3. Explain the differing orientations of strategic vis-à-vis tactical transportation decisions.

3. Explain the differing orientations of strategic vis-à-vis tactical transportation decisions.

Tactical supply chain judgment centre on adopting method that will … Read More...
Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

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Why does customer service not increase proportionately to increases in total cost when a logistical system is being designed?

Why does customer service not increase proportionately to increases in total cost when a logistical system is being designed?

Typical inventory increases as the number of warehouses in a … Read More...
Chapter 10 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 3.70 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 15.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 19.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the change in the two-block system’s kinetic energy due to the collision? Express your answer numerically in joules. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pi = kg m/s vf vf = m/s K = Kfinal − Kinitial K = J Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Six pendulums of various masses are released from various heights above a tabletop, as shown in the figures below. All the pendulums have the same length and are mounted such that at the vertical position their lowest points are the height of the tabletop and just do not strike the tabletop when released. Assume that the size of each bob is negligible. Part A Rank each pendulum on the basis of its initial gravitational potential energy (before being released) relative to the tabletop. Rank from largest to smallest To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m h Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Momentum and Kinetic Energy Consider two objects (Object 1 and Object 2) moving in the same direction on a frictionless surface. Object 1 moves with speed and has mass . Object 2 moves with speed and has mass . Part A Which object has the larger magnitude of its momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which object has the larger kinetic energy? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v1 = v m1 = 2m v2 = 2v m2 = m Object 1 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Object 2 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Both objects have the same magnitude of their momenta. Object 1 has the greater kinetic energy. Object 2 has the greater kinetic energy. The objects have the same kinetic energy. Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Part A Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: H PSS 10.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 10.1 for conservation of mechanical energy problems. Tarzan, in one tree, sights Jane in another tree. He grabs the end of a vine with length 20 that makes an angle of 45 with the vertical, steps off his tree limb, and swings down and then up to Jane’s open arms. When he arrives, his vine makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. Determine whether he gives her a tender embrace or knocks her off her limb by calculating Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane. You can ignore air resistance and the mass of the vine. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 10.1 Conservation of mechanical energy MODEL: Choose a system without friction or other losses of mechanical energy. m   VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you’re trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of mechanical energy: . ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The problem does not involve friction, nor are there losses of mechanical energy, so conservation of mechanical energy applies. Model Tarzan and the vine as a pendulum. Visualize Part A Which of the following sketches can be used in drawing a before-and-after pictorial representation? ANSWER: Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui Solve Part B What is Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane? Express your answer in meters per second to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Assess Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Bungee Jumping Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D vf vf = m/s Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass , and the surface of the bridge is a height above the water. The bungee cord, which has length when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . Kate doesn’t actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. Kate’s height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Part A How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn’t touch the water. Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Spinning Mass on a Spring An object of mass is attached to a spring with spring constant whose unstretched length is , and whose far end is fixed to a shaft that is rotating with angular speed . Neglect gravity and assume that the mass rotates with angular speed as shown. When solving this problem use an inertial coordinate system, as drawn here. m h L k g d = M k L Part A Given the angular speed , find the radius at which the mass rotates without moving toward or away from the origin. Express the radius in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C R( ) k L M R( ) = This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Baby Bounce with a Hooke One of the pioneers of modern science, Sir Robert Hooke (1635-1703), studied the elastic properties of springs and formulated the law that bears his name. Hooke found the relationship among the force a spring exerts, , the distance from equilibrium the end of the spring is displaced, , and a number called the spring constant (or, sometimes, the force constant of the spring). According to Hooke, the force of the spring is directly proportional to its displacement from equilibrium, or . In its scalar form, this equation is simply . The negative sign indicates that the force that the spring exerts and its displacement have opposite directions. The value of depends on the geometry and the material of the spring; it can be easily determined experimentally using this scalar equation. Toy makers have always been interested in springs for the entertainment value of the motion they produce. One well-known application is a baby bouncer,which consists of a harness seat for a toddler, attached to a spring. The entire contraption hooks onto the top of a doorway. The idea is for the baby to hang in the seat with his or her feet just touching the ground so that a good push up will get the baby bouncing, providing potentially hours of entertainment. F  x k F = −kx F = −kx k Part A The following chart and accompanying graph depict an experiment to determine the spring constant for a baby bouncer. Displacement from equilibrium, ( ) Force exerted on the spring, ( ) 0 0 0.005 2.5 0.010 5.0 0.015 7.5 0.020 10 What is the spring constant of the spring being tested for the baby bouncer? Express your answer to two significant figures in newtons per meter. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Shooting a ball into a box Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass into a small box using a spring-loaded gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of the table is a height above the top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of the box is a distance from the edge of the table. x m F N k k = N/m m H d The spring has a spring constant . The first child compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance . Part A By what distance, , should the second child compress the spring so that the marble lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.) Express the distance in terms of , , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). k x1 d12 x2 m k g H d x2 = Elastic Collision in One Dimension Block 1, of mass , moves across a frictionless surface with speed . It collides elastically with block 2, of mass , which is at rest ( ). After the collision, block 1 moves with speed , while block 2 moves with speed . Assume that , so that after the collision, the two objects move off in the direction of the first object before the collision. Part A This collision is elastic. What quantities, if any, are conserved in this collision? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the final speed of block 1? m1 ui m2 vi = 0 uf vf m1 > m2 kinetic energy only momentum only kinetic energy and momentum uf Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the final speed of block 2? Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Ballistic Pendulum In a ballistic pendulum an object of mass is fired with an initial speed at a pendulum bob. The bob has a mass , which is suspended by a rod of length and negligible mass. After the collision, the pendulum and object stick together and swing to a maximum angular displacement as shown . uf m1 m2 ui uf = vf vf m1 m2 ui vf = m v0 M L  Part A Find an expression for , the initial speed of the fired object. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and the acceleration due to gravity, . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B An experiment is done to compare the initial speed of bullets fired from different handguns: a 9.0 and a .44 caliber. The guns are fired into a 10- pendulum bob of length . Assume that the 9.0- bullet has a mass of 6.0 and the .44-caliber bullet has a mass of 12 . If the 9.0- bullet causes the pendulum to swing to a maximum angular displacement of 4.3 and the .44-caliber bullet causes a displacement of 10.1 , find the ratio of the initial speed of the 9.0- bullet to the speed of the .44-caliber bullet, . Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v0 m M L  g v0 = mm kg L mm g g mm   mm (v /( 0 )9.0 v0)44 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. (v0 )9.0/(v0 )44 =

Chapter 10 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 3.70 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 15.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 19.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the change in the two-block system’s kinetic energy due to the collision? Express your answer numerically in joules. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pi = kg m/s vf vf = m/s K = Kfinal − Kinitial K = J Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Six pendulums of various masses are released from various heights above a tabletop, as shown in the figures below. All the pendulums have the same length and are mounted such that at the vertical position their lowest points are the height of the tabletop and just do not strike the tabletop when released. Assume that the size of each bob is negligible. Part A Rank each pendulum on the basis of its initial gravitational potential energy (before being released) relative to the tabletop. Rank from largest to smallest To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m h Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Momentum and Kinetic Energy Consider two objects (Object 1 and Object 2) moving in the same direction on a frictionless surface. Object 1 moves with speed and has mass . Object 2 moves with speed and has mass . Part A Which object has the larger magnitude of its momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which object has the larger kinetic energy? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v1 = v m1 = 2m v2 = 2v m2 = m Object 1 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Object 2 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Both objects have the same magnitude of their momenta. Object 1 has the greater kinetic energy. Object 2 has the greater kinetic energy. The objects have the same kinetic energy. Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Part A Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: H PSS 10.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 10.1 for conservation of mechanical energy problems. Tarzan, in one tree, sights Jane in another tree. He grabs the end of a vine with length 20 that makes an angle of 45 with the vertical, steps off his tree limb, and swings down and then up to Jane’s open arms. When he arrives, his vine makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. Determine whether he gives her a tender embrace or knocks her off her limb by calculating Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane. You can ignore air resistance and the mass of the vine. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 10.1 Conservation of mechanical energy MODEL: Choose a system without friction or other losses of mechanical energy. m   VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you’re trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of mechanical energy: . ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The problem does not involve friction, nor are there losses of mechanical energy, so conservation of mechanical energy applies. Model Tarzan and the vine as a pendulum. Visualize Part A Which of the following sketches can be used in drawing a before-and-after pictorial representation? ANSWER: Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui Solve Part B What is Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane? Express your answer in meters per second to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Assess Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Bungee Jumping Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D vf vf = m/s Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass , and the surface of the bridge is a height above the water. The bungee cord, which has length when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . Kate doesn’t actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. Kate’s height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Part A How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn’t touch the water. Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Spinning Mass on a Spring An object of mass is attached to a spring with spring constant whose unstretched length is , and whose far end is fixed to a shaft that is rotating with angular speed . Neglect gravity and assume that the mass rotates with angular speed as shown. When solving this problem use an inertial coordinate system, as drawn here. m h L k g d = M k L Part A Given the angular speed , find the radius at which the mass rotates without moving toward or away from the origin. Express the radius in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C R( ) k L M R( ) = This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Baby Bounce with a Hooke One of the pioneers of modern science, Sir Robert Hooke (1635-1703), studied the elastic properties of springs and formulated the law that bears his name. Hooke found the relationship among the force a spring exerts, , the distance from equilibrium the end of the spring is displaced, , and a number called the spring constant (or, sometimes, the force constant of the spring). According to Hooke, the force of the spring is directly proportional to its displacement from equilibrium, or . In its scalar form, this equation is simply . The negative sign indicates that the force that the spring exerts and its displacement have opposite directions. The value of depends on the geometry and the material of the spring; it can be easily determined experimentally using this scalar equation. Toy makers have always been interested in springs for the entertainment value of the motion they produce. One well-known application is a baby bouncer,which consists of a harness seat for a toddler, attached to a spring. The entire contraption hooks onto the top of a doorway. The idea is for the baby to hang in the seat with his or her feet just touching the ground so that a good push up will get the baby bouncing, providing potentially hours of entertainment. F  x k F = −kx F = −kx k Part A The following chart and accompanying graph depict an experiment to determine the spring constant for a baby bouncer. Displacement from equilibrium, ( ) Force exerted on the spring, ( ) 0 0 0.005 2.5 0.010 5.0 0.015 7.5 0.020 10 What is the spring constant of the spring being tested for the baby bouncer? Express your answer to two significant figures in newtons per meter. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Shooting a ball into a box Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass into a small box using a spring-loaded gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of the table is a height above the top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of the box is a distance from the edge of the table. x m F N k k = N/m m H d The spring has a spring constant . The first child compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance . Part A By what distance, , should the second child compress the spring so that the marble lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.) Express the distance in terms of , , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). k x1 d12 x2 m k g H d x2 = Elastic Collision in One Dimension Block 1, of mass , moves across a frictionless surface with speed . It collides elastically with block 2, of mass , which is at rest ( ). After the collision, block 1 moves with speed , while block 2 moves with speed . Assume that , so that after the collision, the two objects move off in the direction of the first object before the collision. Part A This collision is elastic. What quantities, if any, are conserved in this collision? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the final speed of block 1? m1 ui m2 vi = 0 uf vf m1 > m2 kinetic energy only momentum only kinetic energy and momentum uf Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the final speed of block 2? Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Ballistic Pendulum In a ballistic pendulum an object of mass is fired with an initial speed at a pendulum bob. The bob has a mass , which is suspended by a rod of length and negligible mass. After the collision, the pendulum and object stick together and swing to a maximum angular displacement as shown . uf m1 m2 ui uf = vf vf m1 m2 ui vf = m v0 M L  Part A Find an expression for , the initial speed of the fired object. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and the acceleration due to gravity, . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B An experiment is done to compare the initial speed of bullets fired from different handguns: a 9.0 and a .44 caliber. The guns are fired into a 10- pendulum bob of length . Assume that the 9.0- bullet has a mass of 6.0 and the .44-caliber bullet has a mass of 12 . If the 9.0- bullet causes the pendulum to swing to a maximum angular displacement of 4.3 and the .44-caliber bullet causes a displacement of 10.1 , find the ratio of the initial speed of the 9.0- bullet to the speed of the .44-caliber bullet, . Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v0 m M L  g v0 = mm kg L mm g g mm   mm (v /( 0 )9.0 v0)44 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. (v0 )9.0/(v0 )44 =

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Assignment 2 – Summary/Response – 150 points For your second essay assignment, you will summarize and then respond/react to an article from the book They Say I Say. Choose either Don’t Blame the Eater (462), Should Everyone go to College? (208), I Had A Nice Time With You Tonight. On The App (393) or What Are You Buying When You Buy Organic? (428). Steps in writing this essay: 1. Give the essay a title that lets the reader know a little about the essay. Think about what your main point is and try to show that idea in your title. Center the title. Make it the same size and font as the rest of your essay. 2. For your first paragraph, write a summary of the article. This will be your introduction. The first sentence of your essay should include the author’s name, the title of the article, and the main point of the article. 3. At the end of the summary, add a thesis stating your overall reaction to the article. 4. For the body, each paragraph needs a topic sentence stating one of your main points that support your thesis. Your supporting sentences in each paragraph should provide specific reasons and examples of why you agree or disagree with the author. Occasionally refer to the author’s ideas since your essay is a response to his or her ideas. When referring to the author’s ideas, use both paraphrases and quotes. 5. For your conclusion, restate your position and your reasons for taking that position. The following sentences should become more general so that the reader can see the “bigger picture” of why taking your position is important. 6. Add a Reference page with the article cited in APA format. Formatting: • use APA formatting for in-text citations and the Reference page • double space • one-inch margins • use Times New Roman, Cambria, or Calibri • use 12-point font • the essay needs to be between 1,000 to 1,500 words, not including the Reference page Tentative schedule: • Thursday, Sept. 24 – Writing Workshop • Tuesday, Sept. 29 – Autobiography Review/ Peer Review (Bring TWO copies of your essay to class) • Thursday, Oct. 1 – Timed Autobiography • Tuesday, Oct. 6 – Conferences with Joshua • Sunday, Oct. 11 – Instructor draft due at 11:59 p.m. on Bb under Assignments   Scoring Rubric for Assignment 2: Summary/Response Essay Name:____________________________ Summary of article _____ /15 – Is the summary objective and comprehensive? – Does it include the main points and leave out minor details? – Does it include the author and title of article? Thesis statement _____ /10 – Does the thesis capture the main point/purpose of the entire paper? Response _____ /40 – Does the student take a clear position regarding the article? – Is the argument logical, well developed, and convincing? – Is there a personal anecdote that supports the student’s thesis? – Does the student explain how the anecdote relates to the article and to the thesis? – Is the anecdote developed? References to article _____ /35 – Is the article referenced multiple times to link the student’s argument and anecdote to the article? – Do the references to the article support the student’s argument or are they random? Organization _____ /15 – Does each paragraph flow well to the next? – Are transitional phrases used? – Does the organization of the paragraphs make sense? – Does the organization of sentences within each paragraph make sense? – Do paragraphs have a topic sentence? Presentation _____ /25 – Is the essay free of grammatical, mechanical, and spelling errors? – Is the idea in each sentence clear? – Are there a variety of sentence structures and varied, sophisticated vocabulary? – Does the student follow formatting guidelines? Citations _____ /10 – Are in-text citations used for paraphrases and quotes? – Are quotes used properly? – Is there a Reference page that is formatted correctly? Total points: _____ /150

Assignment 2 – Summary/Response – 150 points For your second essay assignment, you will summarize and then respond/react to an article from the book They Say I Say. Choose either Don’t Blame the Eater (462), Should Everyone go to College? (208), I Had A Nice Time With You Tonight. On The App (393) or What Are You Buying When You Buy Organic? (428). Steps in writing this essay: 1. Give the essay a title that lets the reader know a little about the essay. Think about what your main point is and try to show that idea in your title. Center the title. Make it the same size and font as the rest of your essay. 2. For your first paragraph, write a summary of the article. This will be your introduction. The first sentence of your essay should include the author’s name, the title of the article, and the main point of the article. 3. At the end of the summary, add a thesis stating your overall reaction to the article. 4. For the body, each paragraph needs a topic sentence stating one of your main points that support your thesis. Your supporting sentences in each paragraph should provide specific reasons and examples of why you agree or disagree with the author. Occasionally refer to the author’s ideas since your essay is a response to his or her ideas. When referring to the author’s ideas, use both paraphrases and quotes. 5. For your conclusion, restate your position and your reasons for taking that position. The following sentences should become more general so that the reader can see the “bigger picture” of why taking your position is important. 6. Add a Reference page with the article cited in APA format. Formatting: • use APA formatting for in-text citations and the Reference page • double space • one-inch margins • use Times New Roman, Cambria, or Calibri • use 12-point font • the essay needs to be between 1,000 to 1,500 words, not including the Reference page Tentative schedule: • Thursday, Sept. 24 – Writing Workshop • Tuesday, Sept. 29 – Autobiography Review/ Peer Review (Bring TWO copies of your essay to class) • Thursday, Oct. 1 – Timed Autobiography • Tuesday, Oct. 6 – Conferences with Joshua • Sunday, Oct. 11 – Instructor draft due at 11:59 p.m. on Bb under Assignments   Scoring Rubric for Assignment 2: Summary/Response Essay Name:____________________________ Summary of article _____ /15 – Is the summary objective and comprehensive? – Does it include the main points and leave out minor details? – Does it include the author and title of article? Thesis statement _____ /10 – Does the thesis capture the main point/purpose of the entire paper? Response _____ /40 – Does the student take a clear position regarding the article? – Is the argument logical, well developed, and convincing? – Is there a personal anecdote that supports the student’s thesis? – Does the student explain how the anecdote relates to the article and to the thesis? – Is the anecdote developed? References to article _____ /35 – Is the article referenced multiple times to link the student’s argument and anecdote to the article? – Do the references to the article support the student’s argument or are they random? Organization _____ /15 – Does each paragraph flow well to the next? – Are transitional phrases used? – Does the organization of the paragraphs make sense? – Does the organization of sentences within each paragraph make sense? – Do paragraphs have a topic sentence? Presentation _____ /25 – Is the essay free of grammatical, mechanical, and spelling errors? – Is the idea in each sentence clear? – Are there a variety of sentence structures and varied, sophisticated vocabulary? – Does the student follow formatting guidelines? Citations _____ /10 – Are in-text citations used for paraphrases and quotes? – Are quotes used properly? – Is there a Reference page that is formatted correctly? Total points: _____ /150

/The following graphs depict the motion of an object starting from rest and moving without friction. Describe how you would calculate the object’s acceleration, instantaneous speed, and distance at time “p” from each graph (slope, area-under-curve, etc.). 15. An object is launched at an angle of 450 from the ground of a mystery planet. The object hits the ground 20m away after a total flight time of 4.0s. Assume no air resistance. a. What are the initial vertical and horizontal velocities? b. Calculate the acceleration due to gravity. c. Draw graphs to quantitatively represent the vertical and horizontal velocities for the entire 4.0s of flight. Linear Dynamics 1. A block of mass 3 kg, initially at rest, is pulled along a frictionless, horizontal surface with a force shown as a function of time by the graph above. Calculate the acceleration and speed after 2s. Questions 2-4: Two blocks of masses M and m, with M > m, are connected by a light string. The string passes over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass so that the blocks hang vertically like Atwood’s machine. The blocks are then released from rest as shown above. 2. Draw a free-body diagram for each mass. Compare and contrast the tension on each. 3. Compare and contrast the net-force acting on each block. 4. Draw a free-body diagram for the string holding the pulley. Explain whether the force increases, decreases, or remains the same as the blocks accelerate. Questions 5-6: A ball is released from the top of a curved hill as shown above; the hill has sufficient friction so that the ball rolls as it moves down the hill. 5. What can be inferred about the ball’s linear acceleration and speed as the ball goes from the top to the bottom? (Increase, decrease, or remain the same) 6. Draw a free-body diagram for each location in the diagram to compare the weight, normal, and friction forces as it rolls down hill. Questions 7-8: Consider the above block sitting on a smooth tabletop. It is connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless and massless pulley to a pulling force of 30N downward. 7. Use Newton’s 2nd Law to determine what will happen to the net force, mass, and acceleration of the entire system if the pulling force of 30N is replaced with another block weighing 30N. 8. What will happen to the tension on each body?

/The following graphs depict the motion of an object starting from rest and moving without friction. Describe how you would calculate the object’s acceleration, instantaneous speed, and distance at time “p” from each graph (slope, area-under-curve, etc.). 15. An object is launched at an angle of 450 from the ground of a mystery planet. The object hits the ground 20m away after a total flight time of 4.0s. Assume no air resistance. a. What are the initial vertical and horizontal velocities? b. Calculate the acceleration due to gravity. c. Draw graphs to quantitatively represent the vertical and horizontal velocities for the entire 4.0s of flight. Linear Dynamics 1. A block of mass 3 kg, initially at rest, is pulled along a frictionless, horizontal surface with a force shown as a function of time by the graph above. Calculate the acceleration and speed after 2s. Questions 2-4: Two blocks of masses M and m, with M > m, are connected by a light string. The string passes over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass so that the blocks hang vertically like Atwood’s machine. The blocks are then released from rest as shown above. 2. Draw a free-body diagram for each mass. Compare and contrast the tension on each. 3. Compare and contrast the net-force acting on each block. 4. Draw a free-body diagram for the string holding the pulley. Explain whether the force increases, decreases, or remains the same as the blocks accelerate. Questions 5-6: A ball is released from the top of a curved hill as shown above; the hill has sufficient friction so that the ball rolls as it moves down the hill. 5. What can be inferred about the ball’s linear acceleration and speed as the ball goes from the top to the bottom? (Increase, decrease, or remain the same) 6. Draw a free-body diagram for each location in the diagram to compare the weight, normal, and friction forces as it rolls down hill. Questions 7-8: Consider the above block sitting on a smooth tabletop. It is connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless and massless pulley to a pulling force of 30N downward. 7. Use Newton’s 2nd Law to determine what will happen to the net force, mass, and acceleration of the entire system if the pulling force of 30N is replaced with another block weighing 30N. 8. What will happen to the tension on each body?

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Chapter 07 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A A lake is currently at high pool, with the same amount of water flowing into the lake as is flowing over the spillway. Which of the following temporary changes would increase the resident time of water in this lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A A large reservoir behind a dam is rapidly rising, as rain and melting snow add more water than is being released out of the dam’s spillway. In this situation, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Which one of the following statements is correct? ANSWER: Double the rate of water flow into the lake and double the rate of water flow out of the lake, while keeping the lake at the same level. Keep the inflow into the lake the same, but release twice as much water from the lake, resulting in a lowering of the lake level. Decrease the inflow into the lake by half, and decrease the outflow of the lake by half. None of the choices would increase the resident time in the lake. the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A A raging river cascades down a granite mountain and eventually reaches the ocean. At the mouth of the river is a beautiful sandy beach composed of fine grains of granite particles from the river. The entire process of producing this sand is a result of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A The physical and chemical properties of soils are primarily determined by _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Several inches of rain fall over a field of tall corn, soaking into the soil and draining into ditches. Within an hour, there is no standing water and the humidity over the field rises quickly. At a nearby shopping mall, the rainwater fell onto blacktop and drained to sewer pipes, which carried the water directly into a stream. Which of the following occurred in The cycling time of an element or molecule in an ecosystem is equal to the sum of all the flux times. The cycling time is how long it takes an element or molecule to pass through a biogeochemical cycle. The cycling time of water moving through an ecosystem is typically shorter than the resident time in any pool in this system. The amount of time that water spends in an ocean is the cycling time. mineral evaporation erosion, weathering, transport, and then deposition erosion, dissolution, and precipitation organisms consuming and eroding granite the properties of rock from which the soils develop the amount of precipitation that the soil experiences the range of temperatures that the soil experiences the types of animals that live and move through the soils Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM the cornfield but not in the parking lot? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Most of the water on Earth is found in _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A Which one of the following primarily results from the effects of solar energy? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A rural Minnesota farmer grows a variety of vegetables to feed her family. In addition, she cuts down some of her dead trees for firewood to heat her home in the winter. This farmer is adding to the flux of the carbon cycle in her region by _____. precipitation evaporation runoff transpiration the polar ice caps lakes and streams aquifers the oceans evaporation of water from a lake the formation of ice on the top of a pond movement of ocean tides the movement of water over a waterfall Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A In a terrestrial ecosystem, most carbon is stored in the biomass of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A In which of the following countries would we expect that the terrestrial ecosystems have the highest net primary production and biomass? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Some farmers in the Midwest of the United States rotate their crops from year to year, switching from soybeans to corn on the same fields. What is one of the advantages of doing this? encouraging photosynthesis as she raises crops burning carbon-based fuels by consuming vegetables grown on her farm All of the choices are correct. the animals living there air the top layers of soil containing dead organisms living plants China Australia Brazil United States Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Most nitrogen enters the biosphere through the process of _____ ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Where do we expect to find the least amount of nitrogen? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A Along the west coast of the United States, upwellings bring deep ocean waters to the surface, carrying with them _____, which greatly increases NPP. ANSWER: The corn crop benefits from reactive nitrogen added to the soil by the soybean crop. Both crops require the same fertilizing supplies, so farmers save by buying fertilizer in bulk. Soybeans add large amounts of carbon dioxide to the soil, which helps the corn crop. Corn adds large amounts of phosphorus to the soil, which helps the soybean crop. nitrogen fixation in which bacteria convert N2 to NH3 cellular respiration, in which animals convert N2 to NH4 fermentation in which bacteria convert N2 to HNO3 photosynthesis, in which plants convert N2 to NO2 in Earth’s crust in plants in animals in the atmosphere Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A Which one of the following statements about the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles is true? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A A large coal-burning power plant is about 50 miles upwind from a lake that used to be popular for fishing. But now, just five years after the plant was constructed, the fish populations are decreasing dramatically. Which one of the following impacts of this coal-burning power plant is most likely hurting the fish populations in this downwind lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following statements about sulfur is correct? ANSWER: oxygen phosphate carbon sulfur Phosphorus is virtually absent in the atmosphere. The major source of carbon used by plants is the soil. Bacteria drive the phosphorus cycle. The major source of nitrogen used by plants is the air. insufficient sunlight reaching the lake low oxygen levels from burning fossil fuels eutrophication of the lake acidification of the lake Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Nitrogen and sulfur are important to all organisms because they are important constituents of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In Iowa, a small, deep lake in the summer becomes stratified with warmer, less-dense water at the surface and colder, denser water near the bottom. As fall air temperatures decrease, the surface water cools and then drops toward the bottom, mixing the lake levels together. As a result of this mixing, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A A fire spreads across hundreds of acres of prairie, burning most of the plant parts above the ground. Compared to before the fire, right after this fire the pool of nutrients in the prairie plants _____. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is high and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is high and the residence is short. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is low and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is low and the residence is short. nucleic acids glucose phosphates some amino acids nitrogen and phosphorus are added to the lake nitrogen and phosphorus decrease near the surface of the lake nitrogen and phosphorus increase near the surface of the lake None of the choices is correct. Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 21 points. and the soil decreases increases and the pool of nutrients in the soil decreases and the soil increases decreases and the pool of nutrients in the soil increases Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 07 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A A lake is currently at high pool, with the same amount of water flowing into the lake as is flowing over the spillway. Which of the following temporary changes would increase the resident time of water in this lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A A large reservoir behind a dam is rapidly rising, as rain and melting snow add more water than is being released out of the dam’s spillway. In this situation, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Which one of the following statements is correct? ANSWER: Double the rate of water flow into the lake and double the rate of water flow out of the lake, while keeping the lake at the same level. Keep the inflow into the lake the same, but release twice as much water from the lake, resulting in a lowering of the lake level. Decrease the inflow into the lake by half, and decrease the outflow of the lake by half. None of the choices would increase the resident time in the lake. the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A A raging river cascades down a granite mountain and eventually reaches the ocean. At the mouth of the river is a beautiful sandy beach composed of fine grains of granite particles from the river. The entire process of producing this sand is a result of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A The physical and chemical properties of soils are primarily determined by _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Several inches of rain fall over a field of tall corn, soaking into the soil and draining into ditches. Within an hour, there is no standing water and the humidity over the field rises quickly. At a nearby shopping mall, the rainwater fell onto blacktop and drained to sewer pipes, which carried the water directly into a stream. Which of the following occurred in The cycling time of an element or molecule in an ecosystem is equal to the sum of all the flux times. The cycling time is how long it takes an element or molecule to pass through a biogeochemical cycle. The cycling time of water moving through an ecosystem is typically shorter than the resident time in any pool in this system. The amount of time that water spends in an ocean is the cycling time. mineral evaporation erosion, weathering, transport, and then deposition erosion, dissolution, and precipitation organisms consuming and eroding granite the properties of rock from which the soils develop the amount of precipitation that the soil experiences the range of temperatures that the soil experiences the types of animals that live and move through the soils Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM the cornfield but not in the parking lot? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Most of the water on Earth is found in _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A Which one of the following primarily results from the effects of solar energy? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A rural Minnesota farmer grows a variety of vegetables to feed her family. In addition, she cuts down some of her dead trees for firewood to heat her home in the winter. This farmer is adding to the flux of the carbon cycle in her region by _____. precipitation evaporation runoff transpiration the polar ice caps lakes and streams aquifers the oceans evaporation of water from a lake the formation of ice on the top of a pond movement of ocean tides the movement of water over a waterfall Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A In a terrestrial ecosystem, most carbon is stored in the biomass of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A In which of the following countries would we expect that the terrestrial ecosystems have the highest net primary production and biomass? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Some farmers in the Midwest of the United States rotate their crops from year to year, switching from soybeans to corn on the same fields. What is one of the advantages of doing this? encouraging photosynthesis as she raises crops burning carbon-based fuels by consuming vegetables grown on her farm All of the choices are correct. the animals living there air the top layers of soil containing dead organisms living plants China Australia Brazil United States Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Most nitrogen enters the biosphere through the process of _____ ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Where do we expect to find the least amount of nitrogen? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A Along the west coast of the United States, upwellings bring deep ocean waters to the surface, carrying with them _____, which greatly increases NPP. ANSWER: The corn crop benefits from reactive nitrogen added to the soil by the soybean crop. Both crops require the same fertilizing supplies, so farmers save by buying fertilizer in bulk. Soybeans add large amounts of carbon dioxide to the soil, which helps the corn crop. Corn adds large amounts of phosphorus to the soil, which helps the soybean crop. nitrogen fixation in which bacteria convert N2 to NH3 cellular respiration, in which animals convert N2 to NH4 fermentation in which bacteria convert N2 to HNO3 photosynthesis, in which plants convert N2 to NO2 in Earth’s crust in plants in animals in the atmosphere Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A Which one of the following statements about the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles is true? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A A large coal-burning power plant is about 50 miles upwind from a lake that used to be popular for fishing. But now, just five years after the plant was constructed, the fish populations are decreasing dramatically. Which one of the following impacts of this coal-burning power plant is most likely hurting the fish populations in this downwind lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following statements about sulfur is correct? ANSWER: oxygen phosphate carbon sulfur Phosphorus is virtually absent in the atmosphere. The major source of carbon used by plants is the soil. Bacteria drive the phosphorus cycle. The major source of nitrogen used by plants is the air. insufficient sunlight reaching the lake low oxygen levels from burning fossil fuels eutrophication of the lake acidification of the lake Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Nitrogen and sulfur are important to all organisms because they are important constituents of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In Iowa, a small, deep lake in the summer becomes stratified with warmer, less-dense water at the surface and colder, denser water near the bottom. As fall air temperatures decrease, the surface water cools and then drops toward the bottom, mixing the lake levels together. As a result of this mixing, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A A fire spreads across hundreds of acres of prairie, burning most of the plant parts above the ground. Compared to before the fire, right after this fire the pool of nutrients in the prairie plants _____. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is high and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is high and the residence is short. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is low and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is low and the residence is short. nucleic acids glucose phosphates some amino acids nitrogen and phosphorus are added to the lake nitrogen and phosphorus decrease near the surface of the lake nitrogen and phosphorus increase near the surface of the lake None of the choices is correct. Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 21 points. and the soil decreases increases and the pool of nutrients in the soil decreases and the soil increases decreases and the pool of nutrients in the soil increases Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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. What are the main tenets and concerns of the Epicurean philosophy? Are you persuaded by this general approach? Why or why not?

. What are the main tenets and concerns of the Epicurean philosophy? Are you persuaded by this general approach? Why or why not?

You will discover 3 key tenets as well as concerns … Read More...
Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

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