In an experiment, a scientist fed radioactive nucleotides to a cell that was previously non-radioactive. After the cell duplicated its DNA, which statement would be true?

## In an experiment, a scientist fed radioactive nucleotides to a cell that was previously non-radioactive. After the cell duplicated its DNA, which statement would be true?

Each DNA helix would have one radioactive strand and one … Read More...
Lab Report : The purpose of this experiment is to learn about uncertainty in measurement, and how to perform calculations with those uncertainties. The calculation of the density of a wooden block was used as an example.

## Lab Report : The purpose of this experiment is to learn about uncertainty in measurement, and how to perform calculations with those uncertainties. The calculation of the density of a wooden block was used as an example.

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Materials Chemistry for Engineers 1. In the van der Waals corrections to the Ideal Gas Law: (P + a/V2)(V – b) = nRT (a) What do a and b correct for from the Ideal Gas Law? (b) How would one determine a and b experimentally? Describe a proposed experiment and data analysis method for your experiment. 2. (a) What are the assumptions of the Ideal Gas Law? How did van der Waal modify these assumptions to come up with his equation of state? (b) what is an equation of state, in general? Describe in your own words. 3. Given the following data: Material a b_____ (l2.atm/mole2) (l/mole) N2 1.39 0.03913 NH3 4.17 0.03107 Aniline 26.50 0.1369 Benzene 18.00 0.1154 (a) Plot P vs. T for each gas using the van der Waals equation of state. Assume that you have a 1 liter volume and 1 mole of gas and plot the temperature on the x-axis from room temperature to 1400 K (pressures should range from about 0 atm to about 120 atm, depending on the gas). Plot the Ideal Gas Law with the other data on one plot. Are the interactions between molecules attractive or repulsive at low temperature? How do you know? What is happening with the gases at high temperature? Is one of the gases different from the others at 1400 K? (b) Discuss the nature of the intermolecular interaction that creates the deviation from ideality for each material. Are there induced dipole-induced dipole interactions, iondipole interactions, etc. for each of the different gases? Draw their chemical structures. 4. Ethane (CH3CH3) and fluoromethane (CH3F) have the same number of electrons and are essentially the same size. However, ethane has a boiling point of 184.5 K and fluoromethane has a boiling point of 194.7 K. Explain this 10 degree difference in boiling point in terms of the van der Waals forces present. Bonus, what is the size of each molecule? Show your calculation/sources.

## Materials Chemistry for Engineers 1. In the van der Waals corrections to the Ideal Gas Law: (P + a/V2)(V – b) = nRT (a) What do a and b correct for from the Ideal Gas Law? (b) How would one determine a and b experimentally? Describe a proposed experiment and data analysis method for your experiment. 2. (a) What are the assumptions of the Ideal Gas Law? How did van der Waal modify these assumptions to come up with his equation of state? (b) what is an equation of state, in general? Describe in your own words. 3. Given the following data: Material a b_____ (l2.atm/mole2) (l/mole) N2 1.39 0.03913 NH3 4.17 0.03107 Aniline 26.50 0.1369 Benzene 18.00 0.1154 (a) Plot P vs. T for each gas using the van der Waals equation of state. Assume that you have a 1 liter volume and 1 mole of gas and plot the temperature on the x-axis from room temperature to 1400 K (pressures should range from about 0 atm to about 120 atm, depending on the gas). Plot the Ideal Gas Law with the other data on one plot. Are the interactions between molecules attractive or repulsive at low temperature? How do you know? What is happening with the gases at high temperature? Is one of the gases different from the others at 1400 K? (b) Discuss the nature of the intermolecular interaction that creates the deviation from ideality for each material. Are there induced dipole-induced dipole interactions, iondipole interactions, etc. for each of the different gases? Draw their chemical structures. 4. Ethane (CH3CH3) and fluoromethane (CH3F) have the same number of electrons and are essentially the same size. However, ethane has a boiling point of 184.5 K and fluoromethane has a boiling point of 194.7 K. Explain this 10 degree difference in boiling point in terms of the van der Waals forces present. Bonus, what is the size of each molecule? Show your calculation/sources.

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QUESTIONS ! 1.State what the experiment checks. !!!!!!!!! 2. (a) How does the centripetal force vary with the speed of rotation for a constant radius of the path? ! !!!!!!!! (b) How does it vary with the radius of the path for a constant speed of rotation? !!!!!!! 3. Distinguish between centripetal force and centrifugal force. Explain in what direction each force is acting and on what it is acting. !!!!!!!! 4.Calculate at what speed Earth would have to rotate in order that objects at the equator would have no weight. Assume the radius of Earth to be 6400 km. What would be the linear speed of a point on the equator? What would be the length of a day (time from sunrise to sunset) under these conditions? !!!!!!!! 5. Engines for propeller-driven aircraft are limited in their maximum rotational speed by the fact that the tip speed of the propeller must not approach the speed of sound in air (Mach I). Taking 6 ft as a typical diameter for a propeller of a light airplane and 1100 fils as the speed of sound, find the upper limit on the rpm (revolutions per minute) of the propeller shaft.

## QUESTIONS ! 1.State what the experiment checks. !!!!!!!!! 2. (a) How does the centripetal force vary with the speed of rotation for a constant radius of the path? ! !!!!!!!! (b) How does it vary with the radius of the path for a constant speed of rotation? !!!!!!! 3. Distinguish between centripetal force and centrifugal force. Explain in what direction each force is acting and on what it is acting. !!!!!!!! 4.Calculate at what speed Earth would have to rotate in order that objects at the equator would have no weight. Assume the radius of Earth to be 6400 km. What would be the linear speed of a point on the equator? What would be the length of a day (time from sunrise to sunset) under these conditions? !!!!!!!! 5. Engines for propeller-driven aircraft are limited in their maximum rotational speed by the fact that the tip speed of the propeller must not approach the speed of sound in air (Mach I). Taking 6 ft as a typical diameter for a propeller of a light airplane and 1100 fils as the speed of sound, find the upper limit on the rpm (revolutions per minute) of the propeller shaft.

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