Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

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Consider the cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, (1) where a, b, c, and d are real input coefficients. Develop a matlab program to find all roots of equation (1) using the methods discussed in the Numerical Analysis class. Your program can not use the matlab built-in functions fzero and roots. You should turn in a .m file cubic24903674.m which contains a matlab function of the form function [rts,info] = cubic24903674(C) where, C = (a, b, c, d) is the input vector of coefficients, rts is the vector of roots and info is your output message. Your program will be stress-tested against cubic equations that may have: 1. (40 points) random roots; or 2. (20 points) very large or very small roots; or 3. (20 points) multiple roots or nearly multiple roots; or 4. (20 points) less than 3 roots or more than 3 roots. You will receive credit for a test polynomial only if your program gets the number of roots correctly, and only then will each correct root (accurate to within a relative error of at most 10^(−6) , as compared to the roots function in matlab) receive additional credit. Your program will receive 0 points if the strings fzero or roots (both in lower case letters) show up anywhere in your .m file.

Consider the cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, (1) where a, b, c, and d are real input coefficients. Develop a matlab program to find all roots of equation (1) using the methods discussed in the Numerical Analysis class. Your program can not use the matlab built-in functions fzero and roots. You should turn in a .m file cubic24903674.m which contains a matlab function of the form function [rts,info] = cubic24903674(C) where, C = (a, b, c, d) is the input vector of coefficients, rts is the vector of roots and info is your output message. Your program will be stress-tested against cubic equations that may have: 1. (40 points) random roots; or 2. (20 points) very large or very small roots; or 3. (20 points) multiple roots or nearly multiple roots; or 4. (20 points) less than 3 roots or more than 3 roots. You will receive credit for a test polynomial only if your program gets the number of roots correctly, and only then will each correct root (accurate to within a relative error of at most 10^(−6) , as compared to the roots function in matlab) receive additional credit. Your program will receive 0 points if the strings fzero or roots (both in lower case letters) show up anywhere in your .m file.

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Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

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ITM 220 – Excel Assignment, ver 5.1 Individual (not group) Effort Data Analysis with Spreadsheet Software (Excel) OVERVIEW – The purpose of this assignment is to give you a chance to demonstrate your understanding of data analysis tools available in today’s spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel. You’ll be working with data extracted from an ERPsim game performed by ITM 220 students a few months ago. This is not data from our class, so when considering the performance of “your team” (use data for Team “H” as your team data) don’t be surprised that it is significantly different from what you may recall for our ERPsim game. APPROACH – 1. Begin with the data found in this Excel Workbook–Worksheet named “ERPsimRawData” 2. Use tools and techniques as we discussed in class to study the data: a. Autofilter (and Advanced Filter) b. Conditional Formatting c. Lookup Table (VLOOKUP) d. Pivot Table e. Charts (smart ones, please) 3. Create multiple worksheets to document your answers to the following questions: Q1. What were average Muesli prices (per box) in the 2nd round? Organize by product. Label your answer worksheet “Q1”. COMMENT: It is necessary that you use a pivot table and be sure to use a chart, as well. Q2. How does your company (Team H – Leipzig) compare to your chief competitors–Munich and Stuttgart–on product prices? Use the lookup function (VLOOKUP) to add city name to your raw data and then use city name in your answer. Label your answer worksheet “Q2”. COMMENT: A pivot table is expected–chart, too. Q3. Which team has the most total sales revenue for each round? Label your answer worksheet “Q3”. COMMENT: Pivot table is expected–chart, too. Q4. Fill in the missing data in the worksheet labeled “FinancialForecast” –similarly to what we did in class. Use Scenario Manager to build 3 scenarios for projected company financial performance: Best Case, Expected case, and Worst Case scenarios (as we did in class) by modifying the appropriate blue highlighted cells in the Assumptions area. (Only 4 of these such highlighted cells will be used. Right?) Create an appropriate (your choice) chart illustrating the Summary Table results. Label your answer worksheet “Q4”. COMMENT: Must use Scenario Manager and you should be able to answer using a single worksheet for summary table and chart (as we did in class). Q5. Duplicate (NOT copy/paste) the “FinancialForecast” worksheet on which you have entered your assumptions data for the Expected Case. Label this new worksheet “Q5.” Use Goal seek to determine the average daily Grocery Chains sales needed in order to achieve Earnings Before Taxes of 500,000 Euros in Round 1. Discuss the plausibility of attaining such daily sales (probably based on the result of your answer to question 4). (And notice that growth rates are irrelevant to answer this question since we are talking FIRST round.) COMMENT: This is very easy using Goal Seek. However, a manual solution using trial and error is possible. Please describe the technique you used. Note: If you need multiple worksheets to answer a question label them as “Q1a”, “Q1b”, etc. DELIVERABLE – When you’re done you’ll have one Excel file to submit using the Assignments link on Blackboard. See the syllabus for due date. Below are a couple of helpful reference tables (use for lookup function?).

ITM 220 – Excel Assignment, ver 5.1 Individual (not group) Effort Data Analysis with Spreadsheet Software (Excel) OVERVIEW – The purpose of this assignment is to give you a chance to demonstrate your understanding of data analysis tools available in today’s spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel. You’ll be working with data extracted from an ERPsim game performed by ITM 220 students a few months ago. This is not data from our class, so when considering the performance of “your team” (use data for Team “H” as your team data) don’t be surprised that it is significantly different from what you may recall for our ERPsim game. APPROACH – 1. Begin with the data found in this Excel Workbook–Worksheet named “ERPsimRawData” 2. Use tools and techniques as we discussed in class to study the data: a. Autofilter (and Advanced Filter) b. Conditional Formatting c. Lookup Table (VLOOKUP) d. Pivot Table e. Charts (smart ones, please) 3. Create multiple worksheets to document your answers to the following questions: Q1. What were average Muesli prices (per box) in the 2nd round? Organize by product. Label your answer worksheet “Q1”. COMMENT: It is necessary that you use a pivot table and be sure to use a chart, as well. Q2. How does your company (Team H – Leipzig) compare to your chief competitors–Munich and Stuttgart–on product prices? Use the lookup function (VLOOKUP) to add city name to your raw data and then use city name in your answer. Label your answer worksheet “Q2”. COMMENT: A pivot table is expected–chart, too. Q3. Which team has the most total sales revenue for each round? Label your answer worksheet “Q3”. COMMENT: Pivot table is expected–chart, too. Q4. Fill in the missing data in the worksheet labeled “FinancialForecast” –similarly to what we did in class. Use Scenario Manager to build 3 scenarios for projected company financial performance: Best Case, Expected case, and Worst Case scenarios (as we did in class) by modifying the appropriate blue highlighted cells in the Assumptions area. (Only 4 of these such highlighted cells will be used. Right?) Create an appropriate (your choice) chart illustrating the Summary Table results. Label your answer worksheet “Q4”. COMMENT: Must use Scenario Manager and you should be able to answer using a single worksheet for summary table and chart (as we did in class). Q5. Duplicate (NOT copy/paste) the “FinancialForecast” worksheet on which you have entered your assumptions data for the Expected Case. Label this new worksheet “Q5.” Use Goal seek to determine the average daily Grocery Chains sales needed in order to achieve Earnings Before Taxes of 500,000 Euros in Round 1. Discuss the plausibility of attaining such daily sales (probably based on the result of your answer to question 4). (And notice that growth rates are irrelevant to answer this question since we are talking FIRST round.) COMMENT: This is very easy using Goal Seek. However, a manual solution using trial and error is possible. Please describe the technique you used. Note: If you need multiple worksheets to answer a question label them as “Q1a”, “Q1b”, etc. DELIVERABLE – When you’re done you’ll have one Excel file to submit using the Assignments link on Blackboard. See the syllabus for due date. Below are a couple of helpful reference tables (use for lookup function?).

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500 words essay responding to a poem needed in 12 hours from now. it is one page poem that I will provide you with. The essay details are below: Essay #1- Poetry Length: 500 words (~2 pages) MLA Format Write a formal academic essay responding to a poem we have discussed in class. Pick ONE poem on the reading schedule and discuss how the poem’s literary devices and formal elements contribute to its larger thematic concerns. Two pages is not a lot of space, so focus on the most important elements, rather than trying to include everything. Some things to think about: Figurative language: Note the images the poem describes. Does the poem seem to be literally describing things, or does the poet employ figurative language? Are there any metaphors or conceits? How does the poet move from one image to the next? Does there seem to be any theme tying the images together? Form: Look at the way the poem appears on the page. Do you notice any patterns? Is the poem written in stanzas? Does the poem employ a specific meter (iambic pentameter)? Is the poem a fixed form (sonnet)? Does the poet employ punctuation? Does the poem appear neat or chaotic? How do any of these elements relate to what the poem describes? Sound: Read the poem out loud. Do the sounds roll off your tongue, or does it feel like a tongue-twister? Is the language clunky or smooth? Does the poem use alliteration, assonance, or repetition? If the poem rhymes, are they perfect rhymes or near rhymes? Do the rhymes appear at the end of the line or in the middle? Does the way the poem sounds bring out the feeling of what it is describing? Speaker: Who is the speaker (age/gender/role)? Who are they speaking to? Is it first person, third-person, written in a persona? Is the tone formal or conversational? Is the diction simple, or does the speaker use words you have to look up in a dictionary? What might this tell us? Theme: Are there any specific ideas the poem seems to be addressing? How do the poem’s formal concerns (how it appears on the page) emphasize, challenge, or undercut these ideas? Some themes we might focus on include: identity, place, defamiliarization, freedom and constraint, violence and language, racial injustice. (You may focus on one of these or come up with your own.) Make sure this is a formal academic essay. Format your page to include page numbers, double-spacing, and 1” margins. Use Times New Roman font. Include a Works Cited page. Using any source that is not the primary text will result in a 25% penalty.

500 words essay responding to a poem needed in 12 hours from now. it is one page poem that I will provide you with. The essay details are below: Essay #1- Poetry Length: 500 words (~2 pages) MLA Format Write a formal academic essay responding to a poem we have discussed in class. Pick ONE poem on the reading schedule and discuss how the poem’s literary devices and formal elements contribute to its larger thematic concerns. Two pages is not a lot of space, so focus on the most important elements, rather than trying to include everything. Some things to think about: Figurative language: Note the images the poem describes. Does the poem seem to be literally describing things, or does the poet employ figurative language? Are there any metaphors or conceits? How does the poet move from one image to the next? Does there seem to be any theme tying the images together? Form: Look at the way the poem appears on the page. Do you notice any patterns? Is the poem written in stanzas? Does the poem employ a specific meter (iambic pentameter)? Is the poem a fixed form (sonnet)? Does the poet employ punctuation? Does the poem appear neat or chaotic? How do any of these elements relate to what the poem describes? Sound: Read the poem out loud. Do the sounds roll off your tongue, or does it feel like a tongue-twister? Is the language clunky or smooth? Does the poem use alliteration, assonance, or repetition? If the poem rhymes, are they perfect rhymes or near rhymes? Do the rhymes appear at the end of the line or in the middle? Does the way the poem sounds bring out the feeling of what it is describing? Speaker: Who is the speaker (age/gender/role)? Who are they speaking to? Is it first person, third-person, written in a persona? Is the tone formal or conversational? Is the diction simple, or does the speaker use words you have to look up in a dictionary? What might this tell us? Theme: Are there any specific ideas the poem seems to be addressing? How do the poem’s formal concerns (how it appears on the page) emphasize, challenge, or undercut these ideas? Some themes we might focus on include: identity, place, defamiliarization, freedom and constraint, violence and language, racial injustice. (You may focus on one of these or come up with your own.) Make sure this is a formal academic essay. Format your page to include page numbers, double-spacing, and 1” margins. Use Times New Roman font. Include a Works Cited page. Using any source that is not the primary text will result in a 25% penalty.

MSE201 Take-home, due 9/10 (1 point each) 1. Materials are characterized by: a. Macroscopic properties b. Microstructure c. Atomic level composition d. All of the above 2. Atoms are: a. Discrete units of matter b. An abstract concept c. Found in fractional units d. Lattice points 3. A typical atomic radii is roughly: a. 1 centimeter b. 1 nanometer c. 1 picometer d. 1 angstrom 4. Cubic crystal lattices have: a. Equal edge lengths b. 90° angles between edges c. Both a. & b. d. Atoms at each corner 5. Body centered cubic metals have: a. Close packed directions b. Close packed planes c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 6. Face centered cubic metals have: a. Close packed directions b. Close packed planes c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 7. A crystal lattice is an: a. Idealized representation of sites in a real crystal b. Exact crystal representation c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 8. Defects in a real crystal are: a. At lattice sites b. Within interstices c. Improve properties d. Decrease properties (1 point each element) 9. Au and W have a density of 19.3 g/cc. Au 197 g/mol with a FCC structure, while W is BCC an a mass of 183.9 g/mol. a. What is a, the lattice parameter for each metal? b. Using a hard sphere approximation, what is the ratio of the gold and tungsten diameters? 10. The close packed plane of the HCP structure is the top surface, or basal plane, of the unit cell. a. Using a typical atomic radii, what is the areal atomic density of this plane? b. Is the face of the FCC structure close packed? c. Repeat 10.a. on an FCC face. d. Where is the close packed plane in the FCC structure? 11. Consider BCC, FCC and HCP structures. a. For each structure, what is the coordination number of each atom? b. Using Appendix 1 in your text, what is the general structural preference of the alkali and alkali earth metals? c. As we discussed, mixed bonding types (covalent, ionic, metallic) are possible. If pure metallic bonding favors a maximum coordination number, describe and justify plausible bonding type preferences of alkali and alkali earth metals. 12. Edge and screw dislocations are interrelated and have been discussed. a. Draw the 2-dimensional picture of an edge dislocation in diamond. b. Draw the path that allows you to determine the length of the Burger’s vector. c. How long is this vector? (diamond lattice parameter = 3.57 angstroms) MSE201 Take-home Crystal structures chemed.chem.purdue.edu commons.wikimedia.org commons.wikimedia.org

MSE201 Take-home, due 9/10 (1 point each) 1. Materials are characterized by: a. Macroscopic properties b. Microstructure c. Atomic level composition d. All of the above 2. Atoms are: a. Discrete units of matter b. An abstract concept c. Found in fractional units d. Lattice points 3. A typical atomic radii is roughly: a. 1 centimeter b. 1 nanometer c. 1 picometer d. 1 angstrom 4. Cubic crystal lattices have: a. Equal edge lengths b. 90° angles between edges c. Both a. & b. d. Atoms at each corner 5. Body centered cubic metals have: a. Close packed directions b. Close packed planes c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 6. Face centered cubic metals have: a. Close packed directions b. Close packed planes c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 7. A crystal lattice is an: a. Idealized representation of sites in a real crystal b. Exact crystal representation c. Both a. & b. d. Neither a. or b. 8. Defects in a real crystal are: a. At lattice sites b. Within interstices c. Improve properties d. Decrease properties (1 point each element) 9. Au and W have a density of 19.3 g/cc. Au 197 g/mol with a FCC structure, while W is BCC an a mass of 183.9 g/mol. a. What is a, the lattice parameter for each metal? b. Using a hard sphere approximation, what is the ratio of the gold and tungsten diameters? 10. The close packed plane of the HCP structure is the top surface, or basal plane, of the unit cell. a. Using a typical atomic radii, what is the areal atomic density of this plane? b. Is the face of the FCC structure close packed? c. Repeat 10.a. on an FCC face. d. Where is the close packed plane in the FCC structure? 11. Consider BCC, FCC and HCP structures. a. For each structure, what is the coordination number of each atom? b. Using Appendix 1 in your text, what is the general structural preference of the alkali and alkali earth metals? c. As we discussed, mixed bonding types (covalent, ionic, metallic) are possible. If pure metallic bonding favors a maximum coordination number, describe and justify plausible bonding type preferences of alkali and alkali earth metals. 12. Edge and screw dislocations are interrelated and have been discussed. a. Draw the 2-dimensional picture of an edge dislocation in diamond. b. Draw the path that allows you to determine the length of the Burger’s vector. c. How long is this vector? (diamond lattice parameter = 3.57 angstroms) MSE201 Take-home Crystal structures chemed.chem.purdue.edu commons.wikimedia.org commons.wikimedia.org

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1 Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3.1 Laboratory Objective The objective of this laboratory is to understand the basic properties of sinusoids and sinusoid measurements. 3.2 Educational Objectives After performing this experiment, students should be able to: 1. Understand the properties of sinusoids. 2. Understand sinusoidal manipulation 3. Use a function generator 4. Obtain measurements using an oscilloscope 3.3 Background Sinusoids are sine or cosine waveforms that can describe many engineering phenomena. Any oscillatory motion can be described using sinusoids. Many types of electrical signals such as square, triangle, and sawtooth waves are modeled using sinusoids. Their manipulation incurs the understanding of certain quantities that describe sinusoidal behavior. These quantities are described below. 3.3.1 Sinusoid Characteristics Amplitude The amplitude A of a sine wave describes the height of the hills and valleys of a sinusoid. It carries the physical units of what the sinusoid is describing (volts, amps, meters, etc.). Frequency There are two types of frequencies that can describe a sinusoid. The normal frequency f is how many times the sinusoid repeats per unit time. It has units of cycles per second (s-1) or Hertz (Hz). The angular frequency ω is how many radians pass per second. Consequently, ω has units of radians per second. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 2 Period The period T is how long a sinusoid takes to repeat one complete cycle. The period is measured in seconds. Phase The phase φ of a sinusoid causes a horizontal shift along the t-axis. The phase has units of radians. TimeShift The time shift ts of a sinusoid is a horizontal shift along the t-axis and is a time measurement of the phase. The time shift has units of seconds. NOTE: A sine wave and a cosine wave only differ by a phase shift of 90° or ?2 radians. In reality, they are the same waveform but with a different φ value. 3.3.2 Sinusoidal Relationships Figure 3.1: Sinusoid The general equation of a sinusoid is given below and refers to Figure 3.1. ?(?) = ????(?? +?) (3.1) The angular frequency is related to the normal frequency by Equation 3.2. ?= 2?? (3.2) The angular frequency is also related to the period by Equation 3.3. ?=2?? (3.3) By inspection, the normal frequency is related to the period by Equation 3.4. ? =1? (3.4) ?? Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3 The time shift is related to the phase (radians) and the frequency by Equation 3.5. ??= ∅2?? (3.5) 3.3.3 Equipment 3.3.3.1 Inductors Inductors are electrical components that resist a change in the flow of current passing through them. They are essentially coils of wire. Inductors are electromagnets too. They are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment (with or without exposed wire): Figure 3.2: Symbol and Physical Example for Inductors 3.3.3.2 Capacitors Capacitors are electrical components that store energy. This enables engineers to store electrical energy from an input source such as a battery. Some capacitors are polarized and therefore have a negative and positive plate. One plate is straight, representing the positive terminal on the device, and the other is curved, representing the negative one. Polarized capacitors are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment: Figure 3.3: Symbol and Physical Example for Capacitors 3.3.3.3 Function Generator A function generator is used to create different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. It generates standard sine, square, and triangle waveforms and uses the analog output channel. 3.3.3.5 Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. It displays voltage data over time for the analysis of one or two voltage measurements taken from the analog input channels of the Oscilloscope. The observed waveform can be analyzed for amplitude, frequency, time interval and more. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 4 3.4 Procedure Follow the steps outlined below after the instructor has explained how to use the laboratory equipment 3.4.1 Sinusoidal Measurements 1. Connect the output channel of the Function Generator to the channel one of the Oscilloscope. 2. Complete Table 3.1 using the given values for voltage and frequency. Table 3.1: Sinusoid Measurements Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Voltage Amplitude, A (V ) Frequency (Hz) 2*A (Vp−p ) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) T (sec) 2.5 1000 3 5000 3.4.2 Circuit Measurements 1. Connect the circuit in figure 3.4 below with the given resistor and capacitor NOTE: Vs from the circuit comes from the Function Generator using a BNC connector. Figure 3.4: RC Circuit Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 5 2. Using the alligator to BNC cables, connect channel one of the Oscilloscope across the capacitor and complete Table 3.2 Table 3.2: Capacitor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) Vc (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 3. Disconnect channel one and connect channel two of the oscilloscope across the resistor and complete table 3.3. Table 3.3: Resistor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) VR (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 4. Leaving channel two connected across the resistor, clip the positive lead to the positive side of the capacitor and complete table 3.4 Table 3.4: Phase Difference Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (volts) Frequency (Hz) Divisions Time/Div (sec) ts (sec) ɸ (rad) ɸ (degrees) 2.5 100 5. Using the data from Tables 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, plot the capacitor sinusoidal equation and the resistor sinusoidal equation on the same graph using MATLAB. HINT: Plot over one period. 6. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law states that ??(?)=??(?)+??(?). Calculate Vs by hand using the following equation and Tables 3.2 and 3.3 ??(?)=√??2+??2???(??−???−1(????)) Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 6 3.5 New MATLAB Commands hold on  This command allows multiple graphs to be placed on the same XY axis and is placed after the first plot statement. legend (’string 1’, ’string2’, ‘string3’)  This command adds a legend to the plot. Strings must be placed in the order as the plots were generated. plot (x, y, ‘line specifiers’)  This command plots the data and uses line specifiers to differentiate between different plots on the same XY axis. In this lab, only use different line styles from the table below. Table 3.5: Line specifiers for the plot() command sqrt(X)  This command produces the square root of the elements of X. NOTE: The “help” command in MATLAB can be used to find a description and example for functions such as input.  For example, type “help input” in the command window to learn more about the input function. NOTE: Refer to section the “MATLAB Commands” sections from prior labs for previously discussed material that you may also need in order to complete this assignment. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 7 3.6 Lab Report Requirements 1. Complete Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 (5 points each) 2. Show hand calculations for all four tables. Insert after this page (5 points each) 3. Draw the two sinusoids by hand from table 3.1. Label amplitude, period, and phase. Insert after this page. (5 points) 4. Insert MATLAB plot of Vc and VR as obtained from data in Tables 3.2 and 3.3 after this page. (5 points each) 5. Show hand calculations for Vs(t). Insert after this page. (5 points) 6. Using the data from the Tables, write: (10 points) a) Vc(t) = b) VR(t) = 7. Also, ???(?)=2.5???(628?). Write your Vs below and give reasons why they are different. (10 points) a) Vs(t) = b) Reasons: 8. Write an executive summary for this lab describing what you have done, and learned. (20 points)

1 Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3.1 Laboratory Objective The objective of this laboratory is to understand the basic properties of sinusoids and sinusoid measurements. 3.2 Educational Objectives After performing this experiment, students should be able to: 1. Understand the properties of sinusoids. 2. Understand sinusoidal manipulation 3. Use a function generator 4. Obtain measurements using an oscilloscope 3.3 Background Sinusoids are sine or cosine waveforms that can describe many engineering phenomena. Any oscillatory motion can be described using sinusoids. Many types of electrical signals such as square, triangle, and sawtooth waves are modeled using sinusoids. Their manipulation incurs the understanding of certain quantities that describe sinusoidal behavior. These quantities are described below. 3.3.1 Sinusoid Characteristics Amplitude The amplitude A of a sine wave describes the height of the hills and valleys of a sinusoid. It carries the physical units of what the sinusoid is describing (volts, amps, meters, etc.). Frequency There are two types of frequencies that can describe a sinusoid. The normal frequency f is how many times the sinusoid repeats per unit time. It has units of cycles per second (s-1) or Hertz (Hz). The angular frequency ω is how many radians pass per second. Consequently, ω has units of radians per second. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 2 Period The period T is how long a sinusoid takes to repeat one complete cycle. The period is measured in seconds. Phase The phase φ of a sinusoid causes a horizontal shift along the t-axis. The phase has units of radians. TimeShift The time shift ts of a sinusoid is a horizontal shift along the t-axis and is a time measurement of the phase. The time shift has units of seconds. NOTE: A sine wave and a cosine wave only differ by a phase shift of 90° or ?2 radians. In reality, they are the same waveform but with a different φ value. 3.3.2 Sinusoidal Relationships Figure 3.1: Sinusoid The general equation of a sinusoid is given below and refers to Figure 3.1. ?(?) = ????(?? +?) (3.1) The angular frequency is related to the normal frequency by Equation 3.2. ?= 2?? (3.2) The angular frequency is also related to the period by Equation 3.3. ?=2?? (3.3) By inspection, the normal frequency is related to the period by Equation 3.4. ? =1? (3.4) ?? Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3 The time shift is related to the phase (radians) and the frequency by Equation 3.5. ??= ∅2?? (3.5) 3.3.3 Equipment 3.3.3.1 Inductors Inductors are electrical components that resist a change in the flow of current passing through them. They are essentially coils of wire. Inductors are electromagnets too. They are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment (with or without exposed wire): Figure 3.2: Symbol and Physical Example for Inductors 3.3.3.2 Capacitors Capacitors are electrical components that store energy. This enables engineers to store electrical energy from an input source such as a battery. Some capacitors are polarized and therefore have a negative and positive plate. One plate is straight, representing the positive terminal on the device, and the other is curved, representing the negative one. Polarized capacitors are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment: Figure 3.3: Symbol and Physical Example for Capacitors 3.3.3.3 Function Generator A function generator is used to create different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. It generates standard sine, square, and triangle waveforms and uses the analog output channel. 3.3.3.5 Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. It displays voltage data over time for the analysis of one or two voltage measurements taken from the analog input channels of the Oscilloscope. The observed waveform can be analyzed for amplitude, frequency, time interval and more. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 4 3.4 Procedure Follow the steps outlined below after the instructor has explained how to use the laboratory equipment 3.4.1 Sinusoidal Measurements 1. Connect the output channel of the Function Generator to the channel one of the Oscilloscope. 2. Complete Table 3.1 using the given values for voltage and frequency. Table 3.1: Sinusoid Measurements Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Voltage Amplitude, A (V ) Frequency (Hz) 2*A (Vp−p ) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) T (sec) 2.5 1000 3 5000 3.4.2 Circuit Measurements 1. Connect the circuit in figure 3.4 below with the given resistor and capacitor NOTE: Vs from the circuit comes from the Function Generator using a BNC connector. Figure 3.4: RC Circuit Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 5 2. Using the alligator to BNC cables, connect channel one of the Oscilloscope across the capacitor and complete Table 3.2 Table 3.2: Capacitor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) Vc (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 3. Disconnect channel one and connect channel two of the oscilloscope across the resistor and complete table 3.3. Table 3.3: Resistor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) VR (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 4. Leaving channel two connected across the resistor, clip the positive lead to the positive side of the capacitor and complete table 3.4 Table 3.4: Phase Difference Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (volts) Frequency (Hz) Divisions Time/Div (sec) ts (sec) ɸ (rad) ɸ (degrees) 2.5 100 5. Using the data from Tables 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, plot the capacitor sinusoidal equation and the resistor sinusoidal equation on the same graph using MATLAB. HINT: Plot over one period. 6. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law states that ??(?)=??(?)+??(?). Calculate Vs by hand using the following equation and Tables 3.2 and 3.3 ??(?)=√??2+??2???(??−???−1(????)) Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 6 3.5 New MATLAB Commands hold on  This command allows multiple graphs to be placed on the same XY axis and is placed after the first plot statement. legend (’string 1’, ’string2’, ‘string3’)  This command adds a legend to the plot. Strings must be placed in the order as the plots were generated. plot (x, y, ‘line specifiers’)  This command plots the data and uses line specifiers to differentiate between different plots on the same XY axis. In this lab, only use different line styles from the table below. Table 3.5: Line specifiers for the plot() command sqrt(X)  This command produces the square root of the elements of X. NOTE: The “help” command in MATLAB can be used to find a description and example for functions such as input.  For example, type “help input” in the command window to learn more about the input function. NOTE: Refer to section the “MATLAB Commands” sections from prior labs for previously discussed material that you may also need in order to complete this assignment. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 7 3.6 Lab Report Requirements 1. Complete Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 (5 points each) 2. Show hand calculations for all four tables. Insert after this page (5 points each) 3. Draw the two sinusoids by hand from table 3.1. Label amplitude, period, and phase. Insert after this page. (5 points) 4. Insert MATLAB plot of Vc and VR as obtained from data in Tables 3.2 and 3.3 after this page. (5 points each) 5. Show hand calculations for Vs(t). Insert after this page. (5 points) 6. Using the data from the Tables, write: (10 points) a) Vc(t) = b) VR(t) = 7. Also, ???(?)=2.5???(628?). Write your Vs below and give reasons why they are different. (10 points) a) Vs(t) = b) Reasons: 8. Write an executive summary for this lab describing what you have done, and learned. (20 points)

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3. Look up a journal article in Computer Education that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

3. Look up a journal article in Computer Education that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

Journal Article: Kelley Regan,Sheri Berkeley,Melissa Hughes,Suzanne Kirby;Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction … Read More...