Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Standard based Curriculum In standard based curriculum, the initial point … Read More...
Evaluation Methodology , Fall 2015 EVALUATION PROPOSAL GUIDELINES The evaluation proposal is a major application of knowledge assignment for this course. The proposal should represent your cumulative knowledge of evaluation research methodology. You may be required to submit part of this assignment in sequential stages. If so, you will be provided, in writing, the due dates for the various aspects of the proposal. The date for the submission of the entire proposal is indicated in your course outline. The below components must be included in the proposal. I. Introduction (maximum 10 pages) A. Description of the Program and Organization (the Evaluand) (In this section, be sure to describe who, what, when, and how long the program has been in place; describe the program, types of people involved in the program, and the types of services offered; briefly discussed need for program as determined by program managers) I. Organizational Overview 1. Program Mission, Goals, SMART Objectives, Activities, Resources 2. Organizational Context of the Program II. Program Logic Model of Evaluand (insert program logic model from your previous assignment, attending to feedback from instructor and classmates) III. Significance of the Program and the Evaluation Discuss the Rationale of the Evaluation B. Evaluation Goals, Objectives, and Stakeholders Objectives of the Evaluation Study Description of Key Direct and Indirect Evaluation Stakeholders (e.g., clients, agents, beneficiaries, etc.) Potential Constraints and Barriers of the Evaluation Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) C. Evaluation Approach, Questions and/or Hypotheses Evaluation Approach/Guiding Framework Evaluation Questions (at least three process and three outcome questions) Describe How Evaluation Questions Will Be Generated II. Methodology (maximum 10 pages) A. Participants Target Population/Sample Plan (describe the target population/sample from whom you intend to obtain collect data; justify sampling procedures by relating them to stakeholder characteristics, evaluation questions and criteria, and constraints of the evaluation) Handling Respondents’ Confidentiality and Ethical Concerns (include Informed Consent Form) B. Instrumentation Data Collection Instruments/Measures Describe Measures, Justify Choices, Address Issues of Validity, Reliability, and Cultural/Contextual Relevance; Rationale for Selection of Instruments C. Evaluation Design Data Collection Procedures (Research Design – Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed Methods) Explain Choice for Data Collection Methods Selected D. Data Map (set up a data map or summary table to show how each step of the evaluation is related to each other); see example below) Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) Table 1. Data Map of Evaluation of the Kids House Afterschool Program (An Illustrative Example) Evaluation Questions Methodology Data Collection Strategy Timeline Does the program provide individual tutoring to the children in the community three days per week, as intended? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review copies of program’s weekly service delivery records Ongoing Has the program reached it intended target population? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review documents describing the children being served Six weeks after program start How satisfied are the children and their parents (guardian) with the Kids house Program? Qualitative Focus group interviews with the children in the program and separately with their parents (guardian) Ongoing after two weeks program start Did the children in the Kids House Program demonstrate significant improvements in reading? Quantitative Pretest/Posttest Questionnaire Pretest at first session Posttest at last session E. Projected Statistical Analysis of Data F. Data Collection Schedule (Timetable) (must be described in chart form) G. Standards for Evaluation (describe how your proposed evaluation will meet the Program Evaluation Standards – utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy, accountability and the AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluation) III. Evaluation Products and Communication Plan (maximum two pages) A. Listing of Deliverable or Products Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) B. Communicating Results: The Evaluation Report (describe plan for communicating evaluation findings during the evaluation and at the end of the evaluation – orally? written report? combination? who will you involve in a discussion of the findings and why) . C. Potential Use of Findings for Aiding Direct and Indirect Stakeholders IV. Staffing, Management Plan, and Budget (maximum two pages) A. Describe tasks, deadlines, and who completes them? B. Describe the time, money, and other resources required for addressing your evaluation questions C. Include a narrative a budget and time schedule in table format V. References (minimum of three sources) VI. Appendices (include copies of instruments, consent forms, etc.) VII. Reflective Journaling (Separate Document) Using a diary format, describe// explain what you have learned about yourself and the evaluation profession by taking this course and writing this proposal Other Important Proposal Guidelines A. Typed, double space, 12 point font; one-inch margins on all sides B. Include title page, table of contents, and (if applicable) listing of figures and/or tables C. Maximum of 25 pages (excluding cover page, references, appendices) D. Proper and complete citation for all materials and sources using the American Psychological Association Style Manual (latest edition). Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (cont’d.) E. As a general rule, sources (unless a classic) must be within the past decade and statistical/demographic data no earlier than 2009

Evaluation Methodology , Fall 2015 EVALUATION PROPOSAL GUIDELINES The evaluation proposal is a major application of knowledge assignment for this course. The proposal should represent your cumulative knowledge of evaluation research methodology. You may be required to submit part of this assignment in sequential stages. If so, you will be provided, in writing, the due dates for the various aspects of the proposal. The date for the submission of the entire proposal is indicated in your course outline. The below components must be included in the proposal. I. Introduction (maximum 10 pages) A. Description of the Program and Organization (the Evaluand) (In this section, be sure to describe who, what, when, and how long the program has been in place; describe the program, types of people involved in the program, and the types of services offered; briefly discussed need for program as determined by program managers) I. Organizational Overview 1. Program Mission, Goals, SMART Objectives, Activities, Resources 2. Organizational Context of the Program II. Program Logic Model of Evaluand (insert program logic model from your previous assignment, attending to feedback from instructor and classmates) III. Significance of the Program and the Evaluation Discuss the Rationale of the Evaluation B. Evaluation Goals, Objectives, and Stakeholders Objectives of the Evaluation Study Description of Key Direct and Indirect Evaluation Stakeholders (e.g., clients, agents, beneficiaries, etc.) Potential Constraints and Barriers of the Evaluation Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) C. Evaluation Approach, Questions and/or Hypotheses Evaluation Approach/Guiding Framework Evaluation Questions (at least three process and three outcome questions) Describe How Evaluation Questions Will Be Generated II. Methodology (maximum 10 pages) A. Participants Target Population/Sample Plan (describe the target population/sample from whom you intend to obtain collect data; justify sampling procedures by relating them to stakeholder characteristics, evaluation questions and criteria, and constraints of the evaluation) Handling Respondents’ Confidentiality and Ethical Concerns (include Informed Consent Form) B. Instrumentation Data Collection Instruments/Measures Describe Measures, Justify Choices, Address Issues of Validity, Reliability, and Cultural/Contextual Relevance; Rationale for Selection of Instruments C. Evaluation Design Data Collection Procedures (Research Design – Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed Methods) Explain Choice for Data Collection Methods Selected D. Data Map (set up a data map or summary table to show how each step of the evaluation is related to each other); see example below) Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) Table 1. Data Map of Evaluation of the Kids House Afterschool Program (An Illustrative Example) Evaluation Questions Methodology Data Collection Strategy Timeline Does the program provide individual tutoring to the children in the community three days per week, as intended? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review copies of program’s weekly service delivery records Ongoing Has the program reached it intended target population? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review documents describing the children being served Six weeks after program start How satisfied are the children and their parents (guardian) with the Kids house Program? Qualitative Focus group interviews with the children in the program and separately with their parents (guardian) Ongoing after two weeks program start Did the children in the Kids House Program demonstrate significant improvements in reading? Quantitative Pretest/Posttest Questionnaire Pretest at first session Posttest at last session E. Projected Statistical Analysis of Data F. Data Collection Schedule (Timetable) (must be described in chart form) G. Standards for Evaluation (describe how your proposed evaluation will meet the Program Evaluation Standards – utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy, accountability and the AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluation) III. Evaluation Products and Communication Plan (maximum two pages) A. Listing of Deliverable or Products Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) B. Communicating Results: The Evaluation Report (describe plan for communicating evaluation findings during the evaluation and at the end of the evaluation – orally? written report? combination? who will you involve in a discussion of the findings and why) . C. Potential Use of Findings for Aiding Direct and Indirect Stakeholders IV. Staffing, Management Plan, and Budget (maximum two pages) A. Describe tasks, deadlines, and who completes them? B. Describe the time, money, and other resources required for addressing your evaluation questions C. Include a narrative a budget and time schedule in table format V. References (minimum of three sources) VI. Appendices (include copies of instruments, consent forms, etc.) VII. Reflective Journaling (Separate Document) Using a diary format, describe// explain what you have learned about yourself and the evaluation profession by taking this course and writing this proposal Other Important Proposal Guidelines A. Typed, double space, 12 point font; one-inch margins on all sides B. Include title page, table of contents, and (if applicable) listing of figures and/or tables C. Maximum of 25 pages (excluding cover page, references, appendices) D. Proper and complete citation for all materials and sources using the American Psychological Association Style Manual (latest edition). Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (cont’d.) E. As a general rule, sources (unless a classic) must be within the past decade and statistical/demographic data no earlier than 2009

HIST 303 Rebels and Renegades Comparative Paper – Conroy & Drakulic In a well-written analysis of about 3 pages, compare and contrast Conroy’s Belfast Diary or Drakulic’s How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed in response to the following question: It can be argued that in the midst of deprivation and hardship, people still exercise considerable agency—or the power to act within one’s particular socio-political context. In fact, living the ordinary can be considered an act of rebellion against an imposing power. That is, people use and experience their lives as resistance to oppression or war. This is sometimes referred to as the “politics of everyday life”. How does this concept of agency play out in these works? In your response, do not simply list examples, but analyze the examples by the authors in relation to the larger themes of the course. A successful assignment will (this is a checklist, so heed it well!!!): * have a solid introduction with an arguable thesis; * be well organized with coherent paragraphs relevant to the thesis; * have a concluding paragraph that concisely and accurately summarizes the paper; * adequately analyze the histories and their connections to each other; * use relevant evidence to substantiate claims; * be analytic, not descriptive; * properly cite and punctuate quotations and evidence; * be paginated; * have an interesting title relevant to the argument (e.g. “Comparative Paper” is unacceptable); * be well written, well edited and well documented. Author Specific Points that discuss everyday activities as resistance Relate to your other Reading (Williams, Hall, Hebdige, etc.) Conroy Drakulic Working Thesis: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ****FORMATTING DIRECTIONS: This paper should be 3 – 4 pages (no more), typed, doublespaced, with one-inch margins and 12-point font. This assignment is worth 25% of your grade in this course. You must head your paper with your name and date and include your name and pages (x of x) in a header or footer of each page. At the end of your paper, you must skip four lines then sign with the following: “I attest that the work contained in this document is entirely my own and it numbers x pages.” *****

HIST 303 Rebels and Renegades Comparative Paper – Conroy & Drakulic In a well-written analysis of about 3 pages, compare and contrast Conroy’s Belfast Diary or Drakulic’s How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed in response to the following question: It can be argued that in the midst of deprivation and hardship, people still exercise considerable agency—or the power to act within one’s particular socio-political context. In fact, living the ordinary can be considered an act of rebellion against an imposing power. That is, people use and experience their lives as resistance to oppression or war. This is sometimes referred to as the “politics of everyday life”. How does this concept of agency play out in these works? In your response, do not simply list examples, but analyze the examples by the authors in relation to the larger themes of the course. A successful assignment will (this is a checklist, so heed it well!!!): * have a solid introduction with an arguable thesis; * be well organized with coherent paragraphs relevant to the thesis; * have a concluding paragraph that concisely and accurately summarizes the paper; * adequately analyze the histories and their connections to each other; * use relevant evidence to substantiate claims; * be analytic, not descriptive; * properly cite and punctuate quotations and evidence; * be paginated; * have an interesting title relevant to the argument (e.g. “Comparative Paper” is unacceptable); * be well written, well edited and well documented. Author Specific Points that discuss everyday activities as resistance Relate to your other Reading (Williams, Hall, Hebdige, etc.) Conroy Drakulic Working Thesis: _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ****FORMATTING DIRECTIONS: This paper should be 3 – 4 pages (no more), typed, doublespaced, with one-inch margins and 12-point font. This assignment is worth 25% of your grade in this course. You must head your paper with your name and date and include your name and pages (x of x) in a header or footer of each page. At the end of your paper, you must skip four lines then sign with the following: “I attest that the work contained in this document is entirely my own and it numbers x pages.” *****

Relative analysis of Conroy & Drakulic The Belfast Diary: War … Read More...
Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be … Read More...
Prepare a five page (minimum) paper along with a cover page, a summary (as noted below) and reference page, on a Landmark Supreme Court Case that dealt with Aboriginal rights in Canada within the past 25 years (e.g. choose from those covered in Oct. 22rd class or another one if you find one that was not addressed but fits the criteria of a Supreme Court case that dealt with Aboriginal rights in Canada within the past 25 years). You can complete the assignment as a written paper (1.5 space/12 point font Times New Roman x 4 pages) or you can use points. In either method, provide a detailed response to each of the questions listed below. In addition to the paper that you will submit for grading, prepare a one page summary/cover page that you will present in class on November 12th and share with the other ANIS3006 students (handout, there are 18 students registered in the course). Frame your paper within the context of the following quotes: “Even when we win we lose.” (Chief Dean Sayers, Batchewana First Nation, commenting on Anishinabe experience in Canadian courts). “For the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house. They may allow us to temporarily beat him at his own game, but they will never enable us to bring about genuine change. Racism and homophobia are real conditions of all our lives in this place and time. I urge each one of us here to reach down into that deep place of knowledge inside herself [himself] and touch that terror and loathing of any difference that lives here. See whose face it wears. Then the personal as the political can begin to illuminate all our choices.” (Audre Lorde, feminist) In your paper, answer this broader question: How has the case you’ve selected served to advance Anishinabe rights in Canada? Describe what was gained and consider at what cost (“Even when we win, we lose.”) Address the following, and add anything that you find significant about the case, its process, its outcome and subsequent impact: • What was the basis of the court case? • What happened (e.g. Anishinabe people charged, by who, what charge)? • Who took the issue to court (who was the claimant, against who)? • What was the basis of the claim (be specific)? How was the issue framed/presented? • Who supported the court case (locally, regionally, nationally)? How did they support it? What was the impact of their support (e.g. political, financial, public awareness, protests, etc.)? • How long did it take from initiating the claim to decision (specific dates, chronology)? • What happened? What was the lower court’s decision? How did the case move through to the Supreme Court? What was the final Supreme Court decisions? • What did the Supreme Court’s decision mean in terms of Aboriginal rights in Canada? (What was gained, what was lost)? • Anything else of note relating to the case, its process or outcome. • Answer if and how the Supreme Court decision formed the basis for changes in Canadian government policies or practice concerning Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. In other words, what has the outcome of the Supreme Court decision been to date?

Prepare a five page (minimum) paper along with a cover page, a summary (as noted below) and reference page, on a Landmark Supreme Court Case that dealt with Aboriginal rights in Canada within the past 25 years (e.g. choose from those covered in Oct. 22rd class or another one if you find one that was not addressed but fits the criteria of a Supreme Court case that dealt with Aboriginal rights in Canada within the past 25 years). You can complete the assignment as a written paper (1.5 space/12 point font Times New Roman x 4 pages) or you can use points. In either method, provide a detailed response to each of the questions listed below. In addition to the paper that you will submit for grading, prepare a one page summary/cover page that you will present in class on November 12th and share with the other ANIS3006 students (handout, there are 18 students registered in the course). Frame your paper within the context of the following quotes: “Even when we win we lose.” (Chief Dean Sayers, Batchewana First Nation, commenting on Anishinabe experience in Canadian courts). “For the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house. They may allow us to temporarily beat him at his own game, but they will never enable us to bring about genuine change. Racism and homophobia are real conditions of all our lives in this place and time. I urge each one of us here to reach down into that deep place of knowledge inside herself [himself] and touch that terror and loathing of any difference that lives here. See whose face it wears. Then the personal as the political can begin to illuminate all our choices.” (Audre Lorde, feminist) In your paper, answer this broader question: How has the case you’ve selected served to advance Anishinabe rights in Canada? Describe what was gained and consider at what cost (“Even when we win, we lose.”) Address the following, and add anything that you find significant about the case, its process, its outcome and subsequent impact: • What was the basis of the court case? • What happened (e.g. Anishinabe people charged, by who, what charge)? • Who took the issue to court (who was the claimant, against who)? • What was the basis of the claim (be specific)? How was the issue framed/presented? • Who supported the court case (locally, regionally, nationally)? How did they support it? What was the impact of their support (e.g. political, financial, public awareness, protests, etc.)? • How long did it take from initiating the claim to decision (specific dates, chronology)? • What happened? What was the lower court’s decision? How did the case move through to the Supreme Court? What was the final Supreme Court decisions? • What did the Supreme Court’s decision mean in terms of Aboriginal rights in Canada? (What was gained, what was lost)? • Anything else of note relating to the case, its process or outcome. • Answer if and how the Supreme Court decision formed the basis for changes in Canadian government policies or practice concerning Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. In other words, what has the outcome of the Supreme Court decision been to date?

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CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

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Our readings on statistics this week emphasize the normal distribution and Z-score for determining probabilities in our process and design data, and many of the probabilities we’ll be interested in will be describable in that fashion. The variable control charts that we’ll work on in the next few weeks are based on the validity of the normal distribution as a model for our process data. In this week’s lecture, we discuss three other probability distributions that are used to describe other data samples in this class: hypergeometric, binomial, and Poisson. Each serves a purpose in quality analysis that supplements the more commonly used normal distribution. Think about these three alternate probability distributions in the context of the abridged Red Bead experiment that we performed in our first class of the semester. Describe one or more ways that you might use any of these distributions to explore the experiment, or to explain its results. (Such usage need not be particularly economically valuable to be appropriate in this discussion.) Response Guideline Post your initial response of 1-3 paragraphs (about 150-250 words) early in the week, and then reply to at least two initial responses of your peers, particularly focusing on responses that might differ from your own. Also respond appropriately to anyone who posts questions or comments against your own postings. If you use outside materials to develop your posts, make sure you cite your sources and provide references. Your alternate sources, when used, should be academic or scholarly sources and not web pages or blogs. You don’t need to provide a reference for our text when you use it since we all know that source, but please indicate page numbers when referring to portions of the text. Remember that the initial posting cycle is required of all learners who do not attend the live lecture class (regardless of the class section in which you are enrolled), and is optional for those learners who do attend the live class. The response posting cycle is required for all learners in this class.

Our readings on statistics this week emphasize the normal distribution and Z-score for determining probabilities in our process and design data, and many of the probabilities we’ll be interested in will be describable in that fashion. The variable control charts that we’ll work on in the next few weeks are based on the validity of the normal distribution as a model for our process data. In this week’s lecture, we discuss three other probability distributions that are used to describe other data samples in this class: hypergeometric, binomial, and Poisson. Each serves a purpose in quality analysis that supplements the more commonly used normal distribution. Think about these three alternate probability distributions in the context of the abridged Red Bead experiment that we performed in our first class of the semester. Describe one or more ways that you might use any of these distributions to explore the experiment, or to explain its results. (Such usage need not be particularly economically valuable to be appropriate in this discussion.) Response Guideline Post your initial response of 1-3 paragraphs (about 150-250 words) early in the week, and then reply to at least two initial responses of your peers, particularly focusing on responses that might differ from your own. Also respond appropriately to anyone who posts questions or comments against your own postings. If you use outside materials to develop your posts, make sure you cite your sources and provide references. Your alternate sources, when used, should be academic or scholarly sources and not web pages or blogs. You don’t need to provide a reference for our text when you use it since we all know that source, but please indicate page numbers when referring to portions of the text. Remember that the initial posting cycle is required of all learners who do not attend the live lecture class (regardless of the class section in which you are enrolled), and is optional for those learners who do attend the live class. The response posting cycle is required for all learners in this class.

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CURR 5702 Guidelines for Writing Analysis Project 1. Find a piece of writing written by a learner with special needs or an English learner. In your write-up, describe the learner’s background in as much detail as you can (country/language of origin, age/grade, gender, length of time in U.S., educational background, level of proficiency, etc.) and the type of writing it is (journal entry, 5-paragraph essay assignment, free write, etc.). 2. Determine what aspects of language are present in the writing. a. Where is the learner strong? b. Where does he/she need help? c. What features do you notice? (this is a list to get you thinking…you do not need to address every one) i. lexical variety ii. syntactic complexity iii. control of grammatical features (nouns, verbs, preps, etc.) iv. linking features (conjunctions) v. structures that mark order (first, second, later, finally) vi. structures that reference prior elements (using the right pronouns to refer back to some person or thing already mentioned) vii. Others? 3. Consider how you might assess this writing and provide feedback to the learner. a. Will you use a rubric? b. What will you focus on? Here are some possibilities: i. Organization and content ii. Language 1. Sentence fluency 2. Grammar/spelling/word choice iii. All of the above c. How will you convey your feedback? i. In writing 1. Highlight errors 2. Choose a few of the most common errors to highlight/ have the learner correct them? (e.g. Error log) 3. Provide general feedback without marking the paper? ii. Have a conference with the learner and discuss some of the areas in need of revision d. What are the next steps in the process? 4. What are your recommendations for literacy instruction? a. Based on your analysis and connections, how might you address the needs of this learner as a teacher? This is where you can connect your project with your readings from the course (or other readings as appropriate). i. Are there strategies, activities, tools, technology, resources, etc., that would be beneficial for your learner? Describe them and be sure to cite your sources. ii. Directly link the recommendations with the observations that you made in their writing sample and with your readings. 5. Write up the writing analysis you have done. Be sure to include the writing sample as an appendix. If you reference a rubric or Error log, etc., please include that as well. You should incorporate at least 4 references into this project (you can start with the 2 course texts if you like). Be sure to cite your sources within your paper and include a list of references at the end in APA format. The evaluation rubric for this project can be found below. Rubric for Writing Analysis Performance Excellent Good Needs Improvement Unacceptable 5 points 3-4 points 1-2 points 0 points Introduction and Context Writer introduces learner and gives clear context of learner. Writer identifies learner, but does not give full context OR writer describes context, but learner information sketchy. Writer has very little information about learner and/or context. No context provided. Writing Sample Writer describes clearly writing sample. Writer is too general about how writing sample. Writer has provided very little information about sample. No information provided regarding sample or no sample provided. 13-15 points 9-12 points 4-8 points 0-3 points Identification of Writing Challenges Language challenges are clearly identified and samples given to support challenges (including transcript numbers). Clear connections made to relevant topics covered in course. Writer indicates some idea of language challenges. Some support given. Some connections made to relevant topics covered in course. Writer discusses language challenges in general; does not support in terms of transcription. Minimal effort to make connections to relevant topics covered in course. Very little or no discussion language challenges identified and little or no transcription support provided. No connections to course topics. Plan for Assessment and Feedback Clear plan for assessing writing and providing feedback to learner. General plan for assessment; feedback addressed, but more details needed. Plan for assessment not clear; feedback to learner addressed superficially. No plan for assessment or feedback. Recommendations for Instruction Recommendations for instruction are clear and well-supported. Recommendations present, but need more description and support. Recommendations are implied or only partially supported. No recommendations given. 5 points 3-4 points 1-2 points 0 points References Writer includes at least 4 credible sources. Writer includes 3 sources. Writer includes 1-2 resources. Sources not included. Writing Conventions Writing is clear. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format is correct. A few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format is mostly correct. Some grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Numerous issues with APA format. Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format disregarded. Total ____ / 75 Comments:

CURR 5702 Guidelines for Writing Analysis Project 1. Find a piece of writing written by a learner with special needs or an English learner. In your write-up, describe the learner’s background in as much detail as you can (country/language of origin, age/grade, gender, length of time in U.S., educational background, level of proficiency, etc.) and the type of writing it is (journal entry, 5-paragraph essay assignment, free write, etc.). 2. Determine what aspects of language are present in the writing. a. Where is the learner strong? b. Where does he/she need help? c. What features do you notice? (this is a list to get you thinking…you do not need to address every one) i. lexical variety ii. syntactic complexity iii. control of grammatical features (nouns, verbs, preps, etc.) iv. linking features (conjunctions) v. structures that mark order (first, second, later, finally) vi. structures that reference prior elements (using the right pronouns to refer back to some person or thing already mentioned) vii. Others? 3. Consider how you might assess this writing and provide feedback to the learner. a. Will you use a rubric? b. What will you focus on? Here are some possibilities: i. Organization and content ii. Language 1. Sentence fluency 2. Grammar/spelling/word choice iii. All of the above c. How will you convey your feedback? i. In writing 1. Highlight errors 2. Choose a few of the most common errors to highlight/ have the learner correct them? (e.g. Error log) 3. Provide general feedback without marking the paper? ii. Have a conference with the learner and discuss some of the areas in need of revision d. What are the next steps in the process? 4. What are your recommendations for literacy instruction? a. Based on your analysis and connections, how might you address the needs of this learner as a teacher? This is where you can connect your project with your readings from the course (or other readings as appropriate). i. Are there strategies, activities, tools, technology, resources, etc., that would be beneficial for your learner? Describe them and be sure to cite your sources. ii. Directly link the recommendations with the observations that you made in their writing sample and with your readings. 5. Write up the writing analysis you have done. Be sure to include the writing sample as an appendix. If you reference a rubric or Error log, etc., please include that as well. You should incorporate at least 4 references into this project (you can start with the 2 course texts if you like). Be sure to cite your sources within your paper and include a list of references at the end in APA format. The evaluation rubric for this project can be found below. Rubric for Writing Analysis Performance Excellent Good Needs Improvement Unacceptable 5 points 3-4 points 1-2 points 0 points Introduction and Context Writer introduces learner and gives clear context of learner. Writer identifies learner, but does not give full context OR writer describes context, but learner information sketchy. Writer has very little information about learner and/or context. No context provided. Writing Sample Writer describes clearly writing sample. Writer is too general about how writing sample. Writer has provided very little information about sample. No information provided regarding sample or no sample provided. 13-15 points 9-12 points 4-8 points 0-3 points Identification of Writing Challenges Language challenges are clearly identified and samples given to support challenges (including transcript numbers). Clear connections made to relevant topics covered in course. Writer indicates some idea of language challenges. Some support given. Some connections made to relevant topics covered in course. Writer discusses language challenges in general; does not support in terms of transcription. Minimal effort to make connections to relevant topics covered in course. Very little or no discussion language challenges identified and little or no transcription support provided. No connections to course topics. Plan for Assessment and Feedback Clear plan for assessing writing and providing feedback to learner. General plan for assessment; feedback addressed, but more details needed. Plan for assessment not clear; feedback to learner addressed superficially. No plan for assessment or feedback. Recommendations for Instruction Recommendations for instruction are clear and well-supported. Recommendations present, but need more description and support. Recommendations are implied or only partially supported. No recommendations given. 5 points 3-4 points 1-2 points 0 points References Writer includes at least 4 credible sources. Writer includes 3 sources. Writer includes 1-2 resources. Sources not included. Writing Conventions Writing is clear. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format is correct. A few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format is mostly correct. Some grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Numerous issues with APA format. Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. APA format disregarded. Total ____ / 75 Comments:

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BLY 101L – Take Home Assignment (20 pts. TOTAL) Due: Start of class time – Monday, June 30, 2014 OR Tuesday, July 1, 2014 1. Calculate the % of disks floating (%DF) for each time point and both Control and Treatment groups. (5 pts.) • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 2. Neatly graph experimental results. (5 pts.) • graph paper • Microsoft Excel • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 3. What was the overarching QUESTION addressed by the lab exercise? (1 pt.) 4. State “null” (H0) and “alternative” (HA) HYPOTHESES. (2 pts.) 5. State your PREDICTION in “If…., then…” format, based upon your knowledge of PS and as written in your lab guide. (1 pt.) 6. Applying what you’ve learned about photosynthesis… • Undoubtedly, you have heard mention of the effect of increasing concentrations of certain gasses (one of which is CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere, and its relevance to Climate Change. Sometime around two decades ago or so, plant scientists began to earnestly think about CO2 level and its effects on plant physiology and growth. Based upon your knowledge of photosynthesis and what you’ve learned from this week’s lab experiment… Formulate testable hypotheses (H0, HA) AND a prediction for this scenario. (3 pts.) • As a follow-on to the previous question and in the context of the experiment you performed in class…Aside from affecting “aesthetics” and habitat for fuzzy wuzzy animals, why are plant and conservation scientists worried about the effects of “clear cutting” (i.e., cutting down forests for development or other agricultural and industrial uses) in combination with rising CO2 levels? (NOTE: O2 HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION…; 3 pts.) You MUST hand in the following: o Data table o Line graph of experimental results (plot both data sets on the SAME set of axes; see lecture notes) o Neatly typed answers to questions 3-6 REMEMBER: Images, written text AND/OR ideas are intellectual property and/or copyrighted! If you consult/borrow any published material (e.g., internet webpage text, published paper or report, your textbook, etc.) to construct answers to the questions above, you MUST CITE THE SOURCE FROM WHICH YOU COPIED THE IMAGES, TEXT or IDEAS. See below… Scientific Paper Chase, J. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328: 1388-1391. Book Stein, B.A., Kutner, L.S., and Adams, J.S. 2000. Precious Heritage, The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Webpage NOAA, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration. Accessed 01/05/12. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml#tracks_us.

BLY 101L – Take Home Assignment (20 pts. TOTAL) Due: Start of class time – Monday, June 30, 2014 OR Tuesday, July 1, 2014 1. Calculate the % of disks floating (%DF) for each time point and both Control and Treatment groups. (5 pts.) • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 2. Neatly graph experimental results. (5 pts.) • graph paper • Microsoft Excel • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 3. What was the overarching QUESTION addressed by the lab exercise? (1 pt.) 4. State “null” (H0) and “alternative” (HA) HYPOTHESES. (2 pts.) 5. State your PREDICTION in “If…., then…” format, based upon your knowledge of PS and as written in your lab guide. (1 pt.) 6. Applying what you’ve learned about photosynthesis… • Undoubtedly, you have heard mention of the effect of increasing concentrations of certain gasses (one of which is CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere, and its relevance to Climate Change. Sometime around two decades ago or so, plant scientists began to earnestly think about CO2 level and its effects on plant physiology and growth. Based upon your knowledge of photosynthesis and what you’ve learned from this week’s lab experiment… Formulate testable hypotheses (H0, HA) AND a prediction for this scenario. (3 pts.) • As a follow-on to the previous question and in the context of the experiment you performed in class…Aside from affecting “aesthetics” and habitat for fuzzy wuzzy animals, why are plant and conservation scientists worried about the effects of “clear cutting” (i.e., cutting down forests for development or other agricultural and industrial uses) in combination with rising CO2 levels? (NOTE: O2 HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION…; 3 pts.) You MUST hand in the following: o Data table o Line graph of experimental results (plot both data sets on the SAME set of axes; see lecture notes) o Neatly typed answers to questions 3-6 REMEMBER: Images, written text AND/OR ideas are intellectual property and/or copyrighted! If you consult/borrow any published material (e.g., internet webpage text, published paper or report, your textbook, etc.) to construct answers to the questions above, you MUST CITE THE SOURCE FROM WHICH YOU COPIED THE IMAGES, TEXT or IDEAS. See below… Scientific Paper Chase, J. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328: 1388-1391. Book Stein, B.A., Kutner, L.S., and Adams, J.S. 2000. Precious Heritage, The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Webpage NOAA, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration. Accessed 01/05/12. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml#tracks_us.

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