The following statement about racism are TRUE except: a) It is a negative bias toward a particular group of people. b) It maintains that racial groups other than one’s own are inferior. c) It demeans all who participates in it and is a form of projection usually displayed out of fear or ignorance. d) It might take the form of cultural racism and/or institutionalized racism

The following statement about racism are TRUE except: a) It is a negative bias toward a particular group of people. b) It maintains that racial groups other than one’s own are inferior. c) It demeans all who participates in it and is a form of projection usually displayed out of fear or ignorance. d) It might take the form of cultural racism and/or institutionalized racism

answer c
CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

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1000 words Total. Answer each question in paragraph form https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzicXbnmllc In the video, presented by Brooke Deterline, talks about creating ethical cultures in a business. One of Brooke’s main point was courage. She defines courage as our ability to act from our hearts in the face of fear and is a skill that we can build with practice. Brooke gives an example of life without courage and shows us many scenarios where it is still happening today, 10 years after the ENRON scandal. Courage is something that lacks in social situations where wrong is being done. She states that we all are vulnerable to situation influence all the time and that it is natural human wiring. It seems that most of us, including myself, can become a bystander to follow a leader or a group that we know is doing wrong because we want to be accepted. (1) Why do you think that the most ethical and compassionate among us can easily betray our values, in the face of challenging situations? What challenges does one face when they are presented with a difficult situation? (2) Do you believe that with practice we can retrain our brains to override our natural fear response when we are put in these challenging situations? Managers sometimes face business problems that raise difficult questions. When being faced with these problems they must choose between two ways of resolving it. Each of these alternatives is the right thing to do, but they can not do both ways. Badaracco characterizes right-versus-right dilemmas as “dirty-hands problems,” where managers or any employee often have to “get their hands dirty” by making tough choices between competing virtues such as honesty, fairness, respect, objectivity, and responsibility. He shows us three managers that face different right- versus-right conflicts. We see that these managers have the responsibilities to live up to the commitments they have made and the standards by which they want live by. However, it is not that simple to choose from wanting to be a successful manager and a decent, responsible person. (3) After reading the three different extremes of right- versus- right, why do you think that Badaracco emphasizes on the statement made by Oliver Wendell Holmes, “I do not give a fig for the simplicity on the this side complexity, but i would give my life for the simplicity on the other side of complexity,” and what do you think it means? A manager often encounters right-versus-right dilemmas where professional responsibilities conflict with personal values. For example, a senior manager may have knowledge of plans to lay off an employee-friend who is planning the purchase of a new home. Warning the friend about the upcoming layoff would certainly help the friend avoid the difficulty of paying for a new home without a job, but it may also violate an agreement with senior management and shareholders to keep such plans confidential until these plans are properly implemented. (4) In a challenging situation like this, should mangers rely on fundamental ethical principles and the company’s mission statement to help them decide what to do or should they consult their own moral instincts and intuitions?

1000 words Total. Answer each question in paragraph form https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzicXbnmllc In the video, presented by Brooke Deterline, talks about creating ethical cultures in a business. One of Brooke’s main point was courage. She defines courage as our ability to act from our hearts in the face of fear and is a skill that we can build with practice. Brooke gives an example of life without courage and shows us many scenarios where it is still happening today, 10 years after the ENRON scandal. Courage is something that lacks in social situations where wrong is being done. She states that we all are vulnerable to situation influence all the time and that it is natural human wiring. It seems that most of us, including myself, can become a bystander to follow a leader or a group that we know is doing wrong because we want to be accepted. (1) Why do you think that the most ethical and compassionate among us can easily betray our values, in the face of challenging situations? What challenges does one face when they are presented with a difficult situation? (2) Do you believe that with practice we can retrain our brains to override our natural fear response when we are put in these challenging situations? Managers sometimes face business problems that raise difficult questions. When being faced with these problems they must choose between two ways of resolving it. Each of these alternatives is the right thing to do, but they can not do both ways. Badaracco characterizes right-versus-right dilemmas as “dirty-hands problems,” where managers or any employee often have to “get their hands dirty” by making tough choices between competing virtues such as honesty, fairness, respect, objectivity, and responsibility. He shows us three managers that face different right- versus-right conflicts. We see that these managers have the responsibilities to live up to the commitments they have made and the standards by which they want live by. However, it is not that simple to choose from wanting to be a successful manager and a decent, responsible person. (3) After reading the three different extremes of right- versus- right, why do you think that Badaracco emphasizes on the statement made by Oliver Wendell Holmes, “I do not give a fig for the simplicity on the this side complexity, but i would give my life for the simplicity on the other side of complexity,” and what do you think it means? A manager often encounters right-versus-right dilemmas where professional responsibilities conflict with personal values. For example, a senior manager may have knowledge of plans to lay off an employee-friend who is planning the purchase of a new home. Warning the friend about the upcoming layoff would certainly help the friend avoid the difficulty of paying for a new home without a job, but it may also violate an agreement with senior management and shareholders to keep such plans confidential until these plans are properly implemented. (4) In a challenging situation like this, should mangers rely on fundamental ethical principles and the company’s mission statement to help them decide what to do or should they consult their own moral instincts and intuitions?

Click the link to read Chapter 1 of Clausewitz’s On War, and then answer the questions below. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1946/1946-h/1946-h.htm#2HCH0001 How does Clausewitz define war? A. It is the use of violence to gain wealth. B. It is the way in which states can show their power. C. It is an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will. D. It is no longer a legitimate way to function in a world of international law. E. It is defined by international laws and norms. What are the main motives that cause war, according to Clausewitz? A. Greed and tyranny. B. Instinctive hostility and hostile intention. C. Competition and glory. D. Fear and threat. E. Men and money. What is the polarity principle according to Clausewitz? A. In principle, the world has conflicts that flow from North to South. B. It is like a zero sum game, a win for one yields a loss for the other. C. Two states will tend to find peace before they have to fight. D. The pitch of battle will swing from one end to the other before it ends. E. Humans are both rational and emotional; you must consider both sides. According to Clausewitz the element of War itself is: A. A multifaceted, multiplayer complex system with no central element. B. A duel between two parties on an extensive scale. C. Only made possible through laws that limit violence. D. Completely removed from politics in all aspects. E. Not something that we can understand or study.

Click the link to read Chapter 1 of Clausewitz’s On War, and then answer the questions below. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1946/1946-h/1946-h.htm#2HCH0001 How does Clausewitz define war? A. It is the use of violence to gain wealth. B. It is the way in which states can show their power. C. It is an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will. D. It is no longer a legitimate way to function in a world of international law. E. It is defined by international laws and norms. What are the main motives that cause war, according to Clausewitz? A. Greed and tyranny. B. Instinctive hostility and hostile intention. C. Competition and glory. D. Fear and threat. E. Men and money. What is the polarity principle according to Clausewitz? A. In principle, the world has conflicts that flow from North to South. B. It is like a zero sum game, a win for one yields a loss for the other. C. Two states will tend to find peace before they have to fight. D. The pitch of battle will swing from one end to the other before it ends. E. Humans are both rational and emotional; you must consider both sides. According to Clausewitz the element of War itself is: A. A multifaceted, multiplayer complex system with no central element. B. A duel between two parties on an extensive scale. C. Only made possible through laws that limit violence. D. Completely removed from politics in all aspects. E. Not something that we can understand or study.

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http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince17.htm How does Machiavelli feel about cruelty versus clemency? A. Machiavelli equates clemency with being loved and cruelty with being despised, and suggests that being despised is acceptable. B. Machiavelli suggests that cruelty doesn’t always result in being despised and winning the love of your subjects is the most important thing. C. Machiavelli says that cruelty, when applied in a prudent manner, will be held in more esteem than too much mercy. D. Cruelty and clemency are identical; being merciful to one person means that you must be cruel to another. E. Clemency is equated with happiness, and a happy set of subjects is the ultimate goal of a successful leader. What is the difference between hatred and fear? A. Fear makes people respect you. Hatred makes them work against you. B. Fear and hatred follow one another. If you create fear you will eventually create hatred. All leaders should avoid this. C. Hatred from external powers breeds nationalism within your country, causing people to fear external powers. D. Fear and hatred are opposites. E. Hatred follows love; fear follows clemency. http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince23.htm According to Machiavelli, what is a flatterer? A. Someone who wants to lavish gifts upon you in exchange for power. B. An external power that wants to ally with you. C. Someone who will tell you what you think rather than giving their own opinion. D. Someone who tests your opinions against their own to make a good argument. E. An external power that wants to make strong trade alliances to weaken you over time. According to Machiavelli, what is the best way to seek truth from advisers? A. Advisors should present any complaints to you as a group. B. Advisors should be called upon when the leader has a question, otherwise they are to remain silent. C. An advisor should involve the public, allowing them to call the leader to court to listen to their opinions. D. The leader should listen carefully to one private advisor with whom he always disagrees. E. Machiavelli thinks that advisors are not helpful because they will always try to flatter their leader.

http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince17.htm How does Machiavelli feel about cruelty versus clemency? A. Machiavelli equates clemency with being loved and cruelty with being despised, and suggests that being despised is acceptable. B. Machiavelli suggests that cruelty doesn’t always result in being despised and winning the love of your subjects is the most important thing. C. Machiavelli says that cruelty, when applied in a prudent manner, will be held in more esteem than too much mercy. D. Cruelty and clemency are identical; being merciful to one person means that you must be cruel to another. E. Clemency is equated with happiness, and a happy set of subjects is the ultimate goal of a successful leader. What is the difference between hatred and fear? A. Fear makes people respect you. Hatred makes them work against you. B. Fear and hatred follow one another. If you create fear you will eventually create hatred. All leaders should avoid this. C. Hatred from external powers breeds nationalism within your country, causing people to fear external powers. D. Fear and hatred are opposites. E. Hatred follows love; fear follows clemency. http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince23.htm According to Machiavelli, what is a flatterer? A. Someone who wants to lavish gifts upon you in exchange for power. B. An external power that wants to ally with you. C. Someone who will tell you what you think rather than giving their own opinion. D. Someone who tests your opinions against their own to make a good argument. E. An external power that wants to make strong trade alliances to weaken you over time. According to Machiavelli, what is the best way to seek truth from advisers? A. Advisors should present any complaints to you as a group. B. Advisors should be called upon when the leader has a question, otherwise they are to remain silent. C. An advisor should involve the public, allowing them to call the leader to court to listen to their opinions. D. The leader should listen carefully to one private advisor with whom he always disagrees. E. Machiavelli thinks that advisors are not helpful because they will always try to flatter their leader.

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Use each link provided below to answer the questions below. http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince19.htm That One Should Avoid Being Despised and Hated What are the two threats a leader should fear? A. Terrorism and war B. Threats from within (the subjects) and from without (external powers) C. A weak economy and the overall health of subjects D. Govermental stability and economic prosperity E. Conspirators and the military When should a leader fear conspiracy? A. Leaders should always be worried about conspiracies. B. Leaders who do not lavish gifts upon their subjects should fear conspiracies. C. Leaders who are not held in high esteem by their subjects should fear conspiracies. D. Leaders never need to fear conspiracy if they have a strong military. E. Leaders who have large militaries should always be watchful of military conspiracy.

Use each link provided below to answer the questions below. http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince19.htm That One Should Avoid Being Despised and Hated What are the two threats a leader should fear? A. Terrorism and war B. Threats from within (the subjects) and from without (external powers) C. A weak economy and the overall health of subjects D. Govermental stability and economic prosperity E. Conspirators and the military When should a leader fear conspiracy? A. Leaders should always be worried about conspiracies. B. Leaders who do not lavish gifts upon their subjects should fear conspiracies. C. Leaders who are not held in high esteem by their subjects should fear conspiracies. D. Leaders never need to fear conspiracy if they have a strong military. E. Leaders who have large militaries should always be watchful of military conspiracy.

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Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

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Someone inflicted with Capgras syndrome would likely ________. spontaneously produce curse words have wild emotional swings in response to loved ones be unable to experience fear fail to feel an emotional response to loved ones

Someone inflicted with Capgras syndrome would likely ________. spontaneously produce curse words have wild emotional swings in response to loved ones be unable to experience fear fail to feel an emotional response to loved ones

Someone inflicted with Capgras syndrome would likely ________. spontaneously produce … Read More...