1. How does Odysseus outsmart Polyphemous? What would you have done in this situation? Would you have held your cool long enough to come up with this solution? This scene illustrates what the Greeks admired about Odysseus, a different type of hero than the brawny Achilles. Where does the text show what they admire about him?

1. How does Odysseus outsmart Polyphemous? What would you have done in this situation? Would you have held your cool long enough to come up with this solution? This scene illustrates what the Greeks admired about Odysseus, a different type of hero than the brawny Achilles. Where does the text show what they admire about him?

There were several steps in Odysseus plan: First Cyclops drunk … Read More...
1. How does Odysseus outsmart Polyphemous? What would you have done in this situation? Would you have held your cool long enough to come up with this solution? This scene illustrates what the Greeks admired about Odysseus, a different type of hero than the brawny Achilles. Where does the text show what they admire about him? 2. When Protagoras said “Man is the measure of all things,” why was this a different and new way of seeing the world? To what degree does contemporary US culture agree with Protagoras? 3. What do you see in our contemporary society that we share with the archaic Greeks? How are we alike and different? Where are the intersections of ancient history and our current realities?

1. How does Odysseus outsmart Polyphemous? What would you have done in this situation? Would you have held your cool long enough to come up with this solution? This scene illustrates what the Greeks admired about Odysseus, a different type of hero than the brawny Achilles. Where does the text show what they admire about him? 2. When Protagoras said “Man is the measure of all things,” why was this a different and new way of seeing the world? To what degree does contemporary US culture agree with Protagoras? 3. What do you see in our contemporary society that we share with the archaic Greeks? How are we alike and different? Where are the intersections of ancient history and our current realities?

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“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

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MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

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Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

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Spontaneously generated funds are generally defined as follows: Assets required per dollar of sales. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each item is held constant. Funds that a firm must raise externally through borrowing or by selling new common or preferred stock. Funds that arise out of normal business operations from its suppliers, employees, and the government, and they include spontaneous increases in accounts payable and accruals. The amount of cash raised in a given year minus the amount of cash needed to finance the additional capital expenditures and working capital needed to support the firm’s growth.

Spontaneously generated funds are generally defined as follows: Assets required per dollar of sales. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each item is held constant. Funds that a firm must raise externally through borrowing or by selling new common or preferred stock. Funds that arise out of normal business operations from its suppliers, employees, and the government, and they include spontaneous increases in accounts payable and accruals. The amount of cash raised in a given year minus the amount of cash needed to finance the additional capital expenditures and working capital needed to support the firm’s growth.

Spontaneously generated funds are generally defined as follows: Assets required … Read More...
Morgan Extra Pages Graphing with Excel to be carried out in a computer lab, 3rd floor Calloway Hall or elsewhere The Excel spreadsheet consists of vertical columns and horizontal rows; a column and row intersect at a cell. A cell can contain data for use in calculations of all sorts. The Name Box shows the currently selected cell (Fig. 1). In the Excel 2007 and 2010 versions the drop-down menus familiar in most software screens have been replaced by tabs with horizontally-arranged command buttons of various categories (Fig. 2) ___________________________________________________________________ Open Excel, click on the Microsoft circle, upper left, and Save As your surname. xlsx on the desktop. Before leaving the lab e-mail the file to yourself and/or save to a flash drive. Also e-mail it to your instructor. Figure 1. Parts of an Excel spreadsheet. Name Box Figure 2. Tabs. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 1: BASIC OPERATIONS Click Save often as you work. 1. Type the heading “Edge Length” in Cell A1 and double click the crack between the A and B column heading for automatic widening of column A. Similarly, write headings for columns B and C and enter numbers in Cells A2 and A3 as in Fig. 3. Highlight Cells A2 and A3 by dragging the cursor (chunky plus-shape) over the two of them and letting go. 2. Note that there are three types of cursor crosses: chunky for selecting, barbed for moving entries or blocks of entries from cell to cell, and tiny (appearing only at the little square in the lower-right corner of a cell). Obtain a tiny arrow for Cell A3 and perform a plus-drag down Column A until the cells are filled up to 40 (in Cell A8). Note that the two highlighted cells set both the starting value of the fill and the intervals. 3. Click on Cell B2 and enter a formula for face area of a cube as follows: type =, click on Cell A2, type ^2, and press Enter (note the formula bar in Fig. 4). 4. Enter the formula for cube volume in Cell C2 (same procedure, but “=, click on A2, ^3, Enter”). 5. Highlight Cells B2 and C2; plus-drag down to Row 8 (Fig. 5). Do the numbers look correct? Click on some cells in the newly filled area and notice how Excel steps the row designations as it moves down the column (it can do it for horizontal plusdrags along rows also). This is the major programming development that has led to the popularity of spreadsheets. Figure 3. Entries. Figure 4. A formula. Figure 5. Plus-dragging formulas. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 6. Now let’s graph the Face Area versus Edge Length: select Cells A1 through B8, choose the Insert tab, and click the Scatter drop-down menu and select “Scatter with only Markers” (Fig. 6). 7. Move the graph (Excel calls it a “chart”) that appears up alongside your number table and dress it up as follows: a. Note that some Chart Layouts have appeared above. Click Layout 1 and alter each title to read Face Area for the vertical axis, Edge Length for the horizontal and Face Area vs. Edge Length for the Graph Title. b. Activate the Excel Least squares routine, called “fitting a trendline” in the program: right click any of the data markers and click Add Trendline. Choose Power and also check “Display equation on chart” and “Display R-squared value on chart.” Fig. 7 shows what the graph will look like at this point. c. The titles are explicit, so the legend is unnecessary. Click on it and press the delete button to remove it. Figure 6. Creating a scatter graph. Figure 7. A graph with a fitted curve. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 8. Now let’s overlay the Volume vs. Edge Length curve onto the same graph (optional for 203L/205L): Make a copy of your graph by clicking on the outer white area, clicking ctrl-c (or right click, copy), and pasting the copy somewhere else (ctrl-v). If you wish, delete the trendline as in Fig. 8. a. Right click on the outer white space, choose Select Data and click the Add button. b. You can type in the cell ranges by hand in the dialog box that comes up, but it is easier to click the red, white, and blue button on the right of each space and highlight what you want to go in. Click the red, white, and blue of the bar that has appeared, and you will bounce back to the Add dialog box. Use the Edge Length column for the x’s and Volume for the y’s. c. Right-click on any volume data point and choose Format Data Series. Clicking Secondary Axis will place its scale on the right of the graph as in Fig. 8. d. Dress up your graph with two axis titles (Layout-Labels-Axis Titles), etc. Figure 8. Adding a second curve and y-axis to the graph Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2: INTERPRETING A LINEAR GRAPH Introduction: Many experiments are repeated a number of times with one of the parameters involved varied from run to run. Often the goal is to measure the rate of change of a dependent variable, rather than a particular value. If the dependent variable can be expressed as a linear function of the independent parameter, then the slope and yintercept of an appropriate graph will give the rate of change and a particular value, respectively. An example of such an experiment in PHYS.203L/205L is the first part of Lab 20, in which weights are added to the bottom of a suspended spring (Figure 9). This experiment shows that a spring exerts a force Fs proportional to the distance stretched y = (y-yo), a relationship known as Hooke’s Law: Fs = – k(y – yo) (Eq. 1) where k is called the Hooke’s Law constant. The minus sign shows that the spring opposes any push or pull on it. In Lab 20 Fs is equal to (- Mg) and y is given by the reading on a meter stick. Masses were added to the bottom of the spring in 50-g increments giving weights in newtons of 0.49, 0.98, etc. The weight pan was used as the pointer for reading y and had a mass of 50 g, so yo could not be directly measured. For convenient graphing Equation 1 can be rewritten: -(Mg) = – ky + kyo Or (Mg) = ky – kyo (Eq. 1′) Procedure 1. On your spreadsheet note the tabs at the bottom left and double-click Sheet1. Type in “Basics,” and then click the Sheet2 tab to bring up a fresh worksheet. Change the sheet name to “Linear Fit” and fill in data as in this table. Hooke’s Law Experiment y (m) -Fs = Mg (N) 0.337 0.49 0.388 0.98 0.446 1.47 0.498 1.96 0.550 2.45 2. Highlight the cells with the numbers, and graph (Mg) versus y as in Steps 6 and 7 of the Basics section. Your Trendline this time will be Linear of course. If you are having trouble remembering what’s versus what, “y” looks like “v”, so what comes before the “v” of “versus” goes on the y (vertical) axis. Yes, this graph is confusing: the horizontal (“x”) axis is distance y, and the “y” axis is something else. 3. Click on the Equation/R2 box on the graph and highlight just the slope, that is, only the number that comes before the “x.” Copy it (control-c is a fast way to Figure 9. A spring with a weight stretching it Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com do it) and paste it (control-v) into an empty cell. Do likewise for the intercept (including the minus sign). SAVE YOUR FILE! 5. The next steps use the standard procedure for obtaining information from linear data. Write the general equation for a straight line immediately below a hand-written copy of Equation 1′ then circle matching items: (Mg) = k y + (- k yo) (Eq. 1′) y = m x + b Note the parentheses around the intercept term of Equation 1′ to emphasize that the minus sign is part of it. Equating above and below, you can create two useful new equations: slope m = k (Eq. 2) y-intercept b = -kyo (Eq. 3) 6. Solve Equation 2 for k, that is, rewrite left to right. Then substitute the value for slope m from your graph, and you have an experimental value for the Hooke’s Law constant k. Next solve Equation 3 for yo, substitute the value for intercept b from your graph and the value of k that you just found, and calculate yo. 7. Examine your linear graph for clues to finding the units of the slope and the yintercept. Use these units to find the units of k and yo. 8. Present your values of k and yo with their units neatly at the bottom of your spreadsheet. 9. R2 in Excel, like r in our lab manual and Corr. in the LoggerPro software, is a measure of how well the calculated line matches the data points. 1.00 would indicate a perfect match. State how good a match you think was made in this case? 10. Do the Homework, Further Exercises on Interpreting Linear Graphs, on the following pages. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Eq.1 M m f M a g               , (Eq.2) M slope m g       (Eq.3) M b f        Morgan Extra Pages Homework: Graph Interpretation Exercises EXAMPLE WITH COMPLETE SOLUTION In PHYS.203L and 205L we do Lab 9 Newton’s Second Law on Atwood’s Machine using a photogate sensor (Fig. 1). The Atwood’s apparatus can slow the rate of fall enough to be measured even with primitive timing devices. In our experiment LoggerPro software automatically collects and analyzes the data giving reliable measurements of g, the acceleration of gravity. The equation governing motion for Atwood’s Machine can be written: where a is the acceleration of the masses and string, g is the acceleration of gravity, M is the total mass at both ends of the string, m is the difference between the masses, and f is the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. In this exercise you are given a graph of a vs. m obtained in this experiment with the values of M and the slope and intercept (Fig. 2). The goal is to extract values for acceleration of gravity g and frictional force f from this information. To analyze the graph we write y = mx + b, the general equation for a straight line, directly under Equation 1 and match up the various parameters: Equating above and below, you can create two new equations: and y m x b M m f M a g                Figure 1. The Atwood’s Machine setup (from the LoggerPro handout). Figure 2. Graph of acceleration versus mass difference; data from a Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine M = 0.400 kg a = 24.4 m – 0.018 R2 = 0.998 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060  m (kg) a (m/s2) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 2 2 9.76 / 0.400 24.4 /( ) m s kg m kg s g Mm      To handle Equation 2 it pays to consider what the units of the slope are. A slope is “the rise over the run,“ so its units must be the units of the vertical axis divided by those of the horizontal axis. In this case: Now let’s solve Equation 2 for g and substitute the values of total mass M and of the slope m from the graph: Using 9.80 m/s2 as the Baltimore accepted value for g, we can calculate the percent error: A similar process with Equation 3 leads to a value for f, the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. Note that the units of intercept b are simply whatever the vertical axis units are, m/s2 in this case. Solving Equation 3 for f: EXERCISE 1 The Picket Fence experiment makes use of LoggerPro software to calculate velocities at regular time intervals as the striped plate passes through the photogate (Fig. 3). The theoretical equation is v = vi + at (Eq. 4) where vi = 0 (the fence is dropped from rest) and a = g. a. Write Equation 4 with y = mx + b under it and circle matching factors as in the Example. b. What is the experimental value of the acceleration of gravity? What is its percent error from the accepted value for Baltimore, 9.80 m/s2? c. Does the value of the y-intercept make sense? d. How well did the straight Trendline match the data? 2 / 2 kg s m kg m s   0.4% 100 9.80 9.76 9.80 100 . . . %        Acc Exp Acc Error kg m s mN kg m s f Mb 7.2 10 / 7.2 0.400 ( 0.018 / ) 3 2 2           Figure 3. Graph of speed versus time as calculated by LoggerPro as a picket fence falls freely through a photogate. Picket Fence Drop y = 9.8224x + 0.0007 R2 = 0.9997 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 t (s) v (m/s) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2 This is an electrical example from PHYS.204L/206L, potential difference, V, versus current, I (Fig. 4). The theoretical equation is V = IR (Eq. 5) and is known as “Ohm’s Law.” The unit symbols stand for volts, V, and Amperes, A. The factor R stands for resistance and is measured in units of ohms, symbol  (capital omega). The definition of the ohm is: V (Eq. 6) By coincidence the letter symbols for potential (a quantity ) and volts (its unit) are identical. Thus “voltage” has become the laboratory slang name for potential. a. Rearrange the Ohm’s Law equation to match y = mx + b.. b. What is the experimental resistance? c. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? EXERCISE 3 This graph (Fig. 5) also follows Ohm’s Law, but solved for current I. For this graph the experimenter held potential difference V constant at 15.0V and measured the current for resistances of 100, 50, 40, and 30  Solve Ohm’s Law for I and you will see that 1/R is the logical variable to use on the x axis. For units, someone once jokingly referred to a “reciprocal ohm” as a “mho,” and the name stuck. a. Rearrange Equation 5 solved for I to match y = mx + b. b. What is the experimental potential difference? c. Calculate the percent difference from the 15.0 V that the experimenter set on the power supply (the instrument used for such experiments). d. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? Figure 4. Graph of potential difference versus current; data from a Physics II experiment. The theoretical equation, V = IR, is known as “Ohm’s Law.” Ohm’s Law y = 0.628x – 0.0275 R2 = 0.9933 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Current, I (A) Potential difference, V (V) Figure 5. Another application of Ohm’s Law: a graph of current versus the inverse of resistance, from a different electric circuit experiment. Current versus (1/Resistance) y = 14.727x – 0.2214 R2 = 0.9938 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 R-1 (millimhos) I (milliamperes) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 4 The Atwood’s Machine experiment (see the solved example above) can be done in another way: keep mass difference m the same and vary the total mass M (Fig. 6). a. Rewrite Equation 1 and factor out (1/M). b. Equate the coefficient of (1/M) with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the values for slope, mass difference, and frictional force and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? EXERCISE 5 In the previous two exercises the reciprocal of a variable was used to make the graph come out linear. In this one the trick will be to use the square root of a variable (Fig. 7). In PHYS.203L and 205L Lab 19 The Pendulum the theoretical equation is where the period T is the time per cycle, L is the length of the string, and g is the acceleration of gravity. a. Rewrite Equation 7 with the square root of L factored out and placed at the end. b. Equate the coefficient of √L with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the value for slope and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? 2 (Eq . 7) g T   L Figure 6. Graph of acceleration versus the reciprocal of total mass; data from a another Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine m = 0.020 kg f = 7.2 mN y = 0.1964x – 0.0735 R2 = 0.995 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 1/M (1/kg) a (m/s2) Effect of Pendulum Length on Period y = 2.0523x – 0.0331 R2 = 0.999 0.400 0.800 1.200 1.600 2.000 2.400 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 L1/2 (m1/2) T (s) Figure 7. Graph of period T versus the square root of pendulum length; data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 6 In Exercise 5 another approach would have been to square both sides of Equation 7 and plot T2 versus L. Lab 20 directs us to use that alternative. It involves another case of periodic or harmonic motion with a similar, but more complicated, equation for the period: where T is the period of the bobbing (Fig. 8), M is the suspended mass, ms is the mass of the spring, k is a measure of stiffness called the spring constant, and C is a dimensionless factor showing how much of the spring mass is effectively bobbing. a. Square both sides of Equation 8 and rearrange it to match y = mx + b. b. Write y = mx + b under your rearranged equation and circle matching factors as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating k and the second for finding C from the data of Fig. 9. d. A theoretical analysis has shown that for most springs C = 1/3. Find the percent error from that value. e. Derive the units of the slope and intercept; show that the units of k come out as N/m and that C is dimensionless. 2 (Eq . 8) k T M Cm s    Figure 8. In Lab 20 mass M is suspended from a spring which is set to bobbing up and down, a good approximation to simple harmonic motion (SHM), described by Equation 8. Lab 20: SHM of a Spring Mass of the spring, ms = 25.1 g y = 3.0185x + 0.0197 R2 = 0.9965 0.0000 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 M (kg) T 2 2 Figure 9. Graph of the square of the period T2 versus suspended mass M data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 7 This last exercise deals with an exponential equation, and the trick is to take the logarithm of both sides. In PHYS.204L/206L we do Lab 33 The RC Time Constant with theoretical equation: where V is the potential difference at time t across a circuit element called a capacitor (the  is dropped for simplicity), Vo is V at t = 0 (try it), and  (tau) is a characteristic of the circuit called the time constant. a. Take the natural log of both sides and apply the addition rule for logarithms of a product on the right-hand side. b. Noting that the graph (Fig. 10) plots lnV versus t, arrange your equation in y = mx + b order, write y = mx + b under it, and circle the parts as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating  and the second for finding lnVo and then Vo. d. Note that the units of lnV are the natural log of volts, lnV. As usual derive the units of the slope and interecept and use them to obtain the units of your experimental V and t. V V e (Eq. 9) t o    Figure 10. Graph of a logarithm versus time; data from Lab 33, a Physics II experiment. Discharge of a Capacitor y = -9.17E-03x + 2.00E+00 R2 = 9.98E-01 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

Morgan Extra Pages Graphing with Excel to be carried out in a computer lab, 3rd floor Calloway Hall or elsewhere The Excel spreadsheet consists of vertical columns and horizontal rows; a column and row intersect at a cell. A cell can contain data for use in calculations of all sorts. The Name Box shows the currently selected cell (Fig. 1). In the Excel 2007 and 2010 versions the drop-down menus familiar in most software screens have been replaced by tabs with horizontally-arranged command buttons of various categories (Fig. 2) ___________________________________________________________________ Open Excel, click on the Microsoft circle, upper left, and Save As your surname. xlsx on the desktop. Before leaving the lab e-mail the file to yourself and/or save to a flash drive. Also e-mail it to your instructor. Figure 1. Parts of an Excel spreadsheet. Name Box Figure 2. Tabs. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 1: BASIC OPERATIONS Click Save often as you work. 1. Type the heading “Edge Length” in Cell A1 and double click the crack between the A and B column heading for automatic widening of column A. Similarly, write headings for columns B and C and enter numbers in Cells A2 and A3 as in Fig. 3. Highlight Cells A2 and A3 by dragging the cursor (chunky plus-shape) over the two of them and letting go. 2. Note that there are three types of cursor crosses: chunky for selecting, barbed for moving entries or blocks of entries from cell to cell, and tiny (appearing only at the little square in the lower-right corner of a cell). Obtain a tiny arrow for Cell A3 and perform a plus-drag down Column A until the cells are filled up to 40 (in Cell A8). Note that the two highlighted cells set both the starting value of the fill and the intervals. 3. Click on Cell B2 and enter a formula for face area of a cube as follows: type =, click on Cell A2, type ^2, and press Enter (note the formula bar in Fig. 4). 4. Enter the formula for cube volume in Cell C2 (same procedure, but “=, click on A2, ^3, Enter”). 5. Highlight Cells B2 and C2; plus-drag down to Row 8 (Fig. 5). Do the numbers look correct? Click on some cells in the newly filled area and notice how Excel steps the row designations as it moves down the column (it can do it for horizontal plusdrags along rows also). This is the major programming development that has led to the popularity of spreadsheets. Figure 3. Entries. Figure 4. A formula. Figure 5. Plus-dragging formulas. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 6. Now let’s graph the Face Area versus Edge Length: select Cells A1 through B8, choose the Insert tab, and click the Scatter drop-down menu and select “Scatter with only Markers” (Fig. 6). 7. Move the graph (Excel calls it a “chart”) that appears up alongside your number table and dress it up as follows: a. Note that some Chart Layouts have appeared above. Click Layout 1 and alter each title to read Face Area for the vertical axis, Edge Length for the horizontal and Face Area vs. Edge Length for the Graph Title. b. Activate the Excel Least squares routine, called “fitting a trendline” in the program: right click any of the data markers and click Add Trendline. Choose Power and also check “Display equation on chart” and “Display R-squared value on chart.” Fig. 7 shows what the graph will look like at this point. c. The titles are explicit, so the legend is unnecessary. Click on it and press the delete button to remove it. Figure 6. Creating a scatter graph. Figure 7. A graph with a fitted curve. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 8. Now let’s overlay the Volume vs. Edge Length curve onto the same graph (optional for 203L/205L): Make a copy of your graph by clicking on the outer white area, clicking ctrl-c (or right click, copy), and pasting the copy somewhere else (ctrl-v). If you wish, delete the trendline as in Fig. 8. a. Right click on the outer white space, choose Select Data and click the Add button. b. You can type in the cell ranges by hand in the dialog box that comes up, but it is easier to click the red, white, and blue button on the right of each space and highlight what you want to go in. Click the red, white, and blue of the bar that has appeared, and you will bounce back to the Add dialog box. Use the Edge Length column for the x’s and Volume for the y’s. c. Right-click on any volume data point and choose Format Data Series. Clicking Secondary Axis will place its scale on the right of the graph as in Fig. 8. d. Dress up your graph with two axis titles (Layout-Labels-Axis Titles), etc. Figure 8. Adding a second curve and y-axis to the graph Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2: INTERPRETING A LINEAR GRAPH Introduction: Many experiments are repeated a number of times with one of the parameters involved varied from run to run. Often the goal is to measure the rate of change of a dependent variable, rather than a particular value. If the dependent variable can be expressed as a linear function of the independent parameter, then the slope and yintercept of an appropriate graph will give the rate of change and a particular value, respectively. An example of such an experiment in PHYS.203L/205L is the first part of Lab 20, in which weights are added to the bottom of a suspended spring (Figure 9). This experiment shows that a spring exerts a force Fs proportional to the distance stretched y = (y-yo), a relationship known as Hooke’s Law: Fs = – k(y – yo) (Eq. 1) where k is called the Hooke’s Law constant. The minus sign shows that the spring opposes any push or pull on it. In Lab 20 Fs is equal to (- Mg) and y is given by the reading on a meter stick. Masses were added to the bottom of the spring in 50-g increments giving weights in newtons of 0.49, 0.98, etc. The weight pan was used as the pointer for reading y and had a mass of 50 g, so yo could not be directly measured. For convenient graphing Equation 1 can be rewritten: -(Mg) = – ky + kyo Or (Mg) = ky – kyo (Eq. 1′) Procedure 1. On your spreadsheet note the tabs at the bottom left and double-click Sheet1. Type in “Basics,” and then click the Sheet2 tab to bring up a fresh worksheet. Change the sheet name to “Linear Fit” and fill in data as in this table. Hooke’s Law Experiment y (m) -Fs = Mg (N) 0.337 0.49 0.388 0.98 0.446 1.47 0.498 1.96 0.550 2.45 2. Highlight the cells with the numbers, and graph (Mg) versus y as in Steps 6 and 7 of the Basics section. Your Trendline this time will be Linear of course. If you are having trouble remembering what’s versus what, “y” looks like “v”, so what comes before the “v” of “versus” goes on the y (vertical) axis. Yes, this graph is confusing: the horizontal (“x”) axis is distance y, and the “y” axis is something else. 3. Click on the Equation/R2 box on the graph and highlight just the slope, that is, only the number that comes before the “x.” Copy it (control-c is a fast way to Figure 9. A spring with a weight stretching it Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com do it) and paste it (control-v) into an empty cell. Do likewise for the intercept (including the minus sign). SAVE YOUR FILE! 5. The next steps use the standard procedure for obtaining information from linear data. Write the general equation for a straight line immediately below a hand-written copy of Equation 1′ then circle matching items: (Mg) = k y + (- k yo) (Eq. 1′) y = m x + b Note the parentheses around the intercept term of Equation 1′ to emphasize that the minus sign is part of it. Equating above and below, you can create two useful new equations: slope m = k (Eq. 2) y-intercept b = -kyo (Eq. 3) 6. Solve Equation 2 for k, that is, rewrite left to right. Then substitute the value for slope m from your graph, and you have an experimental value for the Hooke’s Law constant k. Next solve Equation 3 for yo, substitute the value for intercept b from your graph and the value of k that you just found, and calculate yo. 7. Examine your linear graph for clues to finding the units of the slope and the yintercept. Use these units to find the units of k and yo. 8. Present your values of k and yo with their units neatly at the bottom of your spreadsheet. 9. R2 in Excel, like r in our lab manual and Corr. in the LoggerPro software, is a measure of how well the calculated line matches the data points. 1.00 would indicate a perfect match. State how good a match you think was made in this case? 10. Do the Homework, Further Exercises on Interpreting Linear Graphs, on the following pages. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Eq.1 M m f M a g               , (Eq.2) M slope m g       (Eq.3) M b f        Morgan Extra Pages Homework: Graph Interpretation Exercises EXAMPLE WITH COMPLETE SOLUTION In PHYS.203L and 205L we do Lab 9 Newton’s Second Law on Atwood’s Machine using a photogate sensor (Fig. 1). The Atwood’s apparatus can slow the rate of fall enough to be measured even with primitive timing devices. In our experiment LoggerPro software automatically collects and analyzes the data giving reliable measurements of g, the acceleration of gravity. The equation governing motion for Atwood’s Machine can be written: where a is the acceleration of the masses and string, g is the acceleration of gravity, M is the total mass at both ends of the string, m is the difference between the masses, and f is the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. In this exercise you are given a graph of a vs. m obtained in this experiment with the values of M and the slope and intercept (Fig. 2). The goal is to extract values for acceleration of gravity g and frictional force f from this information. To analyze the graph we write y = mx + b, the general equation for a straight line, directly under Equation 1 and match up the various parameters: Equating above and below, you can create two new equations: and y m x b M m f M a g                Figure 1. The Atwood’s Machine setup (from the LoggerPro handout). Figure 2. Graph of acceleration versus mass difference; data from a Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine M = 0.400 kg a = 24.4 m – 0.018 R2 = 0.998 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060  m (kg) a (m/s2) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 2 2 9.76 / 0.400 24.4 /( ) m s kg m kg s g Mm      To handle Equation 2 it pays to consider what the units of the slope are. A slope is “the rise over the run,“ so its units must be the units of the vertical axis divided by those of the horizontal axis. In this case: Now let’s solve Equation 2 for g and substitute the values of total mass M and of the slope m from the graph: Using 9.80 m/s2 as the Baltimore accepted value for g, we can calculate the percent error: A similar process with Equation 3 leads to a value for f, the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. Note that the units of intercept b are simply whatever the vertical axis units are, m/s2 in this case. Solving Equation 3 for f: EXERCISE 1 The Picket Fence experiment makes use of LoggerPro software to calculate velocities at regular time intervals as the striped plate passes through the photogate (Fig. 3). The theoretical equation is v = vi + at (Eq. 4) where vi = 0 (the fence is dropped from rest) and a = g. a. Write Equation 4 with y = mx + b under it and circle matching factors as in the Example. b. What is the experimental value of the acceleration of gravity? What is its percent error from the accepted value for Baltimore, 9.80 m/s2? c. Does the value of the y-intercept make sense? d. How well did the straight Trendline match the data? 2 / 2 kg s m kg m s   0.4% 100 9.80 9.76 9.80 100 . . . %        Acc Exp Acc Error kg m s mN kg m s f Mb 7.2 10 / 7.2 0.400 ( 0.018 / ) 3 2 2           Figure 3. Graph of speed versus time as calculated by LoggerPro as a picket fence falls freely through a photogate. Picket Fence Drop y = 9.8224x + 0.0007 R2 = 0.9997 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 t (s) v (m/s) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2 This is an electrical example from PHYS.204L/206L, potential difference, V, versus current, I (Fig. 4). The theoretical equation is V = IR (Eq. 5) and is known as “Ohm’s Law.” The unit symbols stand for volts, V, and Amperes, A. The factor R stands for resistance and is measured in units of ohms, symbol  (capital omega). The definition of the ohm is: V (Eq. 6) By coincidence the letter symbols for potential (a quantity ) and volts (its unit) are identical. Thus “voltage” has become the laboratory slang name for potential. a. Rearrange the Ohm’s Law equation to match y = mx + b.. b. What is the experimental resistance? c. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? EXERCISE 3 This graph (Fig. 5) also follows Ohm’s Law, but solved for current I. For this graph the experimenter held potential difference V constant at 15.0V and measured the current for resistances of 100, 50, 40, and 30  Solve Ohm’s Law for I and you will see that 1/R is the logical variable to use on the x axis. For units, someone once jokingly referred to a “reciprocal ohm” as a “mho,” and the name stuck. a. Rearrange Equation 5 solved for I to match y = mx + b. b. What is the experimental potential difference? c. Calculate the percent difference from the 15.0 V that the experimenter set on the power supply (the instrument used for such experiments). d. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? Figure 4. Graph of potential difference versus current; data from a Physics II experiment. The theoretical equation, V = IR, is known as “Ohm’s Law.” Ohm’s Law y = 0.628x – 0.0275 R2 = 0.9933 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Current, I (A) Potential difference, V (V) Figure 5. Another application of Ohm’s Law: a graph of current versus the inverse of resistance, from a different electric circuit experiment. Current versus (1/Resistance) y = 14.727x – 0.2214 R2 = 0.9938 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 R-1 (millimhos) I (milliamperes) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 4 The Atwood’s Machine experiment (see the solved example above) can be done in another way: keep mass difference m the same and vary the total mass M (Fig. 6). a. Rewrite Equation 1 and factor out (1/M). b. Equate the coefficient of (1/M) with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the values for slope, mass difference, and frictional force and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? EXERCISE 5 In the previous two exercises the reciprocal of a variable was used to make the graph come out linear. In this one the trick will be to use the square root of a variable (Fig. 7). In PHYS.203L and 205L Lab 19 The Pendulum the theoretical equation is where the period T is the time per cycle, L is the length of the string, and g is the acceleration of gravity. a. Rewrite Equation 7 with the square root of L factored out and placed at the end. b. Equate the coefficient of √L with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the value for slope and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? 2 (Eq . 7) g T   L Figure 6. Graph of acceleration versus the reciprocal of total mass; data from a another Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine m = 0.020 kg f = 7.2 mN y = 0.1964x – 0.0735 R2 = 0.995 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 1/M (1/kg) a (m/s2) Effect of Pendulum Length on Period y = 2.0523x – 0.0331 R2 = 0.999 0.400 0.800 1.200 1.600 2.000 2.400 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 L1/2 (m1/2) T (s) Figure 7. Graph of period T versus the square root of pendulum length; data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 6 In Exercise 5 another approach would have been to square both sides of Equation 7 and plot T2 versus L. Lab 20 directs us to use that alternative. It involves another case of periodic or harmonic motion with a similar, but more complicated, equation for the period: where T is the period of the bobbing (Fig. 8), M is the suspended mass, ms is the mass of the spring, k is a measure of stiffness called the spring constant, and C is a dimensionless factor showing how much of the spring mass is effectively bobbing. a. Square both sides of Equation 8 and rearrange it to match y = mx + b. b. Write y = mx + b under your rearranged equation and circle matching factors as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating k and the second for finding C from the data of Fig. 9. d. A theoretical analysis has shown that for most springs C = 1/3. Find the percent error from that value. e. Derive the units of the slope and intercept; show that the units of k come out as N/m and that C is dimensionless. 2 (Eq . 8) k T M Cm s    Figure 8. In Lab 20 mass M is suspended from a spring which is set to bobbing up and down, a good approximation to simple harmonic motion (SHM), described by Equation 8. Lab 20: SHM of a Spring Mass of the spring, ms = 25.1 g y = 3.0185x + 0.0197 R2 = 0.9965 0.0000 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 M (kg) T 2 2 Figure 9. Graph of the square of the period T2 versus suspended mass M data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 7 This last exercise deals with an exponential equation, and the trick is to take the logarithm of both sides. In PHYS.204L/206L we do Lab 33 The RC Time Constant with theoretical equation: where V is the potential difference at time t across a circuit element called a capacitor (the  is dropped for simplicity), Vo is V at t = 0 (try it), and  (tau) is a characteristic of the circuit called the time constant. a. Take the natural log of both sides and apply the addition rule for logarithms of a product on the right-hand side. b. Noting that the graph (Fig. 10) plots lnV versus t, arrange your equation in y = mx + b order, write y = mx + b under it, and circle the parts as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating  and the second for finding lnVo and then Vo. d. Note that the units of lnV are the natural log of volts, lnV. As usual derive the units of the slope and interecept and use them to obtain the units of your experimental V and t. V V e (Eq. 9) t o    Figure 10. Graph of a logarithm versus time; data from Lab 33, a Physics II experiment. Discharge of a Capacitor y = -9.17E-03x + 2.00E+00 R2 = 9.98E-01 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

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1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

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