Name: Date: Quiz IV Vignette 1. Johnny has just come in from recess and he is thirsty. He asks to go to the water fountain, but his teacher tells him that first he has to complete his math worksheet, and then he can have a drink of water. 1. Given that Johnny is thirsty, do you think he will be motivated to complete his math worksheet? 2. Write the correct notation of the 4 term contingency used in this example. Define which piece from the example matches each part of the contingency. 3. What is the MO – and what kind of MO is this? 4. If reinforcement is used in this example – is it positive or negative? Vignette 2. You feel a headache coming on – you see the bottle of advil in your desk drawer. You take the advil. The headache goes away. 5. Write and define the 4 term contingency. 6. What is the MO – and what kind of MO is this? 7. If reinforcement is used in this example – is it positive or negative? —- 8. Define positive reinforcement and give an example. 9. Define negative reinforcement and give an example. Vignette 3. Every time Johnny is given a math worksheet to complete, he kicks, hits, and spits on the teacher. This typically results in Johnny being sent to the principal’s office. 10. How would you label and define this target behavior? 11. What is the probable function of this behavior? 12. What adaptive alternative would you consider teaching Johnny to replace this target behavior? Vignette 4. When Bobby is denied access (told he cannot have) to a preferred toy, he throws himself on the ground, begins screaming and hitting the floor with his fists. This behavioral episode can go on anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes. 13. How would you label and define this target behavior? 14. What is the probable function of this behavior? 15. What type of data collection would you use for this target behavior? — Vignette 5. Johnny knows that when his grandmother watches him, she will try to soothe him with delicious treats if he begins tantrumming. However, he has learned that his mother does NOT give him tasty treats if he engages in problem behavior. Using the 3 term contingency – describe this situation when Grandma is present. (Hint: Does his grandmother function as an SD or an S∆ for tantrumming behavior?) Using the 3 term contingency – describe this situation when his mother is present. (Hint: does his mother function as an SD or an S∆ for tantrum behavior?)

Name: Date: Quiz IV Vignette 1. Johnny has just come in from recess and he is thirsty. He asks to go to the water fountain, but his teacher tells him that first he has to complete his math worksheet, and then he can have a drink of water. 1. Given that Johnny is thirsty, do you think he will be motivated to complete his math worksheet? 2. Write the correct notation of the 4 term contingency used in this example. Define which piece from the example matches each part of the contingency. 3. What is the MO – and what kind of MO is this? 4. If reinforcement is used in this example – is it positive or negative? Vignette 2. You feel a headache coming on – you see the bottle of advil in your desk drawer. You take the advil. The headache goes away. 5. Write and define the 4 term contingency. 6. What is the MO – and what kind of MO is this? 7. If reinforcement is used in this example – is it positive or negative? —- 8. Define positive reinforcement and give an example. 9. Define negative reinforcement and give an example. Vignette 3. Every time Johnny is given a math worksheet to complete, he kicks, hits, and spits on the teacher. This typically results in Johnny being sent to the principal’s office. 10. How would you label and define this target behavior? 11. What is the probable function of this behavior? 12. What adaptive alternative would you consider teaching Johnny to replace this target behavior? Vignette 4. When Bobby is denied access (told he cannot have) to a preferred toy, he throws himself on the ground, begins screaming and hitting the floor with his fists. This behavioral episode can go on anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes. 13. How would you label and define this target behavior? 14. What is the probable function of this behavior? 15. What type of data collection would you use for this target behavior? — Vignette 5. Johnny knows that when his grandmother watches him, she will try to soothe him with delicious treats if he begins tantrumming. However, he has learned that his mother does NOT give him tasty treats if he engages in problem behavior. Using the 3 term contingency – describe this situation when Grandma is present. (Hint: Does his grandmother function as an SD or an S∆ for tantrumming behavior?) Using the 3 term contingency – describe this situation when his mother is present. (Hint: does his mother function as an SD or an S∆ for tantrum behavior?)

Name:                                                                                                  Date: Quiz IV   Vignette 1.   Johnny … Read More...
PHET ElectroMagnetism Key to this Document Instructions are in black. Experimental questions that you need to solve through experimentation with an online animation are in green highlighted. Important instructions are in red highlighted. Items that need a response from you are in yellow highlighted. Please put your answers to this activity in RED. Part I- Comparing Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets: 1. Select the simulation “Magnets and Electromagnets.” It is at this link: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Magnets_and_Electromagnets 2. Move the compass slowly along a semicircular path above the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 3. Move the compass along a semicircular path below the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 4. What do you suppose the compass needles drawn all over the screen tell you? 5. Use page 10 in your book to look up what it looks like when scientists use a drawing to represent a magnetic field. Describe the field around a bar magnet here. 6. Put the compass to the left or right of the magnet. Click “flip polarity” and notice what happens to the compass. Using the compass needle as your observation tool, describe the effect that flipping the poles of the magnet has on the magnetic field. 7. Click on the electromagnet tab along the top of the simulation window. Place the compass on the left side of the coil so that the compass center lies along the axis of the coil. <--like this 8. Move the compass along a semicircular path above the coil until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the coil. Then do the same below the coil. Notice what happens to the compass needle. Compare this answer to the answer you got to Number 2 and 3. 9. Compare the shape of the magnetic field of a bar magnet to the magnetic field of an electromagnet. 10. Use the voltage slider to change the direction of the current and investigate the shape of the magnetic field the coil using the compass after you’ve let the compass stabilize. Summarize, the effect that the direction of current has on the shape of the magnetic field around an electrified coil of wires. 11. What happens to the current in the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? 12. What happens to the magnetic field around the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? Part II – Investigating relationships- No Answers are written on this document after this point. All three data tables, graphs and conclusion statements go on the Google Spreadsheet that you can download from Ms. Pogge’s website. Experimental Question #1: How does distance affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? 1. Using the Electromagnet simulation, click on “Show Field Meter.” 2. Set the battery voltage to 10V where the positive is on the right of the battery (slide the switch all the way to the right). 3. Magnetic field strength (symbol B on the top line of the meter) is measured in gauss (G). You’ll only need to record the value on the top line of the Field Meter. 4. Position zero will be right on top of the coil. Negative number positions will be to the left and positive number positions to the right of the coil. 5. Move the field meter one compass needle to the right and record the value of B at position 1. 6. This data table below will be used to help you fill in the first spreadsheet you downloaded from Ms. Pogge’s website. You will end up with 3 data tables, 3 graphs and 3 conclusion statements in your document, one for each mini-experiment you are doing. a. NOTE: Be sure to take all of your values along the horizontal axis of the coil. You’ll know you’re on the axis because the B-y measurement of the magnetic field is zero along the axis. Compass position (no units) Magnetic Field Strength ( )<--Fill in units! -5 (5 needles to the left of coil) Don’t fill in the table here...do it on the Google Spreadsheet you downloaded -4 -3 -2 -1 0 (middle of coil) 1 2 3 4 5 (5 needles to right of coil) 7. In your Google Spreadsheet: Graph the compass position on the horizontal (x) axis and magnetic field magnitude on the vertical (y) axis. 8. Make sure to label the axes and title the graph. Share this spreadsheet with your teacher. 9. Analyze your graph to discover how the two variables are related, and report the relationship between magnetic field strength and position using 1-3 complete sentences. Experimental Question #2: How does the number of coils affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the number of coils. Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet. Experimental Question #3: How does the amount of current affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the Current. (Recall that voltage is directly proportional to current….Ohm’s Law.) Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet.

PHET ElectroMagnetism Key to this Document Instructions are in black. Experimental questions that you need to solve through experimentation with an online animation are in green highlighted. Important instructions are in red highlighted. Items that need a response from you are in yellow highlighted. Please put your answers to this activity in RED. Part I- Comparing Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets: 1. Select the simulation “Magnets and Electromagnets.” It is at this link: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Magnets_and_Electromagnets 2. Move the compass slowly along a semicircular path above the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 3. Move the compass along a semicircular path below the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 4. What do you suppose the compass needles drawn all over the screen tell you? 5. Use page 10 in your book to look up what it looks like when scientists use a drawing to represent a magnetic field. Describe the field around a bar magnet here. 6. Put the compass to the left or right of the magnet. Click “flip polarity” and notice what happens to the compass. Using the compass needle as your observation tool, describe the effect that flipping the poles of the magnet has on the magnetic field. 7. Click on the electromagnet tab along the top of the simulation window. Place the compass on the left side of the coil so that the compass center lies along the axis of the coil. <--like this 8. Move the compass along a semicircular path above the coil until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the coil. Then do the same below the coil. Notice what happens to the compass needle. Compare this answer to the answer you got to Number 2 and 3. 9. Compare the shape of the magnetic field of a bar magnet to the magnetic field of an electromagnet. 10. Use the voltage slider to change the direction of the current and investigate the shape of the magnetic field the coil using the compass after you’ve let the compass stabilize. Summarize, the effect that the direction of current has on the shape of the magnetic field around an electrified coil of wires. 11. What happens to the current in the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? 12. What happens to the magnetic field around the coil when you set the voltage of the battery to zero? Part II – Investigating relationships- No Answers are written on this document after this point. All three data tables, graphs and conclusion statements go on the Google Spreadsheet that you can download from Ms. Pogge’s website. Experimental Question #1: How does distance affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? 1. Using the Electromagnet simulation, click on “Show Field Meter.” 2. Set the battery voltage to 10V where the positive is on the right of the battery (slide the switch all the way to the right). 3. Magnetic field strength (symbol B on the top line of the meter) is measured in gauss (G). You’ll only need to record the value on the top line of the Field Meter. 4. Position zero will be right on top of the coil. Negative number positions will be to the left and positive number positions to the right of the coil. 5. Move the field meter one compass needle to the right and record the value of B at position 1. 6. This data table below will be used to help you fill in the first spreadsheet you downloaded from Ms. Pogge’s website. You will end up with 3 data tables, 3 graphs and 3 conclusion statements in your document, one for each mini-experiment you are doing. a. NOTE: Be sure to take all of your values along the horizontal axis of the coil. You’ll know you’re on the axis because the B-y measurement of the magnetic field is zero along the axis. Compass position (no units) Magnetic Field Strength ( )<--Fill in units! -5 (5 needles to the left of coil) Don’t fill in the table here...do it on the Google Spreadsheet you downloaded -4 -3 -2 -1 0 (middle of coil) 1 2 3 4 5 (5 needles to right of coil) 7. In your Google Spreadsheet: Graph the compass position on the horizontal (x) axis and magnetic field magnitude on the vertical (y) axis. 8. Make sure to label the axes and title the graph. Share this spreadsheet with your teacher. 9. Analyze your graph to discover how the two variables are related, and report the relationship between magnetic field strength and position using 1-3 complete sentences. Experimental Question #2: How does the number of coils affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the number of coils. Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet. Experimental Question #3: How does the amount of current affect the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet? Design an experiment to test how field strength varies with the Current. (Recall that voltage is directly proportional to current….Ohm’s Law.) Enter your data, graph your results and write your conclusion statement on the Google Spreadsheet.

Chapter 9 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Momentum and Internal Forces Learning Goal: To understand the concept of total momentum for a system of objects and the effect of the internal forces on the total momentum. We begin by introducing the following terms: System: Any collection of objects, either pointlike or extended. In many momentum-related problems, you have a certain freedom in choosing the objects to be considered as your system. Making a wise choice is often a crucial step in solving the problem. Internal force: Any force interaction between two objects belonging to the chosen system. Let us stress that both interacting objects must belong to the system. External force: Any force interaction between objects at least one of which does not belong to the chosen system; in other words, at least one of the objects is external to the system. Closed system: a system that is not subject to any external forces. Total momentum: The vector sum of the individual momenta of all objects constituting the system. In this problem, you will analyze a system composed of two blocks, 1 and 2, of respective masses and . To simplify the analysis, we will make several assumptions: The blocks can move in only one dimension, namely, 1. along the x axis. 2. The masses of the blocks remain constant. 3. The system is closed. At time , the x components of the velocity and the acceleration of block 1 are denoted by and . Similarly, the x components of the velocity and acceleration of block 2 are denoted by and . In this problem, you will show that the total momentum of the system is not changed by the presence of internal forces. m1 m2 t v1(t) a1 (t) v2 (t) a2 (t) Part A Find , the x component of the total momentum of the system at time . Express your answer in terms of , , , and . ANSWER: Part B Find the time derivative of the x component of the system’s total momentum. Express your answer in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Why did we bother with all this math? The expression for the derivative of momentum that we just obtained will be useful in reaching our desired conclusion, if only for this very special case. Part C The quantity (mass times acceleration) is dimensionally equivalent to which of the following? ANSWER: p(t) t m1 m2 v1 (t) v2 (t) p(t) = dp(t)/dt a1 (t) a2 (t) m1 m2 dp(t)/dt = ma Part D Acceleration is due to which of the following physical quantities? ANSWER: Part E Since we have assumed that the system composed of blocks 1 and 2 is closed, what could be the reason for the acceleration of block 1? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: momentum energy force acceleration inertia velocity speed energy momentum force Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Let us denote the x component of the force exerted by block 1 on block 2 by , and the x component of the force exerted by block 2 on block 1 by . Which of the following pairs equalities is a direct consequence of Newton’s second law? ANSWER: Part H Let us recall that we have denoted the force exerted by block 1 on block 2 by , and the force exerted by block 2 on block 1 by . If we suppose that is greater than , which of the following statements about forces is true? You did not open hints for this part. the large mass of block 1 air resistance Earth’s gravitational attraction a force exerted by block 2 on block 1 a force exerted by block 1 on block 2 F12 F21 and and and and F12 = m2a2 F21 = m1a1 F12 = m1a1 F21 = m2a2 F12 = m1a2 F21 = m2a1 F12 = m2a1 F21 = m1a2 F12 F21 m1 m2 ANSWER: Part I Now recall the expression for the time derivative of the x component of the system’s total momentum: . Considering the information that you now have, choose the best alternative for an equivalent expression to . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Impulse and Momentum Ranking Task Six automobiles are initially traveling at the indicated velocities. The automobiles have different masses and velocities. The drivers step on the brakes and all automobiles are brought to rest. Part A Rank these automobiles based on the magnitude of their momentum before the brakes are applied, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. ANSWER: Both forces have equal magnitudes. |F12 | > |F21| |F21 | > |F12| dpx(t)/dt = Fx dpx(t)/dt 0 nonzero constant kt kt2 Part B Rank these automobiles based on the magnitude of the impulse needed to stop them, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Rank the automobiles based on the magnitude of the force needed to stop them, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A Game of Frictionless Catch Chuck and Jackie stand on separate carts, both of which can slide without friction. The combined mass of Chuck and his cart, , is identical to the combined mass of Jackie and her cart. Initially, Chuck and Jackie and their carts are at rest. Chuck then picks up a ball of mass and throws it to Jackie, who catches it. Assume that the ball travels in a straight line parallel to the ground (ignore the effect of gravity). After Chuck throws the ball, his speed relative to the ground is . The speed of the thrown ball relative to the ground is . Jackie catches the ball when it reaches her, and she and her cart begin to move. Jackie’s speed relative to the ground after she catches the ball is . When answering the questions in this problem, keep the following in mind: The original mass of Chuck and his cart does not include the 1. mass of the ball. 2. The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity. An object’s speed will always be a nonnegative quantity. mcart mball vc vb vj mcart Part A Find the relative speed between Chuck and the ball after Chuck has thrown the ball. Express the speed in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the speed of the ball (relative to the ground) while it is in the air? Express your answer in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is Chuck’s speed (relative to the ground) after he throws the ball? Express your answer in terms of , , and . u vc vb u = vb mball mcart u vb = vc mball mcart u You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D Find Jackie’s speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of . Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E Find Jackie’s speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of . Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: vc = vj vb vj mball mcart vb vj = vj u vj mball mcart u Momentum in an Explosion A giant “egg” explodes as part of a fireworks display. The egg is at rest before the explosion, and after the explosion, it breaks into two pieces, with the masses indicated in the diagram, traveling in opposite directions. Part A What is the momentum of piece A before the explosion? Express your answer numerically in kilogram meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: vj = pA,i Part B During the explosion, is the force of piece A on piece B greater than, less than, or equal to the force of piece B on piece A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The momentum of piece B is measured to be 500 after the explosion. Find the momentum of piece A after the explosion. Enter your answer numerically in kilogram meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pA,i = kg  m/s greater than less than equal to cannot be determined kg  m/s pA,f pA,f = kg  m/s ± PSS 9.1 Conservation of Momentum Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 9.1 for conservation of momentum problems. An 80- quarterback jumps straight up in the air right before throwing a 0.43- football horizontally at 15 . How fast will he be moving backward just after releasing the ball? PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 9.1 Conservation of momentum MODEL: Clearly define the system. If possible, choose a system that is isolated ( ) or within which the interactions are sufficiently short and intense that you can ignore external forces for the duration of the interaction (the impulse approximation). Momentum is conserved. If it is not possible to choose an isolated system, try to divide the problem into parts such that momentum is conserved during one segment of the motion. Other segments of the motion can be analyzed using Newton’s laws or, as you will learn later, conservation of energy. VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you are trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of momentum: . In component form, this is ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The interaction at study in this problem is the action of throwing the ball, performed by the quarterback while being off the ground. To apply conservation of momentum to this interaction, you will need to clearly define a system that is isolated or within which the impulse approximation can be applied. Part A Sort the following objects as part of the system or not. Drag the appropriate objects to their respective bins. ANSWER: kg kg m/s F = net 0 P = f P  i (pfx + ( + ( += ( + ( + ( + )1 pfx)2 pfx)3 pix)1 pix)2 pix)3 (pfy + ( + ( += ( + ( + ( + )1 pfy)2 pfy)3 piy)1 piy)2 piy)3 Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Visualize Solve Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Assess Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Conservation of Momentum in Inelastic Collisions Learning Goal: To understand the vector nature of momentum in the case in which two objects collide and stick together. In this problem we will consider a collision of two moving objects such that after the collision, the objects stick together and travel off as a single unit. The collision is therefore completely inelastic. You have probably learned that “momentum is conserved” in an inelastic collision. But how does this fact help you to solve collision problems? The following questions should help you to clarify the meaning and implications of the statement “momentum is conserved.” Part A What physical quantities are conserved in this collision? ANSWER: Part B Two cars of equal mass collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, their speeds are and . What is the speed of the two-car system after the collision? the magnitude of the momentum only the net momentum (considered as a vector) only the momentum of each object considered individually v1 v2 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, the magnitudes of their momenta are and . After the collision, what is the magnitude of their combined momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The answer depends on the directions in which the cars were moving before the collision. v1 + v2 v1 − v2 v2 − v1 v1v2 −−−− ” v1+v2 2 v1 + 2 v2 2 −−−−−−−  p1 p2 Part D Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, their momenta are and . After the collision, their combined momentum is . Of what can one be certain? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, the magnitudes of their momenta are and . After the collision, the magnitude of their combined momentum is . Of what can one be certain? The answer depends on the directions in which the cars were moving before the collision. p1 + p2 p1 − p2 p2 − p1 p1p2 −−−− ” p1+p2 2 p1 + 2 p2 2 −−−−−−−  p 1 p 2 p p = p1 + # p2 # p = p1 − # p2 # p = p2 − # p1 # p1 p2 p You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Colliding Cars In this problem we will consider the collision of two cars initially moving at right angles. We assume that after the collision the cars stick together and travel off as a single unit. The collision is therefore completely inelastic. Two cars of masses and collide at an intersection. Before the collision, car 1 was traveling eastward at a speed of , and car 2 was traveling northward at a speed of . After the collision, the two cars stick together and travel off in the direction shown. Part A p1 + p2 $ p $ p1p2 −−−− ” p1 +p2 $ p $ p1+p2 2 p1 + p2 $ p $ |p1 − p2 | p1 + p2 $ p $ p1 + 2 p2 2 −−−−−−−  m1 m2 v1 v2 First, find the magnitude of , that is, the speed of the two-car unit after the collision. Express in terms of , , and the cars’ initial speeds and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the tangent of the angle . Express your answer in terms of the momenta of the two cars, and . ANSWER: Part C Suppose that after the collision, ; in other words, is . This means that before the collision: ANSWER: v v v m1 m2 v1 v2 v = p1 p2 tan( ) = tan = 1 45′ The magnitudes of the momenta of the cars were equal. The masses of the cars were equal. The velocities of the cars were equal. ± Catching a Ball on Ice Olaf is standing on a sheet of ice that covers the football stadium parking lot in Buffalo, New York; there is negligible friction between his feet and the ice. A friend throws Olaf a ball of mass 0.400 that is traveling horizontally at 11.2 . Olaf’s mass is 67.1 . Part A If Olaf catches the ball, with what speed do Olaf and the ball move afterward? Express your answer numerically in meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B kg m/s kg vf vf = m/s If the ball hits Olaf and bounces off his chest horizontally at 8.00 in the opposite direction, what is his speed after the collision? Express your answer numerically in meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 2.90 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 25.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 17.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. m/s vf vf = m/s m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. pi = kg  m/s vf vf = m/s

Chapter 9 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Momentum and Internal Forces Learning Goal: To understand the concept of total momentum for a system of objects and the effect of the internal forces on the total momentum. We begin by introducing the following terms: System: Any collection of objects, either pointlike or extended. In many momentum-related problems, you have a certain freedom in choosing the objects to be considered as your system. Making a wise choice is often a crucial step in solving the problem. Internal force: Any force interaction between two objects belonging to the chosen system. Let us stress that both interacting objects must belong to the system. External force: Any force interaction between objects at least one of which does not belong to the chosen system; in other words, at least one of the objects is external to the system. Closed system: a system that is not subject to any external forces. Total momentum: The vector sum of the individual momenta of all objects constituting the system. In this problem, you will analyze a system composed of two blocks, 1 and 2, of respective masses and . To simplify the analysis, we will make several assumptions: The blocks can move in only one dimension, namely, 1. along the x axis. 2. The masses of the blocks remain constant. 3. The system is closed. At time , the x components of the velocity and the acceleration of block 1 are denoted by and . Similarly, the x components of the velocity and acceleration of block 2 are denoted by and . In this problem, you will show that the total momentum of the system is not changed by the presence of internal forces. m1 m2 t v1(t) a1 (t) v2 (t) a2 (t) Part A Find , the x component of the total momentum of the system at time . Express your answer in terms of , , , and . ANSWER: Part B Find the time derivative of the x component of the system’s total momentum. Express your answer in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Why did we bother with all this math? The expression for the derivative of momentum that we just obtained will be useful in reaching our desired conclusion, if only for this very special case. Part C The quantity (mass times acceleration) is dimensionally equivalent to which of the following? ANSWER: p(t) t m1 m2 v1 (t) v2 (t) p(t) = dp(t)/dt a1 (t) a2 (t) m1 m2 dp(t)/dt = ma Part D Acceleration is due to which of the following physical quantities? ANSWER: Part E Since we have assumed that the system composed of blocks 1 and 2 is closed, what could be the reason for the acceleration of block 1? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: momentum energy force acceleration inertia velocity speed energy momentum force Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Let us denote the x component of the force exerted by block 1 on block 2 by , and the x component of the force exerted by block 2 on block 1 by . Which of the following pairs equalities is a direct consequence of Newton’s second law? ANSWER: Part H Let us recall that we have denoted the force exerted by block 1 on block 2 by , and the force exerted by block 2 on block 1 by . If we suppose that is greater than , which of the following statements about forces is true? You did not open hints for this part. the large mass of block 1 air resistance Earth’s gravitational attraction a force exerted by block 2 on block 1 a force exerted by block 1 on block 2 F12 F21 and and and and F12 = m2a2 F21 = m1a1 F12 = m1a1 F21 = m2a2 F12 = m1a2 F21 = m2a1 F12 = m2a1 F21 = m1a2 F12 F21 m1 m2 ANSWER: Part I Now recall the expression for the time derivative of the x component of the system’s total momentum: . Considering the information that you now have, choose the best alternative for an equivalent expression to . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Impulse and Momentum Ranking Task Six automobiles are initially traveling at the indicated velocities. The automobiles have different masses and velocities. The drivers step on the brakes and all automobiles are brought to rest. Part A Rank these automobiles based on the magnitude of their momentum before the brakes are applied, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. ANSWER: Both forces have equal magnitudes. |F12 | > |F21| |F21 | > |F12| dpx(t)/dt = Fx dpx(t)/dt 0 nonzero constant kt kt2 Part B Rank these automobiles based on the magnitude of the impulse needed to stop them, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Rank the automobiles based on the magnitude of the force needed to stop them, from largest to smallest. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. If the ranking cannot be determined, check the box below. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A Game of Frictionless Catch Chuck and Jackie stand on separate carts, both of which can slide without friction. The combined mass of Chuck and his cart, , is identical to the combined mass of Jackie and her cart. Initially, Chuck and Jackie and their carts are at rest. Chuck then picks up a ball of mass and throws it to Jackie, who catches it. Assume that the ball travels in a straight line parallel to the ground (ignore the effect of gravity). After Chuck throws the ball, his speed relative to the ground is . The speed of the thrown ball relative to the ground is . Jackie catches the ball when it reaches her, and she and her cart begin to move. Jackie’s speed relative to the ground after she catches the ball is . When answering the questions in this problem, keep the following in mind: The original mass of Chuck and his cart does not include the 1. mass of the ball. 2. The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity. An object’s speed will always be a nonnegative quantity. mcart mball vc vb vj mcart Part A Find the relative speed between Chuck and the ball after Chuck has thrown the ball. Express the speed in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the speed of the ball (relative to the ground) while it is in the air? Express your answer in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is Chuck’s speed (relative to the ground) after he throws the ball? Express your answer in terms of , , and . u vc vb u = vb mball mcart u vb = vc mball mcart u You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D Find Jackie’s speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of . Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E Find Jackie’s speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of . Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: vc = vj vb vj mball mcart vb vj = vj u vj mball mcart u Momentum in an Explosion A giant “egg” explodes as part of a fireworks display. The egg is at rest before the explosion, and after the explosion, it breaks into two pieces, with the masses indicated in the diagram, traveling in opposite directions. Part A What is the momentum of piece A before the explosion? Express your answer numerically in kilogram meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: vj = pA,i Part B During the explosion, is the force of piece A on piece B greater than, less than, or equal to the force of piece B on piece A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The momentum of piece B is measured to be 500 after the explosion. Find the momentum of piece A after the explosion. Enter your answer numerically in kilogram meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pA,i = kg  m/s greater than less than equal to cannot be determined kg  m/s pA,f pA,f = kg  m/s ± PSS 9.1 Conservation of Momentum Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 9.1 for conservation of momentum problems. An 80- quarterback jumps straight up in the air right before throwing a 0.43- football horizontally at 15 . How fast will he be moving backward just after releasing the ball? PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 9.1 Conservation of momentum MODEL: Clearly define the system. If possible, choose a system that is isolated ( ) or within which the interactions are sufficiently short and intense that you can ignore external forces for the duration of the interaction (the impulse approximation). Momentum is conserved. If it is not possible to choose an isolated system, try to divide the problem into parts such that momentum is conserved during one segment of the motion. Other segments of the motion can be analyzed using Newton’s laws or, as you will learn later, conservation of energy. VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you are trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of momentum: . In component form, this is ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The interaction at study in this problem is the action of throwing the ball, performed by the quarterback while being off the ground. To apply conservation of momentum to this interaction, you will need to clearly define a system that is isolated or within which the impulse approximation can be applied. Part A Sort the following objects as part of the system or not. Drag the appropriate objects to their respective bins. ANSWER: kg kg m/s F = net 0 P = f P  i (pfx + ( + ( += ( + ( + ( + )1 pfx)2 pfx)3 pix)1 pix)2 pix)3 (pfy + ( + ( += ( + ( + ( + )1 pfy)2 pfy)3 piy)1 piy)2 piy)3 Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Visualize Solve Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Assess Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Conservation of Momentum in Inelastic Collisions Learning Goal: To understand the vector nature of momentum in the case in which two objects collide and stick together. In this problem we will consider a collision of two moving objects such that after the collision, the objects stick together and travel off as a single unit. The collision is therefore completely inelastic. You have probably learned that “momentum is conserved” in an inelastic collision. But how does this fact help you to solve collision problems? The following questions should help you to clarify the meaning and implications of the statement “momentum is conserved.” Part A What physical quantities are conserved in this collision? ANSWER: Part B Two cars of equal mass collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, their speeds are and . What is the speed of the two-car system after the collision? the magnitude of the momentum only the net momentum (considered as a vector) only the momentum of each object considered individually v1 v2 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, the magnitudes of their momenta are and . After the collision, what is the magnitude of their combined momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The answer depends on the directions in which the cars were moving before the collision. v1 + v2 v1 − v2 v2 − v1 v1v2 −−−− ” v1+v2 2 v1 + 2 v2 2 −−−−−−−  p1 p2 Part D Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, their momenta are and . After the collision, their combined momentum is . Of what can one be certain? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E Two cars collide inelastically and stick together after the collision. Before the collision, the magnitudes of their momenta are and . After the collision, the magnitude of their combined momentum is . Of what can one be certain? The answer depends on the directions in which the cars were moving before the collision. p1 + p2 p1 − p2 p2 − p1 p1p2 −−−− ” p1+p2 2 p1 + 2 p2 2 −−−−−−−  p 1 p 2 p p = p1 + # p2 # p = p1 − # p2 # p = p2 − # p1 # p1 p2 p You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Colliding Cars In this problem we will consider the collision of two cars initially moving at right angles. We assume that after the collision the cars stick together and travel off as a single unit. The collision is therefore completely inelastic. Two cars of masses and collide at an intersection. Before the collision, car 1 was traveling eastward at a speed of , and car 2 was traveling northward at a speed of . After the collision, the two cars stick together and travel off in the direction shown. Part A p1 + p2 $ p $ p1p2 −−−− ” p1 +p2 $ p $ p1+p2 2 p1 + p2 $ p $ |p1 − p2 | p1 + p2 $ p $ p1 + 2 p2 2 −−−−−−−  m1 m2 v1 v2 First, find the magnitude of , that is, the speed of the two-car unit after the collision. Express in terms of , , and the cars’ initial speeds and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the tangent of the angle . Express your answer in terms of the momenta of the two cars, and . ANSWER: Part C Suppose that after the collision, ; in other words, is . This means that before the collision: ANSWER: v v v m1 m2 v1 v2 v = p1 p2 tan( ) = tan = 1 45′ The magnitudes of the momenta of the cars were equal. The masses of the cars were equal. The velocities of the cars were equal. ± Catching a Ball on Ice Olaf is standing on a sheet of ice that covers the football stadium parking lot in Buffalo, New York; there is negligible friction between his feet and the ice. A friend throws Olaf a ball of mass 0.400 that is traveling horizontally at 11.2 . Olaf’s mass is 67.1 . Part A If Olaf catches the ball, with what speed do Olaf and the ball move afterward? Express your answer numerically in meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B kg m/s kg vf vf = m/s If the ball hits Olaf and bounces off his chest horizontally at 8.00 in the opposite direction, what is his speed after the collision? Express your answer numerically in meters per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 2.90 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 25.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 17.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. m/s vf vf = m/s m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. pi = kg  m/s vf vf = m/s

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Vermont Technical College Electronic Applications ELT-2060 Lab 05: DC characteristics, input offset voltage and input bias current Reference: Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits Fourth edition William D. Stanley, pages 154-155 (Problems 3-21, 3-22 and Lab exercises LE 3-1 to LE 3-4) For the following exercises, make sure to record all calculations, estimations and measured results. Components: 2 741 Op Amps, 10k Ω Potentiometer, 4-10kΩ, 1kΩ , 100kΩ , 100Ω , 560kΩ , 5.6M Ω, resistors Objectives: a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit In this exercise, investigate the use of a null circuit to reduce the output dc offset to its minimum possible value. Refer to the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” describe in the 741 op amp data sheet from Appendix C of your text book. Although there are no specific closed-loop configurations shown, use a closed-loop differential Amplifier shown in Figure 1. The differential nature of this type of circuit makes it particularly sensitive, therefore well suited, to illustrate the concept dc voltage offset. 1. Connect the closed-loop difference amplifier of Figure 1 with R=10k Ω and A=1. Using a 10kΩ potentiometer connect the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” between nodes 1 and 5 as shown in the 741 data sheet. Keep in mind that a potentiometer is a three terminal device. You will need to connect the potentiometer wiper terminal to the lowest potential in the circuit -VCC. 2. Connect the two external circuit inputs (v1 and v2) to ground, measure the dc voltage. From the data sheet the expected value of offset voltage at room temperature is 2mV typical and 6mV maximum. Voltages at these levels will be hard to measure with the laboratory multimeter. 3. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 5. Do not break down you difference amplifier. Next, build the non-inverting amplifier as shown in figure 2 with Ri=1k Ω and Rf =100k Ω. Attach the output of the difference amplifier to the input of the non-inverting amplifier. This will amplify your offset by 101. 6. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 7. In effect we amplified the voltage offset from the difference amplifier by 101. Please describe any possible flaws in using this approach. Compare this result to what was measured in step 2. 8. Write an equation that expresses the expected output voltage Vo in terms of the two input voltages V1 and V2. 9. Apply dc input voltage for the following six combinations, compare the results to the expected values you calculate with the equation from step 8 a. V1=10V, V2=0V b. V1=0V, V2=10V c. V1=V2=10V d. V1=10mV, V2=0 e. V1=0, V2=10mV f. V1=V2=10mV b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage ( Stanley Problem 3-21 page 151) A circuit and equation to measure the input offset voltage Vio is show in figure 3. With the proper selection of resistors Ri, Rf, and Rc the effects of offset due to input bias currents can be neglected. When the input terminals are both held to ground the resulting output voltage should be a direct measurement of Vio. 1. Build the circuit in Figure 3 with Ri=100 Ω and Rf=10k Ω measure and record Vo. Compare your results with the specification of input offset voltage provided in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of Rf to 100k Ω, and measure Vo again. Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input bias currents are negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on how there relationship demonstrates that neglecting input bias current was a valid assumption. c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents (Stanley Problem 3-22 page 152) Consider the three circuits of figure 4 .The resistance R is chosen large so that the contribution to the output from bias currents is considerably larger than the contribution from the input offset voltages. The accompanying equations will predict the values of Ib+, Ib- and Iio. 1. Start with setting R=560k Ω and build each circuit in figure 4 one at a time. Going from one configuration to the next configuration should be quick, all that is changing is the placement of the resistors. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of R to 5.6M Ω. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet and to the results in part 1.Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input offset voltage effect is negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on why neglecting input offset voltage was a valid assumption. LAB write up: This lab requires a semi-formal lab report. Record all calculations, estimations, and measured results. No MultiSim will be required for this report. Please include a written English language paragraph for all lab steps that required an explanation.

Vermont Technical College Electronic Applications ELT-2060 Lab 05: DC characteristics, input offset voltage and input bias current Reference: Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits Fourth edition William D. Stanley, pages 154-155 (Problems 3-21, 3-22 and Lab exercises LE 3-1 to LE 3-4) For the following exercises, make sure to record all calculations, estimations and measured results. Components: 2 741 Op Amps, 10k Ω Potentiometer, 4-10kΩ, 1kΩ , 100kΩ , 100Ω , 560kΩ , 5.6M Ω, resistors Objectives: a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit In this exercise, investigate the use of a null circuit to reduce the output dc offset to its minimum possible value. Refer to the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” describe in the 741 op amp data sheet from Appendix C of your text book. Although there are no specific closed-loop configurations shown, use a closed-loop differential Amplifier shown in Figure 1. The differential nature of this type of circuit makes it particularly sensitive, therefore well suited, to illustrate the concept dc voltage offset. 1. Connect the closed-loop difference amplifier of Figure 1 with R=10k Ω and A=1. Using a 10kΩ potentiometer connect the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” between nodes 1 and 5 as shown in the 741 data sheet. Keep in mind that a potentiometer is a three terminal device. You will need to connect the potentiometer wiper terminal to the lowest potential in the circuit -VCC. 2. Connect the two external circuit inputs (v1 and v2) to ground, measure the dc voltage. From the data sheet the expected value of offset voltage at room temperature is 2mV typical and 6mV maximum. Voltages at these levels will be hard to measure with the laboratory multimeter. 3. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 5. Do not break down you difference amplifier. Next, build the non-inverting amplifier as shown in figure 2 with Ri=1k Ω and Rf =100k Ω. Attach the output of the difference amplifier to the input of the non-inverting amplifier. This will amplify your offset by 101. 6. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 7. In effect we amplified the voltage offset from the difference amplifier by 101. Please describe any possible flaws in using this approach. Compare this result to what was measured in step 2. 8. Write an equation that expresses the expected output voltage Vo in terms of the two input voltages V1 and V2. 9. Apply dc input voltage for the following six combinations, compare the results to the expected values you calculate with the equation from step 8 a. V1=10V, V2=0V b. V1=0V, V2=10V c. V1=V2=10V d. V1=10mV, V2=0 e. V1=0, V2=10mV f. V1=V2=10mV b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage ( Stanley Problem 3-21 page 151) A circuit and equation to measure the input offset voltage Vio is show in figure 3. With the proper selection of resistors Ri, Rf, and Rc the effects of offset due to input bias currents can be neglected. When the input terminals are both held to ground the resulting output voltage should be a direct measurement of Vio. 1. Build the circuit in Figure 3 with Ri=100 Ω and Rf=10k Ω measure and record Vo. Compare your results with the specification of input offset voltage provided in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of Rf to 100k Ω, and measure Vo again. Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input bias currents are negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on how there relationship demonstrates that neglecting input bias current was a valid assumption. c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents (Stanley Problem 3-22 page 152) Consider the three circuits of figure 4 .The resistance R is chosen large so that the contribution to the output from bias currents is considerably larger than the contribution from the input offset voltages. The accompanying equations will predict the values of Ib+, Ib- and Iio. 1. Start with setting R=560k Ω and build each circuit in figure 4 one at a time. Going from one configuration to the next configuration should be quick, all that is changing is the placement of the resistors. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of R to 5.6M Ω. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet and to the results in part 1.Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input offset voltage effect is negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on why neglecting input offset voltage was a valid assumption. LAB write up: This lab requires a semi-formal lab report. Record all calculations, estimations, and measured results. No MultiSim will be required for this report. Please include a written English language paragraph for all lab steps that required an explanation.

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AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

Francis Bacon was a 16th century ethical theorist who was … Read More...
Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

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Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

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