## ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A3 Lab: AC Series Circuits Introduction Previously you worked with two simple AC series circuits, R-C and R-L circuits. We continue that work in this experiment. Procedure 1. Setup the following circuit in MultiSim.The voltage source is 10 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: Circuit for analysis using MultiSim 2. Change R1 to 1 k and C1 to 0.1 uF. Connect the oscilloscope to measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor.You should have the following arrangement. Figure 2: Circuit of figure 1 connected to oscilloscope To color the wires, right click the desired wire and select “Color Segment…” and follow the instructions. Start the simulation and open the oscilloscope. You should get the following plot: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and the voltage (blue) across the resistor The red signal is the voltage of the source and the blue is the voltage across the resistor. The colors correspond to the colors of the wires from the oscilloscope. 3. From the resulting analysis plotdetermine the peak current. To determine the peak current measure the peak voltage across the resistor and divide by the value of the resistor (1000 Ohms). Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5 Determine the phase shift between the current in the circuit and the source voltage. We look at the time between zero crossings to determine the phase shift between two waveforms. In our plot, the blue waveform (representing the circuit current or the voltage across the resistor) crosses zero before the red waveform (the circuit voltage). So, current is leading voltage in this circuit. This is exactly what should happen when we have a capacitive circuit. 6. To determine the phase shift, we first have to measure the time between zero crossings on the red and blue waveforms. This is done by moving the oscillator probes to the two zero crossing as is shown in the following figure Figure 4: Determining the phase shift between the two voltage waveforms We can see from the figure that the zero crossing difference (T2 – T1) is approximately 134 us. The ratio of the zero-crossing time difference to the period of the waveform determines the phase shift, as follows: Using our time values, we have: How do we know if this phase shift is correct? In step 4 when you did your manual calculations to find the peak current, you had to find the total impedance of the circuit, which was: Now, the current will be: Here, the positive angle on the current indicates it is leading the circuit voltage. 7. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Estimulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 8. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Writeup and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.

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## The standard normal probability density function is a bell-shaped curve that can be represented as f(z) = 1 p 2 e?z2=2 Use MATLAB to generate a plot of this function from z = ?5 to z = 5. Label the ordinate as frequency and the abscissa as z.

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## A hydrogen lamp emits several lines in the visible region of the spectrum. One of these lines has a wavelength of 6.56 times 10^-5 cm. What are the color and frequency of this radiation?

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## Vermont Technical College Electronics I – Laboratory ELT-2051 Lab 07: Transistor Biasing Circuits and Q-point Stability Objectives: • To set an operating point for a transistor using three different bias techniques • To explore amplification of an AC signal • To use MultiSim to verify your experimental data General: In this laboratory, you will be supplied with two NPN transistors with varying ß’s. Prelab: Calculate values of Rb in Figures 1 and 2 assuming ß = 200, VCE = 6V . For Figure 3, calculate R1 and R2 so that their parallel resistance is about 20KΩ or 10% of (ß+1)RE. Also, calculate the critical frequency of the 1uF capacitor in Figure 4. Materials: • 2N3904, 2N4123 NPN TXs (1 high ß, 1 low ß) • (2) 1 k Ohm, 100 k Ohm, assorted resistors • 1uF, 10uF capacitors • Curve Tracer • DC Power Supply • Multimeter • Signal Generator • Oscilloscope • Breadboard Procedure: 1. Use the curve tracer to plot the curves for each of your transistors. From these curves, again using the curve tracer, determine the ßDC for each transistor at the IC currents of 1mA, 3mA, 6mA, and 10mA with VCE = 6V. Of course, be sure to keep track of which transistor goes with which curve. Verify that the ßDC values that you obtain are within the manufacturer’s specifications. Remember– ßDC = hFE ! 2. For each of the three circuits shown in Figures 1-3, using the R values calculated in your prelab, determine the operating points IC and VCE for each of the transistors. Be sure to table your data. In addition, plot ß vs IC for both transistors on a single graph so that the data is meaningful! What conclusions can be reached for the 3 biasing circuits? 3. Lastly – Build Figure 4 and determine the ratio (Gain) of Vout/Vin at 1KHz. Now vary the frequency of Vin to determine at what frequencies this ratio decreases to 0.707 of the value at 1KHz. 4. Use the Bode Plotter feature in MultiSim to verify your data of Part 3. Is the cut-off frequency the same as you measured in the lab? Base Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Emitter Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Voltage Divider Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Laboratory Report: This lab is a semi-formal lab. Be sure to collect all data necessary to make observations and answer questions before you leave the lab. Also, you and your lab partner should discuss the results and outcomes prior to leaving. Take notes, fill in tables and include diagrams as needed. Your report should include: • Data Table • Beta Plot • MultiSim Frequency Response • Comparison of biasing schemes • Comparison of measurements vs. simulations and expectations.

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## NAME: ARTIFACT: Describe your artifact. Why do you think it would work well for this project? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA Please answer “yes” or “no” to the following questions. Is your artifact something that was made by people? ___yes ___no Is your artifact specific? (i.e., not a broad concept) ___yes ___no Can you point to your artifact? (i.e., not an abstract idea) ___yes ___no Does your artifact contain enough material to analyze? ___yes ___no Does your artifact relate to the course theme? ___yes ___no Did you bring your artifact to class today? ___yes ___no If you answered no, why not? _________________________________________ REVIEW Take a moment to quickly review the fundamental moves of analysis with your artifact. Do you notice patterns of frequency? ___yes ___no Do you notice patterns of contrast? ___yes ___no Do you notice anomalies? ___yes ___no Do you notice intensity or specific moments of intensity? ___yes ___no Record notes from this exercise in the space provided. What patterns, anomalies, and moments of intensity have you identified that you’d like to keep in mind moving forward? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ WILL IT WORK? Talk over your responses with a partner before recording an answer to this question. If you or your partner answered “no” to half or more than half of these questions, you may want to reconsider the artifact you have chosen to analyze. Will your artifact work for this project? ___yes ___no FINAL STEPS If you have determined—yes—your artifact will work for this project, record any notes you’d like to save from this exercise in your class notebook and hand this checklist in to your instructor. If you have determined—no—your artifact will not work for this project, take a few minutes to brainstorm other potential artifacts that better fit the assignment criteria and lend themselves to analysis (at least 3). Record your ideas in the space provided and in your class notebook, and hand this checklist in to your instructor. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ If you have determined—I don’t know—or if you’re not sure if your artifact will work for this project, take a few minutes to write down concerns and questions this exercised has raised. Record them in the space provided and in your class notebook, and hand this checklist in to your instructor. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ That’s it, you’re done! Expect an email in response to this exercise before the next class period.

## 12. value: 10.00 points A total of 5.4 percent of the prime time viewing audience watched shows on ABC, 7.2 percent watched shows on CBS, 6.4 percent on Fox, 6.1 percent on NBC, 2.1 percent on Warner Brothers, and 2.6 percent on UPN. A total of 70.2 percent of the audience watched shows on other cable networks, such as CNN and ESPN. What will be the prime time viewing percentage of the pie chart for the following data? (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.) Prime time viewing ABC % CBS % Fox % NBC % Warner % UPN % 13. value: 10.00 points The number of families who used the Minneapolis YWCA day care service was recorded over a 30-day period. The results are as follows: 32 66 62 68 68 33 54 34 42 41 17 39 23 44 44 24 37 49 54 17 58 62 50 46 63 59 52 54 58 12 ________________________________________ Construct a cumulative frequency distribution of this data. Class Cumulative Frequency 0 up to 15 up to up to up to up to ________________________________________ rev: 01_27_2015_QC_CS-5196

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## Punishment involves ________. removing an aversive stimulus in order to increase the frequency of a behavior introducing an aversive consequence in order to decrease the frequency of a behavior reinforcing incompatible behavioral responses negative reinforcement but not positive reinforcement

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## Que 1: true of false a) Both silicon and germanium atoms have four valances electrons b) When forward-biased , a diode has a very high resistance c) A zener diode is designed to operate in the forward-bias region and has higher reverse breakdown voltage level than regular diode Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: d) In semiconductor, in addition to the electron flow, there is also another kind of charge flow referred as………………. e) A silicon diode in placed in series with 2kΩresistor and a 14 V dc power supply. The current ID is: i) 6.65 mA ii) 2.2 mA iii)7.5 mA iv) 14 mA f) The series resistor that limits the forward current length through a silicon diode to 8 mA if the power supply voltage is 9.5V is : i) 1.1 kΩ ii) 2.2 kΩ iii) 9.5 mA iv) 4.7 mA FIGURE g) Determine the diode current IZ for the circuit of figure 1-2: assume VZ = 3.9 V i) 8.1 mA ii) 3.55 mA iii) 24.5 mA iv) 13.64 mA h) Determine the current through a 20 mA yellow LED when the power supply voltage is 15 V the series resistor is 2k ohm and the diode is put in backward. Assume VLED = 2V i) 20 mA ii) 0 mA iii) 10 mA iv) 6.5 mA Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: i) Zener diode is a p-n junction diode that is desgined for specifc…………………voltage j) ………………………….is the process by which impurity atoms are introduced to the instrisic semiconductor in order to alter the balance between holes and electrons. 1) The average value of s full-wave rectifier with a peak vaue of 17V ia 108V 2) If the frequency of input signal of the full wave reflector is 60Hz, the output frequency is 120Hz 3) The cathode of a zener diode, when conducting is:y i) at 0.7V ii) more positive than anode iii) more negative than anode iv) -0.7V 4) A given transformer with turn ratio 12:1has an input of 115V at 60Hzthe paek output voltage v0 (p) is i) 9.58 V ii) 6.78V iii) 11.5 V iv) 13.55 V FIGURE 2-1 5) The output voltage of V0(DC)for the full wave rectifier of figure 2-1 is i) 18.07 V ii) 12.78 V iii) 8.3 V iv) 5.74 V FIGURE 2-2 6) The voltage V2(P) for the full-wavr bridge rectifier of figure 2-2 is i) 17.37 V ii)1 6.67 V iii) 12.78 V iv) 18.07 V 7) Assume the current I0(DC) in figure is 100mA and C= 2400µF .the ripple voltage vr (p-p) i) 694mV ii) 424 mV iii) 121 V iv) 347 V Use figure 2-3 for questions below: Assume that RS = 75, RL = 160 FIGURE 2-3 8) The output voltage V0 is i) 7.5 V ii) 10 V iii) 8.5 V iv) 12 V Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: 9) The magnitude of the peak-to-peak ripple voltage vr (p-p) is directly proportional to the output …………………. 10) The ripple voltage at the filter section vr (p-p) can be reduced by increasing the value

## Economic order quantity (EOQ) questions: 1. An equipment contains 30 parts of the same type. The part has a predicted mean failure frequency of 10,000 hours. The equipment operates 24 hours a day, and spares are provisioned at 90-day intervals. How many spares should be carried in the inventory to ensure a 95% probability of having a spare available when required? 2. Determine the EOQ of an item for spares inventory replenishment, where: a. the cost per unit is $100 b. The cost of preparing for a shipment and sending a truck to the warehouse is $25 c. The estimated cost of holding the inventory, including capital tied up, is 25% of the initial inventory value D. The annual demand is 200 units. Assume that the cost per order and the inventory carrying charge is fixed.

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