Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines: Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL. Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester. Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins. Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).
TEXT The sole text is Daniel Bonevac’s Today’s Moral Issues. This is an extremely accessible work that organizes the subject matter of ethics into well-structured units involving both general principles and focused ethical dilemmas. The instructor will guide the students through the pertinent readings and discussion topics. Exam #3: WAR ECONOMIC EQUALITY 1. Aquinas 5. Mill 2. Grotius 6. Hospers 3. Clausewitz 7. Anderson 4. Gandhi CONCERNING THE SHORT PAPER Choose one of our dilemma topics from our book as the focus of your short paper. If you have another topic in mind, please consult with me for permission. —length: 4 to 5 pages — format: typed —number of points: 10 — submission via Bb, under “Assignments” — Format: Microsoft Word — Line Spacing: Double-Spaced —Print: Black The following is merely a suggestion for the organization of the paper, but it might be useful as an indication of how it could look: a) Initial statement of your position concerning the moral dilemma; how to resolve it, how you plan to argue for/against it. b) Amplification of your position; your main points or position. c) Backup: some cited references and supporting evidence for your position. d) Your criticisms of alternative or contrary points of view. e) Your conclusion/summing up. Plagiarism is a serious breach of academic integrity. If you submit plagiarized materials you will receive a zero on the assignment. If you need an extension of the due date for the paper, please consult with me.
Non-violence as a rule of love The mainly essential … Read More...
Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests
PHL 210- Intro to Philosophy Paper 1- Fall 2015 PAPER 1- Pick from ONE of the questions below and answer in essay form. Chapter INTRO 1. Do you think that all knowledge is really just a matter of opinion? (Be honest.) If you do, how do you explain scientific and technological progress? If you do not think that all knowledge is really just a matter of opinion, how do you account for the persistence of different religions, moralities, and political ideals? 2. To what extent do you think an individual’s gender and ethnic background should be considered in evaluating his or her philosophical beliefs? Chapter 1 1. What are some of the difficulties you might encounter by trying to follow the Eightfold Path? What, for example, might consist of “wrong livelihoods” (or “wrong college majors”)? Are there some jobs that no truly enlightened person could perform? What determines whether an occupation (or college major) is right? 2. Write a reflective essay on the concept of “unsatisfactoriness” as it relates to Buddhist teaching. 3. Which of the three sages did you find the most compelling and why? 4. Based what you’ve read so far, can you think of any contemporary examples of sages? If you can, what specific qualities or teachings impress you as sage like? How does this sage differ from Lao-tzu, Confucius and the Buddha? 5. The tension between “beliefs” and “facts” recurs throughout the history of Western philosophy and explodes in our time in the form of challenges to the very possibilities of objectivity and universality. Can you sport signs of this division in current affairs? Religion? Politics? Among your friends? Which side of the fence are you on? Do you think the problem has a solution that is fair to both sides? 6. Interestingly, the concept of a mean serves as the basis for Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, one of the most influential moral philosophies in the Western philosophical tradition. Compare Aristotle’s more linear characterization of the mean with Confucius’s more holistic or poetic one. Why do you suppose two of the most influential moral philosophers of all time stressed moderation and balance as the basis for human well-being and happiness? 7. In broad strokes, human history can almost be reduced to an ongoing struggle between two distinct approaches to managing human affairs. One advocates minimal governance—managing by not managing—and the cultivation of healthy (natural) instincts. The other calls for the inculcation of formal manners and habits of repression combined with rules and regulations governing all aspects of our lives. See if you can find examples of each in contemporary politics, education, or parenting. Do you think one approach is (generally) superior to the other? Why? Do you agree that these two approaches to life seem to persist throughout history? 8. The notion of the noble or great soul has intrigued philosophers from Confucius’s time to our own. Does it have any resonance for you? Is the concept of the petty or inferior soul clearer? If it is, why do you suppose it is easier to come up with examples of pettiness than of nobility? What do you think Confucius was really saying in his reply to the rapacious official? 9. Compare what Marcus Aurelius says about “the perpetual renewing of the world’s youthfulness” with Buddha’s insight that the whole universe is “forever moving from one form to another.” To what philosophical and personal use do Marcus and the Buddha put their notions in this regard? Chapter 2 1. How do you think it would go over today if we treated philosophers, preachers, and anyone who professes not to value money and wealth as much as integrity, honor, God, or truth as if they mean what they say and hold them personally and legally accountable for living like they talk? 2. Make a convincing case that advertisers are Sophists. What would nonsophistic advertising be like? Do you agree that advertisers are Sophists? Explain. 3. Discuss Protagoras’s notion that disagreements can be “cured.” 4. Is there a contradiction involved in the way the Sophists present their doctrine that “might makes right”? Can you present a better version of it? 5. Is there any way to refute the idea that might makes right? Explain why or why not. 6. Suppose that relativism is true. How would this belief change the practice of moral criticism? 7. Is it reasonable—or fair—to judge a person’s philosophical claims in terms of behavior? Do we trivialize “being” a philosopher—or “being” a Christian or Muslim or liberal or conservative—when we make a radical distinction between persons and their beliefs? Chapter 3 1. Discuss some of the pros and cons of personal education versus commercialized education. Try to consider a variety of factors: efficiency; effects of money on pupils, teachers, teachers, and institutions; mediocrity; conformity. Do you agree that it is wrong to “sell wisdom”? Is it realistic to expect teachers (or philosophers) to teach for free, for love only? Can’t any source of financial support lead to bias? Must it? (page 76) 2. Can you think of any ways you are ethnocentric? What are some close parallels between Athens of the fifth century B.C.E. and America after September 11, 2001? 3. Analyze Protagoras’ speech. Has he convinced you? Explain. See if you can identify the trick used by both Protagoras and his pupil in the Wager. 4. Is “might makes right” the only explanation for social changes like the civil rights movements? Could other factors besides self-interest account for a shift in basic social values? What factors? Is anything lost by accepting a might-makes-right interpretation? Is anything gained? Explain. 5. Is some part of you stirred by all this talk of power and superiority? The Sophist would say that if you can be honest, you’ll answer in the affirmative. What might prevent you (in the Sophists’ view) from admitting that you agree with them? Are they correct? Even if you personally reject Callicles’ position, how common do you think it is? Lastly, what do you think of the Sophists’ overall assessment of the way society really operates? Are they onto something or not? What’s your evidence? Chapter 4 1. One of my college friends resembled Socrates. I first noticed him in the cafeteria. I thought he was one of the most unfortunate-looking persons I had ever seen. He knew some acquaintances of mine, and so I eventually met him. I initially felt uncomfortable even being around him because of his looks, I’m sorry to say. But, slowly I discovered an intelligent, funny, kind, strong, and courageous man. Over the years of our friendship, I lost the capacity to see him as ugly. Sadly, the converse has been true in my experience as well. A beautiful or handsome countenance that belongs to a slothful or self-centered or shallow or cruel person over time becomes less handsome or beautiful to me. Have you noticed this pattern in yourself? Analyze it, if you have. 2. What do you think of Socrates’ views on self-control? Does the current concern with healthy diets, exercise, and so on seem to be in line with what Socrates thought, or are we, perhaps, overdoing it or acting from love of beauty, not self-control? Discuss. 3. How might we explain the fact that many churches and schools are luxurious? Don’t both educators and preachers (not to mention gurus and therapists) say that material success does not guarantee happiness? Don’t many of them say that the life of the mind or soul is most important? Why, then, do they live as if they don’t believe it? There are plenty of famous examples of this inconsistency. Discuss one or two of them. If the Socratic view is wrong, why do so many people give it lip service? 4. Can you think of other paradigmatic individuals? Remember, a paradigmatic individual is more than a merely influential teacher, adviser, social reformer, or significant religious figure. Do you think that contemporary America, with its present diversity, can produce archetypal philosophers? Or must each community or ethnic group have its own human paradigms? What qualities do you think a contemporary American sophos must possess? 5. Statistically, poorer, less-educated people make up a disproportionate segment of our prison population. Just how relevant to Thrasymachus’ position is it that white-collar and celebrity criminals are often punished less severely than poor or obscure defendants are? Other studies suggest that physically attractive job candidates are most likely to be hired. Have you ever noticed how some students seem to get by mostly on cleverness and charm? Should we draw conclusions about the nature of justice from these cases or just chalk them up to the way things sometimes go? Try to separate our lip-service moral values from those we practice. Try to separate a storybook conception of life from a realistic one. Are moral realists onto something or not? Explain. 6. Do some informal research among your friends to get a sense of some contemporary conceptions of the soul. Compare and contrast what you discover with Socrates’ conception of the psyche. How might a person’s conception of the soul influence his or her response to the issue of the unexamined life? 7. Socrates claims that an unexamined life is not worth living. What do you think it means to live an examined life? Do you agree that a life with self-examination is not worth living? 8. Have you ever met a highly educated specialist (physician, biochemist, psychologist, philosophy teacher, preacher) who thinks nothing of pontificating on the economy, sex education, or how you should raise your child? Discuss in light of Socratic statements concerning human wisdom. 9. Compare Socrates’ attitude toward the soul with your own—and with that of your religion, if you practice one. What do you see as the main differences? What are some advantages and disadvantages of Socrates’ view? 10. Do you agree that no one knowingly does evil? Explain. 11. If all evil is ignorance, can we ever justly punish evildoers? Discuss. Chapter 5 1. As persistent voting controversies make clear, Americans have reason to be wary of requirements for voting. In the past, voting requirements have been used to prevent women and people of certain ethnic groups from voting. On the other hand, a case might be made that by not having some minimal standard of preparedness and awareness, we make a mockery of “choosing.” How can an ignorant voter “choose” anything? Does “choosing” matter? Can I be truly free if I am uninformed and ignorant? Discuss from both sides. 2. Reflect on the following objection to the preceding paragraphs: “The glass bead example is only playing with semantics. When we talk about two physical objects being ‘identical,’ we don’t mean literally identical–we mean so similar that human beings are unable to distinguish one object from the other. Obviously we can distinguish different things from each other when they’re right next to each other. But if we find no differences when we analyze them one at a time, we are justified in saying that they are identical, ‘indistinguishable’! Identical means indistinguishable to human beings; that is, so closely resembling each other that we cannot tell them apart.” How might Plato answer this objection? 3. Is it possible to know that no one does know? Is it possible to know that no one does know that no one does know? Is it possible to know that no one can know that no one does know? How do you know? Or, how do you know that you don’t know? 4. Compare Plato’s use of similes to show that there are levels of knowledge with John Stuart Mill’s more “ordinary” argument regarding levels of knowledge in judgments of quality (Chapter 12). Which approach seems most compelling, if either does? Assess. 5. The Allegory of the Cave has intrigued students of Plato since it first appeared. Do you think it fairly expresses the way we experience knowledge? For instance, in childhood, everything is black and white, but with experience, we discover rich nuances and hues, as it were. What level are you on? Society in general? The world? Explain. Do you believe in levels of reality? In enlightenment? Why or why not? 6. Consider the family as a functional system: If young children are allowed to spend the money, determine bedtimes, and so on, the whole family suffers. If the parents try to live like children, the whole family suffers. If every family member is free to pick and choose what he or she feels like doing or not doing every day, there can be no family. You might try similar analyses of marriages, churches, schools, or factories. Discuss the need for hierarchy, authority, and a governing power. 7. Do you agree with Plato that democracy is incompatible with self-discipline? What sort of self-discipline do you think Plato was concerned about? 8. Can you spot any symptoms in our society of the pattern Plato attributes to injustice in individuals and the state? Can you identify individuals or groups that “fall into sickness and dissension at the slightest provocation”? What–if anything–does justice (or a lack of justice) have to do with these reactions? Explain. 9. Do you think things like laws against hate speech and fundamentalist reactions against “the excesses of Western democracy” support Plato’s argument that the inevitable result of democracy is “too much liberty” and that widespread “abuses” of liberty lead to demands for “law and order” and, ultimately, tyranny? What other examples can you think of to buttress Plato’s case? What examples to weaken it? (As you ponder this, note that calls for restrictions on personal freedom come from both liberal and conservative thinkers.) Chapter 6 1. Discuss some of the common obstacles to becoming a fully functioning, balanced, individual. 2. As an example of the importance of luck in the good life, think about this Aristotelian maxim (derived from Solon): “Count no man happy until he is dead.” Aristotle taught that a good life can be marred by a bad death. Discuss this general idea and then tie it to our present attitudes toward death, dying, euthanasia, and the all-too-frequent instances of individuals kept barely alive, condemned to spend their last months or years in nursing homes. Do you agree with Aristotle that a bad death or dying can transform a good life into a bad one? Or do you think that biological life is sacred—period? 3. Consider Aristotle’s position carefully here. It might conform more closely to our true feelings about virtue than our sentimental and idealistic platitudes imply. We might be taught that “virtue is its own reward” but how many of us really think as highly of a “good” person who hides away from the world as we do of someone who has faults and makes mistakes, but gets out there and gets involved in life. Is being “good” really enough? 4. Study and discuss Table 6.1, Aristotelian Virtues and Vices, using principles from the Nicomachean Ethics and the concept of the mean. Then add and discuss your own examples of virtues and vices. Chapter 7 1. Stop for a moment and reflect on this: Is it possible to be calm under all circumstances? Or do certain circumstances force us to be distressed and agitated? Why do some people seem happy in horrible circumstances, while others suffer in the midst of being loved, healthy, and financially well-off? Do you think happiness is mostly a matter of attitude or not? Discuss. 2. Do you agree that the test of faith is anxiety? Are the Stoics correct in insisting that one who truly realizes that everything is governed by a divine plan will lose all fear and anxiety? Justify your position. 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of disinterestedness. When is it a virtue? When is it not? Give some examples and explain them. 4. Reflect on letting go in the sense of doing what seems right and then relaxing. Provide a few of your own examples of how fear of consequences and an obsession with control can affect us. Discuss ways for identifying and striking a balance between letting go in a wise way and in an irresponsible way. 5. By some estimates, 60 percent of Americans are overweight or obese. Some 95 percent of those who try to lose and maintain a clinically healthy weight will fail. Could being obese be part of a person’s fate? Could being an alcoholic? Sexually promiscuous? Lazy? As more and more behaviors are linked to genetics, how can we distinguish between defects of character and things not in our control? 6. Discuss the preceding passage from Epictetus about relationships. What lessons might it offer regarding our relationships and the things that make us unhappy?
1. According to Ryan & Siebens (2012) __________ of adults 25 years old completed at least a high school degree and more than __________ of all adults had attained at least a bachelor’s degree. A.50.2%; 15.5%. B.70.3%; 18.4%. C.C) 85.3%; 27.9%. D.78.4%; 20.7%. 2. Which of the following was not identified as a manifest function of the social institution of education? A.personal development. B.educate. C.proper socialization. D.supervision. 3. Which of the following sociological perspectives is/are concerned that schools often indoctrinate students in the U.S. in Western bureaucratic ideology? A.Functionalism. B.Interactionism. C.Conflict. D.Conflict and Interactionism. 4. The sociological concept of “definition of the situation” was developed by: A.W.I. Thomas and Dorothy Swaine Thomas. B.W.I. Thomas. C.Rosabeth Moss Kanter. D.R. S. Smith. 5. According to the research of Myra and David Sadker (1994): A.boys receive less praise, corrections, and feedback than girls in school. B.girls receive less attention than boys in school. C.boys receive less attention than girls in school. D.girls and boys receive about the same amount of attention, praise, correction, and feedback in school. 6. The number of elderly Americans in the workforce has decreased over the last decade. True False 7. According to the author, the current call for educational reform was initiated during the __________ administration. A.Clinton. B.Reagan. C.Bush. D.Nixon. 8. The No Child Left Behind Act was passed during the __________ administration. A.Bush. B.Clinton. C.Reagan. D.Ford. 9. While the U.S. spends __________ on education than other high-income countries, our literacy scores are __________ in a world comparison. A.less; above average. B.less; average. C.more; average. D.more; below average. 10. According to the textbook, which of the following countries did not score higher than the U.S. on literacy scores? A.Sweden. B.Japan. C.Canada. D.Norway. 11. The U.S. Bureau of Statistics reported a __________ unemployment rate in December 2009. A.18. 2 million B.7.1 million C.12.7 million. D.18.4 million 12. Frances is working at a job that is below her skill level. Frances can be considered to be __________. A.unemployed. B.underemployed. C.not in the workforce. D.disemployed. 13. Persons who are __________ and __________ have high underemployment rates compared to those outside their groups. A.female; college educated. B.elderly; non-college educated. C.college educated; young. D.young; ethnic/racial minorities. 14. According to the 1993 report cited in your textbook, which of the following groups had the highest rates of labor force nonparticipation? A.blacks and Puerto Ricans. B.blacks and Native-Americans. C.Asians and blacks. D.Asians and Puerto Ricans. 15. Which of the following countries is expected to be the recipient of the largest number of outsourced jobs from the United States? A.Canada. B.India. C.China. D.Brazil. 16. Low-wage workers are characterized as: A.minority. B.female. C.disabled. D.both a and b are correct. 17. __________ defines job stress as the harmful emotional or physical responses that occurs when one’s job characteristics do not match with the capabilities, resources, or needs or the worker. A.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. B.Department of Commerce. C.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. D.Department of Health and Human Services. 18. Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment discrimination based on __________ is prohibited. A.religion and sexual orientation. B.sex. C.national origin and disability. D.both b and c are correct. 19. While laws were created to stop workplace discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, and national origin in 1964, the
Select Case 1, 2, or 8 in the back of the textbook. After you have read the case, select at least one of the questions presented at the end.-If you select only one question, then you will need to elaborate with more examples and perspectives than if you select more than one, but the choice is yours. Fair warning: It is possible to fall into the trap of repeating oneself. To avoid that threat, think in advance of the different perspectives that you wish to explore. If you select more than one question, each answer will naturally be shorter. This may be a good approach if you discern that the questions lack strong potential to elicit in-depth answers. Remember to reply to the contributions of two other students in this exercise. This is a rule that we are only observing in the case analyses, given the relative complexity of the cases, compared to the chapter discussion questions. Always add value, from the textbook, news, personal experience, or all three. Indicate the case and question at the beginning, but avoid restating the question in your answer. In this respect, use the same method as in the chapter discussion questions, described in the Week 2 forum. Write at least 500 words (no minimum for replies, but do add value). Quoted passages do not contribute to the word count (so you will need to write more if you insert any quoted material). Post-edit your work carefully to catch errors. Avoid plagiarism at all cost. ——— Note on anomalous questions. Some questions will require you to work around selected details to fit the requisite discussion format. For example, Question 2 in Case 1 asks how your proposal will solve certain problems noted in answer to the previous question. If you have not actually answered Question 1, then you will have to assert one or more problems from the case, a proposed solution, and then an explanation of how your proposal may help. Question 3 is similar, in that you will need to identify a problem and a solution, followed by an argument about the budget. Although Alistair was expecting to hire a Project Engineer rather than a Quality Compliance Manager, the methods used to make the decision should be similar. The main difference in the Quality Compliance Manager position is that it is in a joint venture with a Hungarian government backed firm. International Joint Ventures (IJV) makes HRM practices more complicated because HRM practices and strategies are required for each IJV entity (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). HRM must address IJV in four stages, in which, each stage has an impact on the next. It is important for HRM to very thorough with each stage and communication through each stage is vital. To be successful, HRM must combine the IJV strategy along with the recruitment, selection, training, and development processes (Dowling et al., 2013). In light of the needs of the company and the new Quality Compliance Manager position, Alistair should choose the first candidate, Marie Erten-Loiseau. The fact that the job requires travel to France and Germany is a positive for Marie because she was born in France and was educated in France and Germany. The familiarity of these locations will help her as she meets with new business partners because she will have a good understanding of the policy and procedures required for companies in these two countries. Dowling et al., (2013), points out that the manager needs to be able to assess the desires of the stakeholders and be able to implement strategies based on their desires. Another reason for choosing Marie is that she has the most experience and has worked with Trianon for 13 years. The experience she has with the company is invaluable because she knows the goals of the company and strategies for implementing those goals. The last reason for choosing Marie is that she has been successful in her previous positions. She has lead two projects in two different countries and both were successful. This shows that she is able to adapt to the different practices of each country. There are many factors that Alistair should take into consideration to determine the correct choice for the Quality Compliance Manager position. The major factors that require consideration are the specificities of the entire situation, the reason for the assignment, and type of assignment. The four main specificities include context specificities, firm specific variables, local unit specificities, and IHRM practices (Dowling et al., 2013). The context specificities would include the differences in cultures between the assignment in Hungary and the base location for the Trianon, Marseilles. The firm specific variable includes any changes in the way operations in Hungary are conducted, whether it is strategy or HRM policies. The local unit specificities include the role of the joint venture in relation to Trianon and how this joint venture will fit into the long-term plan of the company. The company hopes that it will provide a good working relationship with the state supported airline, which will lead to more business in the future. The IHRM practices determine the employees that are hired and the training that is available to the employees. The reason for the assignment also is a major factor in determining the correct candidate. In the situation of Trianon, a joint venture with a Hungarian government back firm created a position that needed filling. The Quality Compliance Manager position allows Trianon to manage the joint venture operation, make sure it is successful, and build a strong relationship with Malev. The last major factor is the type of assignment. The Quality Compliance Manager assignment is long-term assignment because it is 3 years in duration. The joint venture is the first that the company has been involved in outside the UK so there is less familiarity on the administrative/compliance side. The candidate must act as an agent of direct control (Dowling et al., 2013) by assuring that compliance policies are followed and company strategy is implemented. Assessing whether a male or female would be the best fit for the position is also a factor that deserves consideration. The low number of female expatriates led Jessens, Cappellen, &Zanoni (2006) to research the following three myths: women have no desire to be in positions of authority in a foreign country, companies do not desire to place females in positions of authority while a foreign country, and women would be ineffective because of the views towards women in foreign countries. The research indicated that female expatriates do have conflict that arises related to their gender but the successful ones were able to turn the conflicts around based on the qualities that these women possess (Jessens et al., 2006). With all of these factors considered, I believe Marie Erten-Loiseau is the best candidate for the Quality Compliance Manager. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D. Sr. (2013). International Human Resource Management (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning Janssens, M., Cappellen, T., &Zanoni, P. (2006). Successful female expatriates as agents: Positioning oneself through gender, hierarchy, and culture. Journal of World Business, 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2006.01.001 2.) Case 8 – Questions 1 & 4 Multinational firms are often faced with recruiting and staffing decisions that could ultimately enhance or diminish the firm’s ability to be successful in a competitive global market. Perlmutter identified four staffing approaches for MNEs to consider based on the primary attitudes of international executives that would lay the foundation for MNEs during the recruitment and hiring process (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). At one point or another throughout the MacDougall family journey Lachlan and Lisa have served in one of the four capacities as an ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric employee. The ability to encompass all four attitudes that Perlmutter set forth is something that the MacDougall family has managed to do extremely well. The possibility for a multinational firm to recruit a family of this caliber that has been exposed and has an understanding of the positive and negative aspects of each attitude is phenomenal. This would be resourceful for any multinational firm. The MacDougal family’s exposure to cross-cultural management is also valuable. The diverse cultural background that the family has encountered on their international journey is a rarity. Cultural diversity and cross-cultural management play a critical role in MNEs because it produces a work environment that can transform the workplace into a place of learning and give the firm the availability to create new ideas for a more productive and competitive advantage over other firms (Sultana, Rashid, Mohiuddin, &Mazumder, 2013). This is something that is easy for the MacDougall family to bring to the table with the family’s given history. The expatriate lifestyle that has become second nature to the MacDougall family is beneficial for multinational firms for multifarious reasons Being raised around different cultures and then choosing to work internationally and learn different cultures has attributed to Lachlan’s successful career. The family’s ability to communicate and blend in socially among diverse cultures is an important aspect for international firms that want to stay competitive and be successful. The family has acclimated fairly easy to all of the places they have been and this is something that can be favorable when firms are recruiting employees. The MacDougall family has an upper-hand in the international marketplace naturally due to previous experiences with other countries and cultures. The exceptional way that the family has managed to conform to a multitude of other cultures and flourish is not an easy task. Marriage is not easy and many families experience a greater challenge avoiding divorcees when international mobility is involved. Lachlan and Lisa have been able to move together and this is an important aspect to the success of their marriage. Based on the case study they have a common desire to travel and both are successful in their careers. Lisa’s devotion to her husband’s successful career has put some strain on the marriage as she has had times where she felt she did not have her own identity. Military spouses experience this type of stress during long deployments and times that they have to hold the household together on their own. Another example is with employers who are transferred internationally for a short period of time or travel often. Separation of spouses can strain any marriage, but Lisa and Lachlan have been fortunate to avoid separation for any extended length of time. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D.Sr.(2013). International Human Resource Management. (6thed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Sultana, M., Rashid, M., Mohiuddin, M. &Mazumder, M. (2013).Cross-cultural management and organizational performance.A Contnet analysis perspective.International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 133-146.
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Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.