Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
Ronald Wright, Stolen Continents, Ch. 3, pp. 72-83. It’s posted here on Moodle as a PDF( attached) 1.)What’s your gut reaction to this reading? 2.) Give a summary of the meeting and dialogue between the Inca Emperor Atawallpa and the Spanish. 3.) Give the date, place and basic elements of the successful confrontation the Spanish had with Inca Atawallpa and his soldiers. 4.) According to Wright’s account, what do you think is the main reason or reasons that Inca Atawallpa lost this confrontation? What is the evidence for your conclusion?”

Ronald Wright, Stolen Continents, Ch. 3, pp. 72-83. It’s posted here on Moodle as a PDF( attached) 1.)What’s your gut reaction to this reading? 2.) Give a summary of the meeting and dialogue between the Inca Emperor Atawallpa and the Spanish. 3.) Give the date, place and basic elements of the successful confrontation the Spanish had with Inca Atawallpa and his soldiers. 4.) According to Wright’s account, what do you think is the main reason or reasons that Inca Atawallpa lost this confrontation? What is the evidence for your conclusion?”

1) The book named “Stolen Continents” is written by Ronald … Read More...
Figure 1: Examples of the 16-puzzle. The 16-puzzle consists of 15 tiles containing the numbers 1; 2; : : : ; 15 in a 4  4 grid, with an empty space left by the missing 16th tile. The goal of the 16-puzzle is to rearrange the tiles into order by sliding tiles to occupy an empty space. Figure 1 shows a sample board along with the goal con guration where the tiles are in order. A similar puzzle can be devised for any n  n board. On a board with N positions (including the empty space), the total number of possible con gurations is N!, since every arrangement of tiles can be encoded by a permutation of f1; : : : ;Ng (where the empty space is treated as an invisible tile marked with N), although some con gurations cannot be solved. The game graph for the N-puzzle contains vertices for each possible board, and an undirected edge connects every pair of boards which can be transformed into each other by one move. Since every move is reversible (that is, we can always move a tile back after the initial move), there is no need for directed edges. The game graph for the 4-puzzle contains only 4! = 24 states, and is shown in gure 2. The goal state is framed in green. The 9-puzzle has 9! = 362880 states, so it is possible to compute and store the entire game graph on a current machine. Graph algorithms can then be used to nd solutions to each board. For example, a path from a given board b to the goal con guration g (in which all tiles are in order and the empty space is at the lower right) represents a sequence of valid moves which solve b. If g is not reachable from b, then b has no solution. In general, the game graph of a puzzle may have several di erent connected components, and there may not be a goal state in each component. The game graph for an N-puzzle always has two components, and there is only one goal state. Algorithms for nding connected components can be used to nd all solvable con gurations of a puzzle. For the N-puzzle, it is also possible to determine whether a given board is solvable without traversing the game graph by using techniques from permutation theory (which is beyond the scope of this course). Figure 3 shows the neighbourhood of the goal state of the 9-puzzle. Algorithm 27 gives pseu- docode to build the game graph of an N puzzle. 1 Figure 2: The entire game graph for the 4-puzzle, with the goal state framed in green. Figure 3: A subset of the game graph for the 9-puzzle, with the goal state framed in green. 2 3

Figure 1: Examples of the 16-puzzle. The 16-puzzle consists of 15 tiles containing the numbers 1; 2; : : : ; 15 in a 4  4 grid, with an empty space left by the missing 16th tile. The goal of the 16-puzzle is to rearrange the tiles into order by sliding tiles to occupy an empty space. Figure 1 shows a sample board along with the goal con guration where the tiles are in order. A similar puzzle can be devised for any n  n board. On a board with N positions (including the empty space), the total number of possible con gurations is N!, since every arrangement of tiles can be encoded by a permutation of f1; : : : ;Ng (where the empty space is treated as an invisible tile marked with N), although some con gurations cannot be solved. The game graph for the N-puzzle contains vertices for each possible board, and an undirected edge connects every pair of boards which can be transformed into each other by one move. Since every move is reversible (that is, we can always move a tile back after the initial move), there is no need for directed edges. The game graph for the 4-puzzle contains only 4! = 24 states, and is shown in gure 2. The goal state is framed in green. The 9-puzzle has 9! = 362880 states, so it is possible to compute and store the entire game graph on a current machine. Graph algorithms can then be used to nd solutions to each board. For example, a path from a given board b to the goal con guration g (in which all tiles are in order and the empty space is at the lower right) represents a sequence of valid moves which solve b. If g is not reachable from b, then b has no solution. In general, the game graph of a puzzle may have several di erent connected components, and there may not be a goal state in each component. The game graph for an N-puzzle always has two components, and there is only one goal state. Algorithms for nding connected components can be used to nd all solvable con gurations of a puzzle. For the N-puzzle, it is also possible to determine whether a given board is solvable without traversing the game graph by using techniques from permutation theory (which is beyond the scope of this course). Figure 3 shows the neighbourhood of the goal state of the 9-puzzle. Algorithm 27 gives pseu- docode to build the game graph of an N puzzle. 1 Figure 2: The entire game graph for the 4-puzzle, with the goal state framed in green. Figure 3: A subset of the game graph for the 9-puzzle, with the goal state framed in green. 2 3

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