1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

(Conflict scenario) Title – Who steal the gold?   Setting: … Read More...
Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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. What are the chief claims of Epicurus about life and how to live it? What is his definition of the “pleasurable life”? What is the proper role and value of philosophy?

. What are the chief claims of Epicurus about life and how to live it? What is his definition of the “pleasurable life”? What is the proper role and value of philosophy?

Epicurus also differentiates in between actual and also psychological excitement … Read More...
University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

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Discuss Bitcoins. What are they?

Discuss Bitcoins. What are they?

Bitcoin utilize peer-to-peer technology to activate with no essential authority … Read More...
Earlier in the history of Western medicine, surgeons did not know the immune function of the thymus gland and it was sometimes removed in children. What symptoms would you now predict these patients might display afterward? Select one: a. increased inflammatory and allergic responses to foreign material including viruses b. reduced ability to recognize foreign material and distinguish it from body proteins c. serious problems following receiving blood transfusions of any type of blood d. complete rejection of all normal body tissues e. failure to produce any white blood cells

Earlier in the history of Western medicine, surgeons did not know the immune function of the thymus gland and it was sometimes removed in children. What symptoms would you now predict these patients might display afterward? Select one: a. increased inflammatory and allergic responses to foreign material including viruses b. reduced ability to recognize foreign material and distinguish it from body proteins c. serious problems following receiving blood transfusions of any type of blood d. complete rejection of all normal body tissues e. failure to produce any white blood cells

Info@checkyourstudy.com                                                                                                                                                                                       : reduced ability to recognize foreign material and distinguish … Read More...
High-stakes testing has become common in the United States and in many other countries. Do you think this has improved education, and why or why not?

High-stakes testing has become common in the United States and in many other countries. Do you think this has improved education, and why or why not?

Let us take an example, At Mankato State, the % … Read More...
Phil 102 – The Good & the Beautiful-COMMUNICATION #3 : re Paper # 2 DETAILS : 2-3 pp. length (typed, in 1.5* spacing) / value: 15 points. Unless prearranged, submit in hard copy, not as an email attachment. Use in-text citations, especially for quotations (e.g., p. 27), and give full source information on a separate Bibliography page (not part of the page-length) at the end. Also, consult the Writing Tips handout provided, following its suggestions and avoiding the common errors listed there. / * To get 1.5 spacing, ‘select-all’ the entire text and type ‘5’ while holding down Ctrl. TOPIC : Describe Blackburn’s concept of the self and its ongoing construction through interactive ‘mirroring’ of / by various others. Then distinguish different kinds of esteem (toward self and others), and explain what it means to have ‘too much’, too little, or the ‘proper’ amount of such an attitude. Illustrate your comments by means of concrete examples of either specific individuals or typical behaviors drawn from your experience (personal, reading, movies, etc.). PROCEDURE: Begin (again) by reviewing your markings in the book, going over your class notes — filling in gaps, elaborating ideas, making connections, noting potentially useful (for the paper) concepts, and so on. That is, start with a broad view in order to cement your general competence toward the subject. Then go back to the specific concepts and distinctions and examples that you marked, and organize them in some way. After that, brainstorm about possible examples to use, and how these do or do not fit the profiles you wish to draw (remembering that there may be no perfect real-world instances of particular conceptual types: i.e., thought and world don’t fit together that well). Finally, organize the paper by making an outline, paying attention to sequencing, transitions, and clarity of focus and expression. After you are finished, let the paper lie a day or two, then go back and edit, proof-read, and polish the piece. / Again: review the writing-tips handed out earlier, and don’t violate those rules. / Not least: be sure to reread this assignment prompt as you work, so that you do not ignore its directives either. / A good paper is constructed in stages, not all at once the night before it is due.

Phil 102 – The Good & the Beautiful-COMMUNICATION #3 : re Paper # 2 DETAILS : 2-3 pp. length (typed, in 1.5* spacing) / value: 15 points. Unless prearranged, submit in hard copy, not as an email attachment. Use in-text citations, especially for quotations (e.g., p. 27), and give full source information on a separate Bibliography page (not part of the page-length) at the end. Also, consult the Writing Tips handout provided, following its suggestions and avoiding the common errors listed there. / * To get 1.5 spacing, ‘select-all’ the entire text and type ‘5’ while holding down Ctrl. TOPIC : Describe Blackburn’s concept of the self and its ongoing construction through interactive ‘mirroring’ of / by various others. Then distinguish different kinds of esteem (toward self and others), and explain what it means to have ‘too much’, too little, or the ‘proper’ amount of such an attitude. Illustrate your comments by means of concrete examples of either specific individuals or typical behaviors drawn from your experience (personal, reading, movies, etc.). PROCEDURE: Begin (again) by reviewing your markings in the book, going over your class notes — filling in gaps, elaborating ideas, making connections, noting potentially useful (for the paper) concepts, and so on. That is, start with a broad view in order to cement your general competence toward the subject. Then go back to the specific concepts and distinctions and examples that you marked, and organize them in some way. After that, brainstorm about possible examples to use, and how these do or do not fit the profiles you wish to draw (remembering that there may be no perfect real-world instances of particular conceptual types: i.e., thought and world don’t fit together that well). Finally, organize the paper by making an outline, paying attention to sequencing, transitions, and clarity of focus and expression. After you are finished, let the paper lie a day or two, then go back and edit, proof-read, and polish the piece. / Again: review the writing-tips handed out earlier, and don’t violate those rules. / Not least: be sure to reread this assignment prompt as you work, so that you do not ignore its directives either. / A good paper is constructed in stages, not all at once the night before it is due.

Realization about Self-Love         Introduction   Simon … Read More...
Essay – Athlete’s high salaries. Should they be paid that amount or not?

Essay – Athlete’s high salaries. Should they be paid that amount or not?

Athlete’s high salaries: Should they be paid that amount or … Read More...