Overview The human body can regulate its function responding to the change of its environment. Temperature is one of the factors which can modulate the body function. Refer to the related lectures and other resources; answer the followed questions (question 1-5 need at least 400 words together): Q1 In case of cold weather how does human body detect the coldness? Explain the signal detection, delivery, processing and involved cells, tissues and organs.

## Overview The human body can regulate its function responding to the change of its environment. Temperature is one of the factors which can modulate the body function. Refer to the related lectures and other resources; answer the followed questions (question 1-5 need at least 400 words together): Q1 In case of cold weather how does human body detect the coldness? Explain the signal detection, delivery, processing and involved cells, tissues and organs.

The chief brain mechanisms for heat regulation are established … Read More...
5. What approaches can be taken to develop a supply chain infrastructure that provide and accurate view of overall channel performance?

## 5. What approaches can be taken to develop a supply chain infrastructure that provide and accurate view of overall channel performance?

Join forces in areas where we have a solid … Read More...
Q3a. Describe into details two principles of access control.

## Q3a. Describe into details two principles of access control.

ITU-T suggested standard X.800 defines access control as follows: “The … Read More...
Course: PHYS 5426 — Quantum Statistical Physics Assignment #1 Instructor: Gennady Y. Chitov Date Assigned: January 15, 2014 Due Date: January 29, 2014 Problem 1. Prove [a; f(a†)] = @f(a†) @a† (1) [a†; f(a)] = −@f(a) @a (2) for arbitrary function f of operator which admits a series expansion. The Bose creation/ annihilation operators satisfy the standard commutation relations [a; a†] ≡ aa† − a†a = 1 (3) Hint: From Eqs.(1,2) one can figure out the corresponding commutation relations for the powers of creation/annihilation operators and then prove them by the method of mathematical induction. Note that for an arbitrary operator Aˆ: @A^n @A^ = nAˆn−1. Problem 2. In the presence of a constant external force acting on a one-dimensional oscillating particle its Hamiltonian becomes that of the so-called displaced oscillator, and the Schr¨odinger equation ˆH (q) = E (q) of the problem (cf. lecture notes) can be written in terms of dimensionless variables as ( − 1 2 d2 d2 + 1 2 2 − √ 2  ) () = ” () ; (4) where q = √ ~ m! and E = ~!”. a). Write the Schr¨odinger equation (4) in terms of the creation/annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator ( = 0)  = √1 2 (a + a†) (5) d d = √1 2 (a − a†) (6) 1 Via a linear transformation to the new creation/annihilation operators ˜a†; ˜a preserving the bosonic commutation relations for ˜a†; ˜a map the problem (4) of the displaced oscillator onto that of a simple harmonic oscillator with new operators (˜a†; ˜a). b). Find the spectrum (eigenvalues) ” (E) of the displaced oscillator. c). Write the normalized eigenstates |n⟩ of the displaced Hamiltonian (4) via a† and the vacuum state |Θ◦⟩ of the new operators, i.e. ˜a|Θ◦⟩ = 0 (7) d). As follows from the completeness of the oscillator’s eigenstates, the vacuum state of the displaced oscillator |Θ◦⟩ can be related to the simple oscillator’s vacuum |0⟩ (i.e., a|0⟩ = 0) as |Θ◦⟩ = Ω(a†)|0⟩ (8) Find (up to a normalization factor) the operator function Ω(a†) relating two vacua. Hint: in working out Eqs.(7,8), employ Eqs.(1,2). Problem 3. Prove from the standard commutation relations ([ai; a † j ]∓ = ij , etc) that ⟨0|aiaja † ka † l |0⟩ = jkil ± ikjl (9) the sign depending on the statistics. Also calculate the vacuum expectation value ⟨0|ahaiaja † ka † l a† m |0⟩. Problem 4. In the formalism of second quantization the two-particle interaction term of the Hamiltonian for spinless fermions is given by ˆ V = 1 2 ∫ ∫ dxdy ˆ †(x) ˆ †(y)V(x; y) ˆ (y) ˆ (x) (10) For the short-ranged interaction V(x; y) = V(|x−y|) ≡ V(r) = e2 exp(−r)=r find ˆ V in the momentum representation. The field operators and the creation/annihilation operators in the momentum representation are related in the usual way, i.e., ˆ †(x) = ∫ dp (2)3 a†(p)e−ipx (11) Note that the limit  → 0 recovers the Coulomb (long-ranged) interaction V(r) = e2=r. What is the Fourier transform V(q) of the Coulomb interaction? 2 Problem 5. The matrix elements of a two-particle interaction from the previous problem can be written as ⟨k3k4|V|k1k2⟩ = (2)3(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4)V(q) (12) where q ≡ k3−k1 is the momentum transfer. Show that the diagonal part of the interaction operator ˆ V found on the previous problem in the k-representation, arises from momentum transfers q = 0 and q = k2−k1. Write down the two interaction terms and identify them as direct (q = 0) and exchange (q = k2 − k1) interactions. Draw the corresponding Feynman diagrams. Problem 6. Find the first correction to the temperature dependence of the chemical potential  of the degenerate ideal electron gas, assuming constant particle concentration ⟨N⟩=V . Express the result in terms of T and the zero-temperature chemical potential ◦. For the calculations the following formula (we set kB = 1) can be used: I ≡ ∫ ∞ 0 f(“)d” e(“−)=T + 1 = ∫  0 f(“)d” + 2 6 T2f′() + O(T4) (13) 3

## Course: PHYS 5426 — Quantum Statistical Physics Assignment #1 Instructor: Gennady Y. Chitov Date Assigned: January 15, 2014 Due Date: January 29, 2014 Problem 1. Prove [a; f(a†)] = @f(a†) @a† (1) [a†; f(a)] = −@f(a) @a (2) for arbitrary function f of operator which admits a series expansion. The Bose creation/ annihilation operators satisfy the standard commutation relations [a; a†] ≡ aa† − a†a = 1 (3) Hint: From Eqs.(1,2) one can figure out the corresponding commutation relations for the powers of creation/annihilation operators and then prove them by the method of mathematical induction. Note that for an arbitrary operator Aˆ: @A^n @A^ = nAˆn−1. Problem 2. In the presence of a constant external force acting on a one-dimensional oscillating particle its Hamiltonian becomes that of the so-called displaced oscillator, and the Schr¨odinger equation ˆH (q) = E (q) of the problem (cf. lecture notes) can be written in terms of dimensionless variables as ( − 1 2 d2 d2 + 1 2 2 − √ 2  ) () = ” () ; (4) where q = √ ~ m! and E = ~!”. a). Write the Schr¨odinger equation (4) in terms of the creation/annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator ( = 0)  = √1 2 (a + a†) (5) d d = √1 2 (a − a†) (6) 1 Via a linear transformation to the new creation/annihilation operators ˜a†; ˜a preserving the bosonic commutation relations for ˜a†; ˜a map the problem (4) of the displaced oscillator onto that of a simple harmonic oscillator with new operators (˜a†; ˜a). b). Find the spectrum (eigenvalues) ” (E) of the displaced oscillator. c). Write the normalized eigenstates |n⟩ of the displaced Hamiltonian (4) via a† and the vacuum state |Θ◦⟩ of the new operators, i.e. ˜a|Θ◦⟩ = 0 (7) d). As follows from the completeness of the oscillator’s eigenstates, the vacuum state of the displaced oscillator |Θ◦⟩ can be related to the simple oscillator’s vacuum |0⟩ (i.e., a|0⟩ = 0) as |Θ◦⟩ = Ω(a†)|0⟩ (8) Find (up to a normalization factor) the operator function Ω(a†) relating two vacua. Hint: in working out Eqs.(7,8), employ Eqs.(1,2). Problem 3. Prove from the standard commutation relations ([ai; a † j ]∓ = ij , etc) that ⟨0|aiaja † ka † l |0⟩ = jkil ± ikjl (9) the sign depending on the statistics. Also calculate the vacuum expectation value ⟨0|ahaiaja † ka † l a† m |0⟩. Problem 4. In the formalism of second quantization the two-particle interaction term of the Hamiltonian for spinless fermions is given by ˆ V = 1 2 ∫ ∫ dxdy ˆ †(x) ˆ †(y)V(x; y) ˆ (y) ˆ (x) (10) For the short-ranged interaction V(x; y) = V(|x−y|) ≡ V(r) = e2 exp(−r)=r find ˆ V in the momentum representation. The field operators and the creation/annihilation operators in the momentum representation are related in the usual way, i.e., ˆ †(x) = ∫ dp (2)3 a†(p)e−ipx (11) Note that the limit  → 0 recovers the Coulomb (long-ranged) interaction V(r) = e2=r. What is the Fourier transform V(q) of the Coulomb interaction? 2 Problem 5. The matrix elements of a two-particle interaction from the previous problem can be written as ⟨k3k4|V|k1k2⟩ = (2)3(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4)V(q) (12) where q ≡ k3−k1 is the momentum transfer. Show that the diagonal part of the interaction operator ˆ V found on the previous problem in the k-representation, arises from momentum transfers q = 0 and q = k2−k1. Write down the two interaction terms and identify them as direct (q = 0) and exchange (q = k2 − k1) interactions. Draw the corresponding Feynman diagrams. Problem 6. Find the first correction to the temperature dependence of the chemical potential  of the degenerate ideal electron gas, assuming constant particle concentration ⟨N⟩=V . Express the result in terms of T and the zero-temperature chemical potential ◦. For the calculations the following formula (we set kB = 1) can be used: I ≡ ∫ ∞ 0 f(“)d” e(“−)=T + 1 = ∫  0 f(“)d” + 2 6 T2f′() + O(T4) (13) 3

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500 words essay responding to a poem needed in 12 hours from now. it is one page poem that I will provide you with. The essay details are below: Essay #1- Poetry Length: 500 words (~2 pages) MLA Format Write a formal academic essay responding to a poem we have discussed in class. Pick ONE poem on the reading schedule and discuss how the poem’s literary devices and formal elements contribute to its larger thematic concerns. Two pages is not a lot of space, so focus on the most important elements, rather than trying to include everything. Some things to think about: Figurative language: Note the images the poem describes. Does the poem seem to be literally describing things, or does the poet employ figurative language? Are there any metaphors or conceits? How does the poet move from one image to the next? Does there seem to be any theme tying the images together? Form: Look at the way the poem appears on the page. Do you notice any patterns? Is the poem written in stanzas? Does the poem employ a specific meter (iambic pentameter)? Is the poem a fixed form (sonnet)? Does the poet employ punctuation? Does the poem appear neat or chaotic? How do any of these elements relate to what the poem describes? Sound: Read the poem out loud. Do the sounds roll off your tongue, or does it feel like a tongue-twister? Is the language clunky or smooth? Does the poem use alliteration, assonance, or repetition? If the poem rhymes, are they perfect rhymes or near rhymes? Do the rhymes appear at the end of the line or in the middle? Does the way the poem sounds bring out the feeling of what it is describing? Speaker: Who is the speaker (age/gender/role)? Who are they speaking to? Is it first person, third-person, written in a persona? Is the tone formal or conversational? Is the diction simple, or does the speaker use words you have to look up in a dictionary? What might this tell us? Theme: Are there any specific ideas the poem seems to be addressing? How do the poem’s formal concerns (how it appears on the page) emphasize, challenge, or undercut these ideas? Some themes we might focus on include: identity, place, defamiliarization, freedom and constraint, violence and language, racial injustice. (You may focus on one of these or come up with your own.) Make sure this is a formal academic essay. Format your page to include page numbers, double-spacing, and 1” margins. Use Times New Roman font. Include a Works Cited page. Using any source that is not the primary text will result in a 25% penalty.

## 500 words essay responding to a poem needed in 12 hours from now. it is one page poem that I will provide you with. The essay details are below: Essay #1- Poetry Length: 500 words (~2 pages) MLA Format Write a formal academic essay responding to a poem we have discussed in class. Pick ONE poem on the reading schedule and discuss how the poem’s literary devices and formal elements contribute to its larger thematic concerns. Two pages is not a lot of space, so focus on the most important elements, rather than trying to include everything. Some things to think about: Figurative language: Note the images the poem describes. Does the poem seem to be literally describing things, or does the poet employ figurative language? Are there any metaphors or conceits? How does the poet move from one image to the next? Does there seem to be any theme tying the images together? Form: Look at the way the poem appears on the page. Do you notice any patterns? Is the poem written in stanzas? Does the poem employ a specific meter (iambic pentameter)? Is the poem a fixed form (sonnet)? Does the poet employ punctuation? Does the poem appear neat or chaotic? How do any of these elements relate to what the poem describes? Sound: Read the poem out loud. Do the sounds roll off your tongue, or does it feel like a tongue-twister? Is the language clunky or smooth? Does the poem use alliteration, assonance, or repetition? If the poem rhymes, are they perfect rhymes or near rhymes? Do the rhymes appear at the end of the line or in the middle? Does the way the poem sounds bring out the feeling of what it is describing? Speaker: Who is the speaker (age/gender/role)? Who are they speaking to? Is it first person, third-person, written in a persona? Is the tone formal or conversational? Is the diction simple, or does the speaker use words you have to look up in a dictionary? What might this tell us? Theme: Are there any specific ideas the poem seems to be addressing? How do the poem’s formal concerns (how it appears on the page) emphasize, challenge, or undercut these ideas? Some themes we might focus on include: identity, place, defamiliarization, freedom and constraint, violence and language, racial injustice. (You may focus on one of these or come up with your own.) Make sure this is a formal academic essay. Format your page to include page numbers, double-spacing, and 1” margins. Use Times New Roman font. Include a Works Cited page. Using any source that is not the primary text will result in a 25% penalty.

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What research methods did they employ? Would all of these methods be acceptable today? Consider standards set by the Institutional Review Board (IRB).

## What research methods did they employ? Would all of these methods be acceptable today? Consider standards set by the Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Kinsey’s investigation went ahead of hypothesis and discussion to include … Read More...