All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Overhunting of deer followed by a very difficult winter caused the deer population on an island to drop by 80%. In the next two years, visitors to the island were surprised to see many young trees sprouting up at the edges of the forest. This change in the number of saplings as a result of the decline of the deer population represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount Saint Helens blasted away soil and produced massive mudflows that scoured the adjacent region down to bare rock. Pumice rock that covered the area is eroding down to smaller gravel. This situation represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A In some ecosystems, succession increases the chance of disturbance. In these ecosystems, _____. a keystone producer a keystone herbivore a vital primary consumer a keystone predator a trophic cascade a decline in trophic level efficiency the emergence of a new ecological community a loss of a trophic level from a food web primary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with several ecological legacies primary succession with several ecological legacies Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A A forest is logged, leaving behind the seeds and saplings of many shrubs and trees. These seeds and saplings represent _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A During primary succession, populations of different species replace one another over time because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following represents a climax community in southern Alaska? ANSWER: ecosystems begin again with primary succession climax communities are expected climax communities may not occur disturbances usually result in virtually no ecological legacy ecological legacies a climax community primary succession pioneer species migration facilitation competition All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A In general, _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. the group of species associated with a white spruce forest lichens and mosses that colonize exposed rock birch and alder trees herbs and a few low shrubs that replace lichens and mosses food webs usually have 8-10 trophic levels food webs are interconnected food chains food chains consist of many interrelated food webs food webs consist of either consumers or producers Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A Which of the following represents an example of intraspecific exploitation competition? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A A species’s realized niche _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Two species of ant compete for limited resources in a front yard, until only one species is able to remain. This is an example of _____. ANSWER: Hungry and fighting for a meal, a jackal quickly consumes the carcass of a young antelope while fighting off the feeding efforts of a vulture. Two species of worker ants converge on pieces of a donut left behind from the people in the park. The leaves of the huge hickory tree overshadow the young hickory tree saplings struggling for light just below. Spotting a fresh source of grasses, the large male bison moves over to graze, pushing the smaller bison out of the way. is smaller than the fundamental niche because of the constraints of competition is broader than a species’s fundamental niche does not overlap with similar species includes environmental conditions that are not included in the fundamental niche Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A In which of the following situations would we expect a parasite to spread the fastest? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Many plants have evolved adaptations to discourage herbivore feeding. Which one of the following is an example of such coevolution between bison and prairie plants? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A When predators selectively prey on the old and sick members of a prey population, they _____. ANSWER: mutualism intraspecific competition the competitive exclusion principle niche differentiation concentrated hosts with slowly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with rapidly moving vectors concentrated hosts with rapidly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with slow-moving vectors the ability to regrow after a wildfire thorns the production of nutritious fruits longer and thicker roots Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Cattle egrets are large white birds that follow grazing cattle. The cattle disturb the grass and stir up insects upon which the egrets feed. The cattle do not seem to mind the birds and gain nothing from this relationship. This relationship between cattle and cattle egrets is a type of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following is a mutualistic relationship that has a significant effect on an entire ecological community? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Which one of the following relationships would be considered a win/win? ANSWER: cause the overall health of the prey population to increase illustrate the process of prey switching increase the likelihood of parasitic infections of the prey cause the overall health of the prey population to decrease parasitism commensalism mimicry mutualism Polar bears are the top predator influencing the abundance of seals and sea lions in a region. Hermit crabs inhabit the abandoned shells of marine snails that died long ago. Fungus-plant root associations benefit most of the plants living in a prairie. Mosquitoes function as a vector in the widespread transmission of malaria to people living in Ecuador. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In examining a terrestrial food web, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Energy is lost as it moves from one trophic level to the next because _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The research on the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park reveals that in this ecosystem, wolves represent _____. ANSWER: mutualism predation parasitism commensalism biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of producers number of secondary consumers exceeds the number of producers biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of secondary consumers number of tertiary consumers exceeds the number of secondary consumers one trophic level does not consume the entire trophic level below it some of the calories consumed drive cellular activities and do not add mass some ingested materials are undigested and eliminated All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Overhunting of deer followed by a very difficult winter caused the deer population on an island to drop by 80%. In the next two years, visitors to the island were surprised to see many young trees sprouting up at the edges of the forest. This change in the number of saplings as a result of the decline of the deer population represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount Saint Helens blasted away soil and produced massive mudflows that scoured the adjacent region down to bare rock. Pumice rock that covered the area is eroding down to smaller gravel. This situation represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A In some ecosystems, succession increases the chance of disturbance. In these ecosystems, _____. a keystone producer a keystone herbivore a vital primary consumer a keystone predator a trophic cascade a decline in trophic level efficiency the emergence of a new ecological community a loss of a trophic level from a food web primary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with several ecological legacies primary succession with several ecological legacies Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A A forest is logged, leaving behind the seeds and saplings of many shrubs and trees. These seeds and saplings represent _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A During primary succession, populations of different species replace one another over time because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following represents a climax community in southern Alaska? ANSWER: ecosystems begin again with primary succession climax communities are expected climax communities may not occur disturbances usually result in virtually no ecological legacy ecological legacies a climax community primary succession pioneer species migration facilitation competition All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A In general, _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. the group of species associated with a white spruce forest lichens and mosses that colonize exposed rock birch and alder trees herbs and a few low shrubs that replace lichens and mosses food webs usually have 8-10 trophic levels food webs are interconnected food chains food chains consist of many interrelated food webs food webs consist of either consumers or producers Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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ECON 101 FALL 2015 EXAM 1 NAME:______________________________ 1. Suppose the price elasticity of demand for cheeseburgers equals 1.37. This means the overall demand for cheeseburgers is: A) price elastic. B) price inelastic. C) price unit-elastic. D) perfectly price inelastic. 2. The price elasticity of demand for skiing lessons in New Hampshire is less than 1.00. This means that the demand is ______ in New Hampshire. A) price elastic B) price inelastic C) price unit-elastic D) perfectly price elastic 3. If the demand for textbooks is price inelastic, which of the following would explain this? A) Many alternative textbooks can be used as substitutes. B) Students have a lot of time to adjust to price changes. C) Textbook purchases consume a large portion of most students’ income. D) The good is a necessity. 4. A major state university in the South recently raised tuition by 12%. An economics professor at this university asked his students, “Due to the increase in tuition, how many of you will transfer to another university?” One student out of about 300 said that he or she would transfer. Based on this information, the price elasticity of demand for education at this university is: (Hint: one out of 300 is how much of a percentage change? Which percentage change is greater – tuition or transfer? Apply the basic formula for elasticity that I put on the board a few times.) A) one. B) highly elastic. C) highly inelastic. D) zero. 5. Suppose the price elasticity of demand for fishing lures equals 1 in South Carolina and 0.63 in Alabama. To increase revenue, fishing lure manufacturers should: (Hint: If the demand for a product is inelastic, the price can go up and you’ll still buy it, since there are no or few substitutes. If the demand for a product is elastic, the price can go up and you’ll probably walk away from it, since substitutes are available. How might this info impact the pricing strategies of firms?) A) lower prices in each state. B) raise prices in each state. C) lower prices in South Carolina and raise prices in Alabama. D) leave prices unchanged in South Carolina and raise prices in Alabama. Read your syllabus and answer questions 6 through 10: 6. T or F: Disruptive classroom behavior includes the following: chatting with fellow students, use of electronic devices such as laptops, tablets, notebooks, and cell phones, reading or studying during class, sleeping, arriving late, departing early, studying for another class, or in any other way disturbing the class. 7. T or F: It’s OK to use my computer in class or play with my phone. There is no penalty attached to these activities and Keiser doesn’t really mind. 8. T or F: It’s OK to show up late for class and disrupt one of Keiser’s swashbuckling lectures. 9. T or F: Attendance is highly optional since it doesn’t impact my final course grade. 10. T or F: I should blow off the career plan/business plan assignment in this course because it’s unimportant to my future and not worth many points. 11. Jacquelyn is a student at a major state university. Which of the following is not an example of an explicit, or direct, cost of her attending college? A) Tuition B) Textbooks C) the salary that she could have earned working full time D) computer lab fees 12. The two principles of tax fairness are: A) the minimize distortions principle and the maximize revenue principle. B) the benefits principle and the ability-to-pay principle. C) the proportional tax principle and the ability-to-pay principle. D) the equity principle and the efficiency principle. 13. The benefits principles says: A) the amount of tax paid depends on the measure of value. B) those who benefit from public spending should bear the burden of the tax that pays for that spending. C) those with greater ability to pay should pay more tax. D) those who benefit from the tax should pay the same percentage of the tax base as those who do not benefit. 14. A tax that rises less than in proportion to income is described as: (Hint: This would have more of a negative impact on lower income earners vs. higher income earners.) A) progressive. B) proportional. C) regressive. D) structural. 15. The U.S. income tax is _______, while the payroll tax is _______. (Hint: Think income tax vs. Social Security tax.) A) progressive; progressive C) regressive; progressive B) progressive; regressive D) regressive; regressive 16. Who is currently leading in the polls to receive the Republican nomination as that party’s presidential candidate? A) Qasem Soleimani B) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi C) Osama bin Laden D) Donald J. Trump 17. The single most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: A) stay in frickin’ school B) stay in school and make a plan for life and my career C) the use of cheese for skyscraper construction D) both A and B above 18. Market equilibrium occurs when: A) there is no incentive for prices to change in the market. B) quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. C) the market clears. D) all of the above occur. 19. Excess supply occurs when: (Hint: Draw a supply and demand graph! Think about price ceilings and floors and the graphs of these we discussed in class.) A) the price is above the equilibrium price. B) the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. C) the price is below the equilibrium price. D) both b and c occur. 20. The single most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: a. stay in school and look into either a study abroad or internship experience b. stay in school and make a plan for life and my career c. the untimely demise of Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe d. both a. and b. above 21. According to the textbook definition, mainstream microeconomics generally focuses on a. how individual decision-making units, like households and firms, make economic decisions. b. the performance of the national economy and policies to improve this performance. c. the relationship between economic and political institutions. d. the general level of prices in the national economy. 22. Which of the following is the best summary of the three basic economic questions? a. Who? Why? and When? b. What? How? and Who? c. When? Where? and Why? d. What? Where? and Who? 23. Which of the following is not one of the basic economic resources? a. land b. labor c. capital d. cheese e. entrepreneurship 24. The largest country in the Arabian Peninsula and home to the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina is: a. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia b. California c. Spain d. Kentucky 25. T or F: The law of demand explains the upward slope of the supply curve. 26. In economics, a “marginal” value refers to: a. the value associated with an important or marginal activity. b. a value entered as an explanatory item in the margin of a balance sheet or other accounts. c. the value associated with one more unit of an activity. d. a value that is most appropriately identified in a footnote. 27. A government mandated price that is below the market equilibrium price is sometimes called. . . (Hint: Draw a graph again and think about what the government is trying to accomplish.) a. a price ceiling. b. a price floor. c. a market clearing price. d. a reservation price. 28. T or F: Entering the US job market without any education or training is crazy and should be avoided. Stay in frickin’ school, baby! 29. The law of demand states that, other things equal: a. as the price increases, the quantity demanded will increase. b. as the price decreases, the demand curve will shift to the right. c. as the price increases, the quantity demanded will decrease. d. none of the above. 30. The law of supply says: a. other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good is inversely related to the price of the good. b. other things equal, the supply of a good creates its own demand. c. other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good is positively related to the price of the good. d. none of the above. 31. A perfectly inelastic demand curve is: a. horizontal. b. downward sloping. c. upward sloping. d. vertical. 32. A trade-off involves weighing costs and benefits. a. true b. false 33. A perfectly elastic demand curve is: a. horizontal. b. downward sloping. c. upward sloping. d. vertical. 34. The second most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: a. despair is not an option b. Donald J. Trump’s hair is real c. the use of cheese for skyscraper construction d. none of the above 35. T or F: Virtually any news item has important economic dimensions and consequences. 36. T or F: When studying economics, always think in terms of historical context. 37. This popular Asian country is populated by 1.3 billion people, has the world’s second largest economy, and uses a language that’s been in continuous use for nearly 5,000 years: a. Kentucky b. California c. Spain d. China 38. T or F: The top priority in my life right now should be my education and an internship experience. Without these, the job market is going to kick my butt! 39. Which of the following is a key side effect generated by the use of price ceilings? a. black markets b. products with too high of quality c. an excess supply of a good d. too many resources artificially channeled into the production of a good 40. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic principles for understanding individual choice? a. Resources are scarce. b. The real cost of something is the money that you must pay to get it. c. “How much?” is a decision at the margin. d. People usually take advantage of opportunities to make themselves better off. 41. A hot mixture of pan drippings, flour, and water is commonly known as: a. interest rates and expected future real GDP. b. interest rates and current real GDP. c. inflation and expected future real GDP. d. gravy. 42. The example we used in class when discussing the inefficiency of quantity quotas was: a. Uber b. General Electric c. AT&T d. the KSU marching band 43. The term we learned in class signifying a key method of non-price competition is: a. excess supply chain management b. arbitrage c. swashbuckling d. product differentiation 44. When discussing market failure and the role of regulation in class, which company/product did we use as an example? a. Pabst Blue Ribbon b. JetBlue c. Blue Bell d. Blue Apron 45. Governments may place relatively high sales taxes on goods such as alcohol and tobacco because: a. such taxes are a significant source of revenue b. such goods exhibit inelastic demand c. such taxes may discourage use of these products d. all of the above 46. When discussing the cost of higher education in class, which country did we cite as an example of one that offers free college for qualifying students? a. USSR b. Rhodesia c. Czechoslovakia d. Germany 47. Which of the following is not an example of market failure we discussed in class? a. externalities b. public goods c. fungible goods d. common pool resources e. equity 48. T or F: As we discussed in class, the real reason why the US has lost jobs to China is the “most favored nation” (MFN) trading status granted to China by the US back in the 1980s. 49. The dude we talked about in class who coined the expression “invisible hand” and promoted self-interest and competition in his famous book “The Wealth of Nations” is: a. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi b. Ali Khamenei c. Donald J. Trump d. Adam Smith 50. When studying for your final exams and attempting to allocate your limited time among several subjects in order to maximize your course grades (recall, we talked about this example during the first week of class), you’re almost unconsciously engaging in a form of: a. fraud b. miscellaneous serendipity b. mitosis d. marginal analysis

ECON 101 FALL 2015 EXAM 1 NAME:______________________________ 1. Suppose the price elasticity of demand for cheeseburgers equals 1.37. This means the overall demand for cheeseburgers is: A) price elastic. B) price inelastic. C) price unit-elastic. D) perfectly price inelastic. 2. The price elasticity of demand for skiing lessons in New Hampshire is less than 1.00. This means that the demand is ______ in New Hampshire. A) price elastic B) price inelastic C) price unit-elastic D) perfectly price elastic 3. If the demand for textbooks is price inelastic, which of the following would explain this? A) Many alternative textbooks can be used as substitutes. B) Students have a lot of time to adjust to price changes. C) Textbook purchases consume a large portion of most students’ income. D) The good is a necessity. 4. A major state university in the South recently raised tuition by 12%. An economics professor at this university asked his students, “Due to the increase in tuition, how many of you will transfer to another university?” One student out of about 300 said that he or she would transfer. Based on this information, the price elasticity of demand for education at this university is: (Hint: one out of 300 is how much of a percentage change? Which percentage change is greater – tuition or transfer? Apply the basic formula for elasticity that I put on the board a few times.) A) one. B) highly elastic. C) highly inelastic. D) zero. 5. Suppose the price elasticity of demand for fishing lures equals 1 in South Carolina and 0.63 in Alabama. To increase revenue, fishing lure manufacturers should: (Hint: If the demand for a product is inelastic, the price can go up and you’ll still buy it, since there are no or few substitutes. If the demand for a product is elastic, the price can go up and you’ll probably walk away from it, since substitutes are available. How might this info impact the pricing strategies of firms?) A) lower prices in each state. B) raise prices in each state. C) lower prices in South Carolina and raise prices in Alabama. D) leave prices unchanged in South Carolina and raise prices in Alabama. Read your syllabus and answer questions 6 through 10: 6. T or F: Disruptive classroom behavior includes the following: chatting with fellow students, use of electronic devices such as laptops, tablets, notebooks, and cell phones, reading or studying during class, sleeping, arriving late, departing early, studying for another class, or in any other way disturbing the class. 7. T or F: It’s OK to use my computer in class or play with my phone. There is no penalty attached to these activities and Keiser doesn’t really mind. 8. T or F: It’s OK to show up late for class and disrupt one of Keiser’s swashbuckling lectures. 9. T or F: Attendance is highly optional since it doesn’t impact my final course grade. 10. T or F: I should blow off the career plan/business plan assignment in this course because it’s unimportant to my future and not worth many points. 11. Jacquelyn is a student at a major state university. Which of the following is not an example of an explicit, or direct, cost of her attending college? A) Tuition B) Textbooks C) the salary that she could have earned working full time D) computer lab fees 12. The two principles of tax fairness are: A) the minimize distortions principle and the maximize revenue principle. B) the benefits principle and the ability-to-pay principle. C) the proportional tax principle and the ability-to-pay principle. D) the equity principle and the efficiency principle. 13. The benefits principles says: A) the amount of tax paid depends on the measure of value. B) those who benefit from public spending should bear the burden of the tax that pays for that spending. C) those with greater ability to pay should pay more tax. D) those who benefit from the tax should pay the same percentage of the tax base as those who do not benefit. 14. A tax that rises less than in proportion to income is described as: (Hint: This would have more of a negative impact on lower income earners vs. higher income earners.) A) progressive. B) proportional. C) regressive. D) structural. 15. The U.S. income tax is _______, while the payroll tax is _______. (Hint: Think income tax vs. Social Security tax.) A) progressive; progressive C) regressive; progressive B) progressive; regressive D) regressive; regressive 16. Who is currently leading in the polls to receive the Republican nomination as that party’s presidential candidate? A) Qasem Soleimani B) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi C) Osama bin Laden D) Donald J. Trump 17. The single most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: A) stay in frickin’ school B) stay in school and make a plan for life and my career C) the use of cheese for skyscraper construction D) both A and B above 18. Market equilibrium occurs when: A) there is no incentive for prices to change in the market. B) quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. C) the market clears. D) all of the above occur. 19. Excess supply occurs when: (Hint: Draw a supply and demand graph! Think about price ceilings and floors and the graphs of these we discussed in class.) A) the price is above the equilibrium price. B) the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. C) the price is below the equilibrium price. D) both b and c occur. 20. The single most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: a. stay in school and look into either a study abroad or internship experience b. stay in school and make a plan for life and my career c. the untimely demise of Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe d. both a. and b. above 21. According to the textbook definition, mainstream microeconomics generally focuses on a. how individual decision-making units, like households and firms, make economic decisions. b. the performance of the national economy and policies to improve this performance. c. the relationship between economic and political institutions. d. the general level of prices in the national economy. 22. Which of the following is the best summary of the three basic economic questions? a. Who? Why? and When? b. What? How? and Who? c. When? Where? and Why? d. What? Where? and Who? 23. Which of the following is not one of the basic economic resources? a. land b. labor c. capital d. cheese e. entrepreneurship 24. The largest country in the Arabian Peninsula and home to the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina is: a. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia b. California c. Spain d. Kentucky 25. T or F: The law of demand explains the upward slope of the supply curve. 26. In economics, a “marginal” value refers to: a. the value associated with an important or marginal activity. b. a value entered as an explanatory item in the margin of a balance sheet or other accounts. c. the value associated with one more unit of an activity. d. a value that is most appropriately identified in a footnote. 27. A government mandated price that is below the market equilibrium price is sometimes called. . . (Hint: Draw a graph again and think about what the government is trying to accomplish.) a. a price ceiling. b. a price floor. c. a market clearing price. d. a reservation price. 28. T or F: Entering the US job market without any education or training is crazy and should be avoided. Stay in frickin’ school, baby! 29. The law of demand states that, other things equal: a. as the price increases, the quantity demanded will increase. b. as the price decreases, the demand curve will shift to the right. c. as the price increases, the quantity demanded will decrease. d. none of the above. 30. The law of supply says: a. other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good is inversely related to the price of the good. b. other things equal, the supply of a good creates its own demand. c. other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good is positively related to the price of the good. d. none of the above. 31. A perfectly inelastic demand curve is: a. horizontal. b. downward sloping. c. upward sloping. d. vertical. 32. A trade-off involves weighing costs and benefits. a. true b. false 33. A perfectly elastic demand curve is: a. horizontal. b. downward sloping. c. upward sloping. d. vertical. 34. The second most important thing I’ve learned in class this term is: a. despair is not an option b. Donald J. Trump’s hair is real c. the use of cheese for skyscraper construction d. none of the above 35. T or F: Virtually any news item has important economic dimensions and consequences. 36. T or F: When studying economics, always think in terms of historical context. 37. This popular Asian country is populated by 1.3 billion people, has the world’s second largest economy, and uses a language that’s been in continuous use for nearly 5,000 years: a. Kentucky b. California c. Spain d. China 38. T or F: The top priority in my life right now should be my education and an internship experience. Without these, the job market is going to kick my butt! 39. Which of the following is a key side effect generated by the use of price ceilings? a. black markets b. products with too high of quality c. an excess supply of a good d. too many resources artificially channeled into the production of a good 40. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic principles for understanding individual choice? a. Resources are scarce. b. The real cost of something is the money that you must pay to get it. c. “How much?” is a decision at the margin. d. People usually take advantage of opportunities to make themselves better off. 41. A hot mixture of pan drippings, flour, and water is commonly known as: a. interest rates and expected future real GDP. b. interest rates and current real GDP. c. inflation and expected future real GDP. d. gravy. 42. The example we used in class when discussing the inefficiency of quantity quotas was: a. Uber b. General Electric c. AT&T d. the KSU marching band 43. The term we learned in class signifying a key method of non-price competition is: a. excess supply chain management b. arbitrage c. swashbuckling d. product differentiation 44. When discussing market failure and the role of regulation in class, which company/product did we use as an example? a. Pabst Blue Ribbon b. JetBlue c. Blue Bell d. Blue Apron 45. Governments may place relatively high sales taxes on goods such as alcohol and tobacco because: a. such taxes are a significant source of revenue b. such goods exhibit inelastic demand c. such taxes may discourage use of these products d. all of the above 46. When discussing the cost of higher education in class, which country did we cite as an example of one that offers free college for qualifying students? a. USSR b. Rhodesia c. Czechoslovakia d. Germany 47. Which of the following is not an example of market failure we discussed in class? a. externalities b. public goods c. fungible goods d. common pool resources e. equity 48. T or F: As we discussed in class, the real reason why the US has lost jobs to China is the “most favored nation” (MFN) trading status granted to China by the US back in the 1980s. 49. The dude we talked about in class who coined the expression “invisible hand” and promoted self-interest and competition in his famous book “The Wealth of Nations” is: a. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi b. Ali Khamenei c. Donald J. Trump d. Adam Smith 50. When studying for your final exams and attempting to allocate your limited time among several subjects in order to maximize your course grades (recall, we talked about this example during the first week of class), you’re almost unconsciously engaging in a form of: a. fraud b. miscellaneous serendipity b. mitosis d. marginal analysis

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Given the relatively modest number of calories burned by anything but the most vigorous activities, why can people consume over 2,000 kilocalories a day, yet maintain a healthy body weight?

Given the relatively modest number of calories burned by anything but the most vigorous activities, why can people consume over 2,000 kilocalories a day, yet maintain a healthy body weight?

Most of the energy consumed in food is spent maintaining … Read More...
Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

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In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

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Chapter 1 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, February 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Curved Motion Diagram The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a “compass rose” in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet.  Part A What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moment 5? Enter the letter of the arrow with this direction from the compass rose in the figure. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part B What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moments 0 and 10? Enter the letters corresponding to the arrows with these directions from the compass rose in the figure, separated by commas. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again PSS 1.1 Motion Diagrams Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 1.1 for motion diagram problems. A car is traveling with constant velocity along a highway. The driver notices he is late for work, so he stomps down on the gas pedal and the car begins to speed up. The car has just achieved double its directions at time step 0, time step 10 = initial velocity when the driver spots a police officer behind him and applies the brakes. The car then slows down, coming to rest at a stoplight ahead. Draw a complete motion diagram for this situation. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 1.1 Motion diagrams MODEL: Represent the moving object as a particle. Make simplifying assumptions when interpreting the problem statement. VISUALIZE: A complete motion diagram consists of: The position of the object in each frame of the film, shown as a dot. Use five or six dots to make the motion clear but without overcrowding the picture. More complex motions may need more dots. The average velocity vectors, found by connecting each dot in the motion diagram to the next with a vector arrow. There is one velocity vector linking each set of two position dots. Label the row of velocity vectors . The average acceleration vectors, found using Tactics Box 1.3. There is one acceleration vector linking each set of two velocity vectors. Each acceleration vector is drawn at the dot between the two velocity vectors it links. Use to indicate a point at which the acceleration is zero. Label the row of acceleration vectors . Model It is appropriate to use the particle model for the car. You should also make some simplifying assumptions. v 0 a Part A The car’s motion can be divided into three different stages: its motion before the driver realizes he’s late, its motion after the driver hits the gas (but before he sees the police car), and its motion after the driver sees the police car. Which of the following simplifying assumptions is it reasonable to make in this problem? During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant A. acceleration. B. During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant velocity. C. The highway is straight (i.e., there are no curves). D. The highway is level (i.e., there are no hills or valleys). Enter all the correct answers in alphabetical order without commas. For example, if statements C and D are correct, enter CD. ANSWER: Correct In addition to the assumptions listed above, in the rest of this problem assume that the car is moving in a straight line to the right. Visualize Part B In the three diagrams shown to the left, the position of the car at five subsequent instants of time is represented by black dots, and the car’s average velocity is represented by green arrows. Which of these diagrams best describes the position and the velocity of the car before the driver notices he is late? ANSWER: Correct Part C Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver hits the gas, but before he notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct A B C A B C Part D Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the diagrams shown below most accurately depicts the average acceleration vectors of the car during the events described in the problem introduction? ANSWER: A B C Correct You can now draw a complete motion diagram for the situation described in this problem. Your diagram should look like this: Measurements in SI Units Familiarity with SI units will aid your study of physics and all other sciences. Part A What is the approximate height of the average adult in centimeters? Hint 1. Converting between feet and centimeters The distance from your elbow to your fingertips is typically about 50 . A B C cm ANSWER: Correct If you’re not familiar with metric units of length, you can use your body to develop intuition for them. The average height of an adult is 5 6.4 . The distance from elbow to fingertips on the average adult is about 50 . Ten (1 ) is about the width of this adult’s little finger and 10 is about the width of the average hand. Part B Approximately what is the mass of the average adult in kilograms? Hint 1. Converting between pounds and kilograms Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . ANSWER: Correct Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . This is a useful conversion to keep in mind! ± A Trip to Europe 100 200 300 cm cm cm feet inches cm mm cm cm pound 1 kg 2 80 500 1200 kg kg kg pound (1/2) kg Learning Goal: To understand how to use dimensional analysis to solve problems. Dimensional analysis is a useful tool for solving problems that involve unit conversions. Since unit conversion is not limited to physics problems but is part of our everyday life, correct use of conversion factors is essential to working through problems of practical importance. For example, dimensional analysis could be used in problems involving currency exchange. Say you want to calculate how many euros you get if you exchange 3600 ( ), given the exchange rate , that is, 1 to 1.20 . Begin by writing down the starting value, 3600 . This can also be written as a fraction: . Next, convert dollars to euros. This conversion involves multiplying by a simple conversion factor derived from the exchange rate: . Note that the “dollar” unit, , should appear on the bottom of this conversion factor, since appears on the top of the starting value. Finally, since dollars are divided by dollars, the units can be canceled and the final result is . Currency exchange is only one example of many practical situations where dimensional analysis may help you to work through problems. Remember that dimensional analysis involves multiplying a given value by a conversion factor, resulting in a value in the new units. The conversion factor can be the ratio of any two quantities, as long as the ratio is equal to one. You and your friends are organizing a trip to Europe. Your plan is to rent a car and drive through the major European capitals. By consulting a map you estimate that you will cover a total distance of 5000 . Consider the euro-dollar exchange rate given in the introduction and use dimensional analysis to work through these simple problems. Part A You select a rental package that includes a car with an average consumption of 6.00 of fuel per 100 . Considering that in Europe the average fuel cost is 1.063 , how much (in US dollars) will you spend in fuel on your trip? Express your answer numerically in US dollars to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: US dollars USD 1 EUR = 1.20 USD euro US dollars USD 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD USD USD ( )( ) = 3000 EUR 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD km liters km euros/liter Part B How many gallons of fuel would the rental car consume per mile? Express your answer numerically in gallons per mile to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. Cost of fuel = USD gallons/mile

Chapter 1 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, February 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Curved Motion Diagram The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a “compass rose” in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet.  Part A What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moment 5? Enter the letter of the arrow with this direction from the compass rose in the figure. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part B What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moments 0 and 10? Enter the letters corresponding to the arrows with these directions from the compass rose in the figure, separated by commas. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again PSS 1.1 Motion Diagrams Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 1.1 for motion diagram problems. A car is traveling with constant velocity along a highway. The driver notices he is late for work, so he stomps down on the gas pedal and the car begins to speed up. The car has just achieved double its directions at time step 0, time step 10 = initial velocity when the driver spots a police officer behind him and applies the brakes. The car then slows down, coming to rest at a stoplight ahead. Draw a complete motion diagram for this situation. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 1.1 Motion diagrams MODEL: Represent the moving object as a particle. Make simplifying assumptions when interpreting the problem statement. VISUALIZE: A complete motion diagram consists of: The position of the object in each frame of the film, shown as a dot. Use five or six dots to make the motion clear but without overcrowding the picture. More complex motions may need more dots. The average velocity vectors, found by connecting each dot in the motion diagram to the next with a vector arrow. There is one velocity vector linking each set of two position dots. Label the row of velocity vectors . The average acceleration vectors, found using Tactics Box 1.3. There is one acceleration vector linking each set of two velocity vectors. Each acceleration vector is drawn at the dot between the two velocity vectors it links. Use to indicate a point at which the acceleration is zero. Label the row of acceleration vectors . Model It is appropriate to use the particle model for the car. You should also make some simplifying assumptions. v 0 a Part A The car’s motion can be divided into three different stages: its motion before the driver realizes he’s late, its motion after the driver hits the gas (but before he sees the police car), and its motion after the driver sees the police car. Which of the following simplifying assumptions is it reasonable to make in this problem? During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant A. acceleration. B. During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant velocity. C. The highway is straight (i.e., there are no curves). D. The highway is level (i.e., there are no hills or valleys). Enter all the correct answers in alphabetical order without commas. For example, if statements C and D are correct, enter CD. ANSWER: Correct In addition to the assumptions listed above, in the rest of this problem assume that the car is moving in a straight line to the right. Visualize Part B In the three diagrams shown to the left, the position of the car at five subsequent instants of time is represented by black dots, and the car’s average velocity is represented by green arrows. Which of these diagrams best describes the position and the velocity of the car before the driver notices he is late? ANSWER: Correct Part C Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver hits the gas, but before he notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct A B C A B C Part D Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the diagrams shown below most accurately depicts the average acceleration vectors of the car during the events described in the problem introduction? ANSWER: A B C Correct You can now draw a complete motion diagram for the situation described in this problem. Your diagram should look like this: Measurements in SI Units Familiarity with SI units will aid your study of physics and all other sciences. Part A What is the approximate height of the average adult in centimeters? Hint 1. Converting between feet and centimeters The distance from your elbow to your fingertips is typically about 50 . A B C cm ANSWER: Correct If you’re not familiar with metric units of length, you can use your body to develop intuition for them. The average height of an adult is 5 6.4 . The distance from elbow to fingertips on the average adult is about 50 . Ten (1 ) is about the width of this adult’s little finger and 10 is about the width of the average hand. Part B Approximately what is the mass of the average adult in kilograms? Hint 1. Converting between pounds and kilograms Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . ANSWER: Correct Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . This is a useful conversion to keep in mind! ± A Trip to Europe 100 200 300 cm cm cm feet inches cm mm cm cm pound 1 kg 2 80 500 1200 kg kg kg pound (1/2) kg Learning Goal: To understand how to use dimensional analysis to solve problems. Dimensional analysis is a useful tool for solving problems that involve unit conversions. Since unit conversion is not limited to physics problems but is part of our everyday life, correct use of conversion factors is essential to working through problems of practical importance. For example, dimensional analysis could be used in problems involving currency exchange. Say you want to calculate how many euros you get if you exchange 3600 ( ), given the exchange rate , that is, 1 to 1.20 . Begin by writing down the starting value, 3600 . This can also be written as a fraction: . Next, convert dollars to euros. This conversion involves multiplying by a simple conversion factor derived from the exchange rate: . Note that the “dollar” unit, , should appear on the bottom of this conversion factor, since appears on the top of the starting value. Finally, since dollars are divided by dollars, the units can be canceled and the final result is . Currency exchange is only one example of many practical situations where dimensional analysis may help you to work through problems. Remember that dimensional analysis involves multiplying a given value by a conversion factor, resulting in a value in the new units. The conversion factor can be the ratio of any two quantities, as long as the ratio is equal to one. You and your friends are organizing a trip to Europe. Your plan is to rent a car and drive through the major European capitals. By consulting a map you estimate that you will cover a total distance of 5000 . Consider the euro-dollar exchange rate given in the introduction and use dimensional analysis to work through these simple problems. Part A You select a rental package that includes a car with an average consumption of 6.00 of fuel per 100 . Considering that in Europe the average fuel cost is 1.063 , how much (in US dollars) will you spend in fuel on your trip? Express your answer numerically in US dollars to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: US dollars USD 1 EUR = 1.20 USD euro US dollars USD 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD USD USD ( )( ) = 3000 EUR 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD km liters km euros/liter Part B How many gallons of fuel would the rental car consume per mile? Express your answer numerically in gallons per mile to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. Cost of fuel = USD gallons/mile

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