Rationale In order to communicate in a business environment, you need to know the language. The questions below are basic concepts that all business professionals should know. Instructions Answer each of the questions below in complete sentences. At the end of the answer include the source. This does not need to be in formal MLA documentation; the URL is sufficient. Remember that plagiarism results in a 0. Do not cut and paste. Write the answers in your own words. Be prepared to discuss the answers in class. What are the differences between the board of directors and the chief executive officer (CEO)? (4 points) List and define the four functions of management. Hint: The answer is in the textbook (8 points) List and define 7 departments that would be found at a mid-size helicopter manufacturing company. (14 points) What are the difference between public relations (PR), advertising, and marketing? (6 points) List and define 3 communication concerns in the aviation industry. (6 points) List the 3 major accounting reports and what they tell about the company. (6 points) What are the differences between stock, bonds, and mutual funds? (6 points) Formatting Memo Format – Use your personal letterhead and address the memo to me. THIS IS FOR A BUSINESS COMMUNICATION CLASS

Rationale In order to communicate in a business environment, you need to know the language. The questions below are basic concepts that all business professionals should know. Instructions Answer each of the questions below in complete sentences. At the end of the answer include the source. This does not need to be in formal MLA documentation; the URL is sufficient. Remember that plagiarism results in a 0. Do not cut and paste. Write the answers in your own words. Be prepared to discuss the answers in class. What are the differences between the board of directors and the chief executive officer (CEO)? (4 points) List and define the four functions of management. Hint: The answer is in the textbook (8 points) List and define 7 departments that would be found at a mid-size helicopter manufacturing company. (14 points) What are the difference between public relations (PR), advertising, and marketing? (6 points) List and define 3 communication concerns in the aviation industry. (6 points) List the 3 major accounting reports and what they tell about the company. (6 points) What are the differences between stock, bonds, and mutual funds? (6 points) Formatting Memo Format – Use your personal letterhead and address the memo to me. THIS IS FOR A BUSINESS COMMUNICATION CLASS

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Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

Assignment 9 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 11, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Problem 11.2 Part A Evaluate the dot product if and . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B Evaluate the dot product if and . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.4  A B = 5 − 6 A i ^ j ^ = −9 − 5 B i ^ j ^ A  B  = -15  A B = −5 + 9 A i ^ j ^ = 5 + 6 B i ^ j ^ A  B  = 29 Part A What is the angle between vectors and if and ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the angle between vectors and if and ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± All Work and No Play Learning Goal: To be able to calculate work done by a constant force directed at different angles relative to displacement If an object undergoes displacement while being acted upon by a force (or several forces), it is said that work is being done on the object. If the object is moving in a straight line and the displacement and the force are known, the work done by the force can be calculated as , where is the work done by force on the object that undergoes displacement directed at angle relative to .  A B A = 2 + 5 ı ^  ^ B = −2 − 4 ı ^  ^  = 175  A B A = −6 + 2 ı ^  ^ B = − − 3 ı ^  ^  = 90 W =  = cos  F  s  F   s  W F  s  F  Note that depending on the value of , the work done can be positive, negative, or zero. In this problem, you will practice calculating work done on an object moving in a straight line. The first series of questions is related to the accompanying figure. Part A What can be said about the sign of the work done by the force ? ANSWER: Correct When , the cosine of is zero, and therefore the work done is zero. Part B cos  F  1 It is positive. It is negative. It is zero. There is not enough information to answer the question.  = 90  What can be said about the work done by force ? ANSWER: Correct When , is positive, and so the work done is positive. Part C The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct When , is negative, and so the work done is negative. Part D The work done by force is ANSWER: F  2 It is positive. It is negative. It is zero. 0 <  < 90 cos  F  3 positive negative zero 90 <  < 180 cos  F  4 Correct Part E The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct positive negative zero F  5 positive negative zero Part F The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct Part G The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct In the next series of questions, you will use the formula to calculate the work done by various forces on an object that moves 160 meters to the right. F  6 positive negative zero F  7 positive negative zero W =  = cos  F  s  F   s  Part H Find the work done by the 18-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Part I Find the work done by the 30-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Part J Find the work done by the 12-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. W W = 2900 J W W = 4200 J W ANSWER: Correct Part K Find the work done by the 15-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Introduction to Potential Energy Learning Goal: Understand that conservative forces can be removed from the work integral by incorporating them into a new form of energy called potential energy that must be added to the kinetic energy to get the total mechanical energy. The first part of this problem contains short-answer questions that review the work-energy theorem. In the second part we introduce the concept of potential energy. But for now, please answer in terms of the work-energy theorem. Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem states , where is the work done by all forces that act on the object, and and are the initial and final kinetic energies, respectively. Part A The work-energy theorem states that a force acting on a particle as it moves over a ______ changes the ______ energy of the particle if the force has a component parallel to the motion. W = -1900 J W W = -1800 J Kf = Ki + Wall Wall Ki Kf Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: Correct It is important that the force have a component acting in the direction of motion. For example, if a ball is attached to a string and whirled in uniform circular motion, the string does apply a force to the ball, but since the string's force is always perpendicular to the motion it does no work and cannot change the kinetic energy of the ball. Part B To calculate the change in energy, you must know the force as a function of _______. The work done by the force causes the energy change. Choose the best answer to fill in the blank above: ANSWER: Correct Part C To illustrate the work-energy concept, consider the case of a stone falling from to under the influence of gravity. Using the work-energy concept, we say that work is done by the gravitational _____, resulting in an increase of the ______ energy of the stone. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: distance / potential distance / kinetic vertical displacement / potential none of the above acceleration work distance potential energy xi xf ANSWER: Correct Potential Energy You should read about potential energy in your text before answering the following questions. Potential energy is a concept that builds on the work-energy theorem, enlarging the concept of energy in the most physically useful way. The key aspect that allows for potential energy is the existence of conservative forces, forces for which the work done on an object does not depend on the path of the object, only the initial and final positions of the object. The gravitational force is conservative; the frictional force is not. The change in potential energy is the negative of the work done by conservative forces. Hence considering the initial and final potential energies is equivalent to calculating the work done by the conservative forces. When potential energy is used, it replaces the work done by the associated conservative force. Then only the work due to nonconservative forces needs to be calculated. In summary, when using the concept of potential energy, only nonconservative forces contribute to the work, which now changes the total energy: , where and are the final and initial potential energies, and is the work due only to nonconservative forces. Now, we will revisit the falling stone example using the concept of potential energy. Part D Rather than ascribing the increased kinetic energy of the stone to the work of gravity, we now (when using potential energy rather than work-energy) say that the increased kinetic energy comes from the ______ of the _______ energy. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: force / kinetic potential energy / potential force / potential potential energy / kinetic Kf + Uf = Ef = Wnc + Ei = Wnc + Ki + Ui Uf Ui Wnc Correct Part E This process happens in such a way that total mechanical energy, equal to the ______ of the kinetic and potential energies, is _______. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.7 Part A How much work is done by the force 2.2 6.6 on a particle that moves through displacement 3.9 Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: work / potential force / kinetic change / potential sum / conserved sum / zero sum / not conserved difference / conserved F  = (− + i ^ ) N j ^ ! = r m i ^ Correct Part B How much work is done by the force 2.2 6.6 on a particle that moves through displacement 3.9 Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.10 A 1.8 book is lying on a 0.80- -high table. You pick it up and place it on a bookshelf 2.27 above the floor. Part A How much work does gravity do on the book? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B W = -8.6 J F  = (− + i ^ ) N j ^ ! = r m? j ^ W = 26 J kg m m Wg = -26 J How much work does your hand do on the book? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.12 The three ropes shown in the bird's-eye view of the figure are used to drag a crate 3.3 across the floor. Part A How much work is done by each of the three forces? Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by commas. ANSWER: WH = 26 J m W1 , W2 , W3 = 1.9,1.2,-2.1 kJ Correct Enhanced EOC: Problem 11.16 A 1.2 particle moving along the x-axis experiences the force shown in the figure. The particle's velocity is 4.6 at . You may want to review ( pages 286 - 287) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: The Definite Integral Part A What is its velocity at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the work–kinetic energy theorem? What is the kinetic energy at ? How is the work done in going from to related to force shown in the graph? Using the work–kinetic energy theorem, what is the kinetic energy at ? What is the velocity at ? ANSWER: kg m/s x = 0m x = 2m x = 0 m x = 0 m x = 2 m x = 2 m x = 2 m Correct Part B What is its velocity at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the work–kinetic energy theorem? What is the kinetic energy at ? How is the work done in going from to related to force shown in the graph? Can the work be negative? Using the work–kinetic energy theorem, what is the kinetic energy at ? What is the velocity at ? ANSWER: Correct Work on a Sliding Block A block of weight sits on a frictionless inclined plane, which makes an angle with respect to the horizontal, as shown. A force of magnitude , applied parallel to the incline, pulls the block up the plane at constant speed. v = 6.2 ms x = 4m x = 0 m x = 0 m x = 4 m x = 4 m x = 4 m v = 4.6 ms w  F Part A The block moves a distance up the incline. The block does not stop after moving this distance but continues to move with constant speed. What is the total work done on the block by all forces? (Include only the work done after the block has started moving, not the work needed to start the block moving from rest.) Express your answer in terms of given quantities. Hint 1. What physical principle to use To find the total work done on the block, use the work-energy theorem: . Hint 2. Find the change in kinetic energy What is the change in the kinetic energy of the block, from the moment it starts moving until it has been pulled a distance ? Remember that the block is pulled at constant speed. Hint 1. Consider kinetic energy If the block's speed does not change, its kinetic energy cannot change. ANSWER: ANSWER: L Wtot Wtot = Kf − Ki L Kf − Ki = 0 Wtot = 0 Correct Part B What is , the work done on the block by the force of gravity as the block moves a distance up the incline? Express the work done by gravity in terms of the weight and any other quantities given in the problem introduction. Hint 1. Force diagram Hint 2. Force of gravity component What is the component of the force of gravity in the direction of the block's displacement (along the inclined plane)? Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Relative direction of the force and the motion Remember that the force of gravity acts down the plane, whereas the block's displacement is directed up the plane. ANSWER: Wg L w w  ANSWER: Correct Part C What is , the work done on the block by the applied force as the block moves a distance up the incline? Express your answer in terms of and other given quantities. Hint 1. How to find the work done by a constant force Remember that the work done on an object by a particular force is the integral of the dot product of the force and the instantaneous displacement of the object, over the path followed by the object. In this case, since the force is constant and the path is a straight segment of length up the inclined plane, the dot product becomes simple multiplication. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is , the work done on the block by the normal force as the block moves a distance up the inclined plane? Express your answer in terms of given quantities. Hint 1. First step in computing the work Fg|| = −wsin() Wg = −wLsin() WF F L F L WF = FL Wnormal L The work done by the normal force is equal to the dot product of the force vector and the block's displacement vector. The normal force and the block's displacement vector are perpendicular. Therefore, what is their dot product? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.20 A particle moving along the -axis has the potential energy , where is in . Part A What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. N  L = 0 Wnormal = 0 y U = 3.2y3 J y m y y = 0 m Fy = 0 N y y = 1 m ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.28 A cable with 25.0 of tension pulls straight up on a 1.08 block that is initially at rest. Part A What is the block's speed after being lifted 2.40 ? Solve this problem using work and energy. Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Fy = -9.6 N y y = 2 m Fy = -38 N N kg m vf = 8.00 ms Problem 11.29 Part A How much work does an elevator motor do to lift a 1500 elevator a height of 110 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How much power must the motor supply to do this in 50 at constant speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.32 How many energy is consumed by a 1.20 hair dryer used for 10.0 and a 11.0 night light left on for 16.0 ? Part A Hair dryer: Express your answer with the appropriate units. kg m Wext = 1.62×106 J s = 3.23×104 P W kW min W hr ANSWER: Correct Part B Night light: Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.42 A 2500 elevator accelerates upward at 1.20 for 10.0 , starting from rest. Part A How much work does gravity do on the elevator? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct W = 7.20×105 J = 6.34×105 W J kg m/s2 m −2.45×105 J Part B How much work does the tension in the elevator cable do on the elevator? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Use the work-kinetic energy theorem to find the kinetic energy of the elevator as it reaches 10.0 . Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the speed of the elevator as it reaches 10.0 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 2.75×105 J m 3.00×104 J m 4.90 ms Problem 11.47 A horizontal spring with spring constant 130 is compressed 17 and used to launch a 2.4 box across a frictionless, horizontal surface. After the box travels some distance, the surface becomes rough. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the box on the surface is 0.15. Part A Use work and energy to find how far the box slides across the rough surface before stopping. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.49 Truck brakes can fail if they get too hot. In some mountainous areas, ramps of loose gravel are constructed to stop runaway trucks that have lost their brakes. The combination of a slight upward slope and a large coefficient of rolling friction as the truck tires sink into the gravel brings the truck safely to a halt. Suppose a gravel ramp slopes upward at 6.0 and the coefficient of rolling friction is 0.45. Part A Use work and energy to find the length of a ramp that will stop a 15,000 truck that enters the ramp at 30 . Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct N/m cm kg l = 53 cm kg m/s l = 83 m Problem 11.51 Use work and energy to find an expression for the speed of the block in the following figure just before it hits the floor. Part A Find an expression for the speed of the block if the coefficient of kinetic friction for the block on the table is . Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , , and free fall acceleration . ANSWER: Part B Find an expression for the speed of the block if the table is frictionless. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and free fall acceleration . ANSWER: μk M m h μk g v = M m h g Problem 11.57 The spring shown in the figure is compressed 60 and used to launch a 100 physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student's coefficient of kinetic friction on the incline is 0.12 . Part A What is the student's speed just after losing contact with the spring? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How far up the incline does the student go? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: v = cm kg 30 v = 17 ms Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 93.6%. You received 112.37 out of a possible total of 120 points. !s = 41 m

Assignment 9 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 11, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Problem 11.2 Part A Evaluate the dot product if and . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B Evaluate the dot product if and . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.4  A B = 5 − 6 A i ^ j ^ = −9 − 5 B i ^ j ^ A  B  = -15  A B = −5 + 9 A i ^ j ^ = 5 + 6 B i ^ j ^ A  B  = 29 Part A What is the angle between vectors and if and ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the angle between vectors and if and ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± All Work and No Play Learning Goal: To be able to calculate work done by a constant force directed at different angles relative to displacement If an object undergoes displacement while being acted upon by a force (or several forces), it is said that work is being done on the object. If the object is moving in a straight line and the displacement and the force are known, the work done by the force can be calculated as , where is the work done by force on the object that undergoes displacement directed at angle relative to .  A B A = 2 + 5 ı ^  ^ B = −2 − 4 ı ^  ^  = 175  A B A = −6 + 2 ı ^  ^ B = − − 3 ı ^  ^  = 90 W =  = cos  F  s  F   s  W F  s  F  Note that depending on the value of , the work done can be positive, negative, or zero. In this problem, you will practice calculating work done on an object moving in a straight line. The first series of questions is related to the accompanying figure. Part A What can be said about the sign of the work done by the force ? ANSWER: Correct When , the cosine of is zero, and therefore the work done is zero. Part B cos  F  1 It is positive. It is negative. It is zero. There is not enough information to answer the question.  = 90  What can be said about the work done by force ? ANSWER: Correct When , is positive, and so the work done is positive. Part C The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct When , is negative, and so the work done is negative. Part D The work done by force is ANSWER: F  2 It is positive. It is negative. It is zero. 0 <  < 90 cos  F  3 positive negative zero 90 <  < 180 cos  F  4 Correct Part E The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct positive negative zero F  5 positive negative zero Part F The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct Part G The work done by force is ANSWER: Correct In the next series of questions, you will use the formula to calculate the work done by various forces on an object that moves 160 meters to the right. F  6 positive negative zero F  7 positive negative zero W =  = cos  F  s  F   s  Part H Find the work done by the 18-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Part I Find the work done by the 30-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Part J Find the work done by the 12-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. W W = 2900 J W W = 4200 J W ANSWER: Correct Part K Find the work done by the 15-newton force. Use two significant figures in your answer. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER: Correct Introduction to Potential Energy Learning Goal: Understand that conservative forces can be removed from the work integral by incorporating them into a new form of energy called potential energy that must be added to the kinetic energy to get the total mechanical energy. The first part of this problem contains short-answer questions that review the work-energy theorem. In the second part we introduce the concept of potential energy. But for now, please answer in terms of the work-energy theorem. Work-Energy Theorem The work-energy theorem states , where is the work done by all forces that act on the object, and and are the initial and final kinetic energies, respectively. Part A The work-energy theorem states that a force acting on a particle as it moves over a ______ changes the ______ energy of the particle if the force has a component parallel to the motion. W = -1900 J W W = -1800 J Kf = Ki + Wall Wall Ki Kf Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: Correct It is important that the force have a component acting in the direction of motion. For example, if a ball is attached to a string and whirled in uniform circular motion, the string does apply a force to the ball, but since the string's force is always perpendicular to the motion it does no work and cannot change the kinetic energy of the ball. Part B To calculate the change in energy, you must know the force as a function of _______. The work done by the force causes the energy change. Choose the best answer to fill in the blank above: ANSWER: Correct Part C To illustrate the work-energy concept, consider the case of a stone falling from to under the influence of gravity. Using the work-energy concept, we say that work is done by the gravitational _____, resulting in an increase of the ______ energy of the stone. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: distance / potential distance / kinetic vertical displacement / potential none of the above acceleration work distance potential energy xi xf ANSWER: Correct Potential Energy You should read about potential energy in your text before answering the following questions. Potential energy is a concept that builds on the work-energy theorem, enlarging the concept of energy in the most physically useful way. The key aspect that allows for potential energy is the existence of conservative forces, forces for which the work done on an object does not depend on the path of the object, only the initial and final positions of the object. The gravitational force is conservative; the frictional force is not. The change in potential energy is the negative of the work done by conservative forces. Hence considering the initial and final potential energies is equivalent to calculating the work done by the conservative forces. When potential energy is used, it replaces the work done by the associated conservative force. Then only the work due to nonconservative forces needs to be calculated. In summary, when using the concept of potential energy, only nonconservative forces contribute to the work, which now changes the total energy: , where and are the final and initial potential energies, and is the work due only to nonconservative forces. Now, we will revisit the falling stone example using the concept of potential energy. Part D Rather than ascribing the increased kinetic energy of the stone to the work of gravity, we now (when using potential energy rather than work-energy) say that the increased kinetic energy comes from the ______ of the _______ energy. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: force / kinetic potential energy / potential force / potential potential energy / kinetic Kf + Uf = Ef = Wnc + Ei = Wnc + Ki + Ui Uf Ui Wnc Correct Part E This process happens in such a way that total mechanical energy, equal to the ______ of the kinetic and potential energies, is _______. Choose the best answer to fill in the blanks above: ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.7 Part A How much work is done by the force 2.2 6.6 on a particle that moves through displacement 3.9 Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: work / potential force / kinetic change / potential sum / conserved sum / zero sum / not conserved difference / conserved F  = (− + i ^ ) N j ^ ! = r m i ^ Correct Part B How much work is done by the force 2.2 6.6 on a particle that moves through displacement 3.9 Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.10 A 1.8 book is lying on a 0.80- -high table. You pick it up and place it on a bookshelf 2.27 above the floor. Part A How much work does gravity do on the book? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B W = -8.6 J F  = (− + i ^ ) N j ^ ! = r m? j ^ W = 26 J kg m m Wg = -26 J How much work does your hand do on the book? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.12 The three ropes shown in the bird's-eye view of the figure are used to drag a crate 3.3 across the floor. Part A How much work is done by each of the three forces? Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by commas. ANSWER: WH = 26 J m W1 , W2 , W3 = 1.9,1.2,-2.1 kJ Correct Enhanced EOC: Problem 11.16 A 1.2 particle moving along the x-axis experiences the force shown in the figure. The particle's velocity is 4.6 at . You may want to review ( pages 286 - 287) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: The Definite Integral Part A What is its velocity at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the work–kinetic energy theorem? What is the kinetic energy at ? How is the work done in going from to related to force shown in the graph? Using the work–kinetic energy theorem, what is the kinetic energy at ? What is the velocity at ? ANSWER: kg m/s x = 0m x = 2m x = 0 m x = 0 m x = 2 m x = 2 m x = 2 m Correct Part B What is its velocity at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the work–kinetic energy theorem? What is the kinetic energy at ? How is the work done in going from to related to force shown in the graph? Can the work be negative? Using the work–kinetic energy theorem, what is the kinetic energy at ? What is the velocity at ? ANSWER: Correct Work on a Sliding Block A block of weight sits on a frictionless inclined plane, which makes an angle with respect to the horizontal, as shown. A force of magnitude , applied parallel to the incline, pulls the block up the plane at constant speed. v = 6.2 ms x = 4m x = 0 m x = 0 m x = 4 m x = 4 m x = 4 m v = 4.6 ms w  F Part A The block moves a distance up the incline. The block does not stop after moving this distance but continues to move with constant speed. What is the total work done on the block by all forces? (Include only the work done after the block has started moving, not the work needed to start the block moving from rest.) Express your answer in terms of given quantities. Hint 1. What physical principle to use To find the total work done on the block, use the work-energy theorem: . Hint 2. Find the change in kinetic energy What is the change in the kinetic energy of the block, from the moment it starts moving until it has been pulled a distance ? Remember that the block is pulled at constant speed. Hint 1. Consider kinetic energy If the block's speed does not change, its kinetic energy cannot change. ANSWER: ANSWER: L Wtot Wtot = Kf − Ki L Kf − Ki = 0 Wtot = 0 Correct Part B What is , the work done on the block by the force of gravity as the block moves a distance up the incline? Express the work done by gravity in terms of the weight and any other quantities given in the problem introduction. Hint 1. Force diagram Hint 2. Force of gravity component What is the component of the force of gravity in the direction of the block's displacement (along the inclined plane)? Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Relative direction of the force and the motion Remember that the force of gravity acts down the plane, whereas the block's displacement is directed up the plane. ANSWER: Wg L w w  ANSWER: Correct Part C What is , the work done on the block by the applied force as the block moves a distance up the incline? Express your answer in terms of and other given quantities. Hint 1. How to find the work done by a constant force Remember that the work done on an object by a particular force is the integral of the dot product of the force and the instantaneous displacement of the object, over the path followed by the object. In this case, since the force is constant and the path is a straight segment of length up the inclined plane, the dot product becomes simple multiplication. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is , the work done on the block by the normal force as the block moves a distance up the inclined plane? Express your answer in terms of given quantities. Hint 1. First step in computing the work Fg|| = −wsin() Wg = −wLsin() WF F L F L WF = FL Wnormal L The work done by the normal force is equal to the dot product of the force vector and the block's displacement vector. The normal force and the block's displacement vector are perpendicular. Therefore, what is their dot product? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.20 A particle moving along the -axis has the potential energy , where is in . Part A What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. N  L = 0 Wnormal = 0 y U = 3.2y3 J y m y y = 0 m Fy = 0 N y y = 1 m ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the -component of the force on the particle at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.28 A cable with 25.0 of tension pulls straight up on a 1.08 block that is initially at rest. Part A What is the block's speed after being lifted 2.40 ? Solve this problem using work and energy. Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Fy = -9.6 N y y = 2 m Fy = -38 N N kg m vf = 8.00 ms Problem 11.29 Part A How much work does an elevator motor do to lift a 1500 elevator a height of 110 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How much power must the motor supply to do this in 50 at constant speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.32 How many energy is consumed by a 1.20 hair dryer used for 10.0 and a 11.0 night light left on for 16.0 ? Part A Hair dryer: Express your answer with the appropriate units. kg m Wext = 1.62×106 J s = 3.23×104 P W kW min W hr ANSWER: Correct Part B Night light: Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.42 A 2500 elevator accelerates upward at 1.20 for 10.0 , starting from rest. Part A How much work does gravity do on the elevator? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct W = 7.20×105 J = 6.34×105 W J kg m/s2 m −2.45×105 J Part B How much work does the tension in the elevator cable do on the elevator? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Use the work-kinetic energy theorem to find the kinetic energy of the elevator as it reaches 10.0 . Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the speed of the elevator as it reaches 10.0 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 2.75×105 J m 3.00×104 J m 4.90 ms Problem 11.47 A horizontal spring with spring constant 130 is compressed 17 and used to launch a 2.4 box across a frictionless, horizontal surface. After the box travels some distance, the surface becomes rough. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the box on the surface is 0.15. Part A Use work and energy to find how far the box slides across the rough surface before stopping. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 11.49 Truck brakes can fail if they get too hot. In some mountainous areas, ramps of loose gravel are constructed to stop runaway trucks that have lost their brakes. The combination of a slight upward slope and a large coefficient of rolling friction as the truck tires sink into the gravel brings the truck safely to a halt. Suppose a gravel ramp slopes upward at 6.0 and the coefficient of rolling friction is 0.45. Part A Use work and energy to find the length of a ramp that will stop a 15,000 truck that enters the ramp at 30 . Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct N/m cm kg l = 53 cm kg m/s l = 83 m Problem 11.51 Use work and energy to find an expression for the speed of the block in the following figure just before it hits the floor. Part A Find an expression for the speed of the block if the coefficient of kinetic friction for the block on the table is . Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , , and free fall acceleration . ANSWER: Part B Find an expression for the speed of the block if the table is frictionless. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and free fall acceleration . ANSWER: μk M m h μk g v = M m h g Problem 11.57 The spring shown in the figure is compressed 60 and used to launch a 100 physics student. The track is frictionless until it starts up the incline. The student's coefficient of kinetic friction on the incline is 0.12 . Part A What is the student's speed just after losing contact with the spring? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How far up the incline does the student go? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: v = cm kg 30 v = 17 ms Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 93.6%. You received 112.37 out of a possible total of 120 points. !s = 41 m

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Chapter 07 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy BioFlix Quiz: The Carbon Cycle Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. Part A An organism gets carbon by using carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make sugar molecules. This organism is a Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct During photosynthesis, producers use carbon dioxide to make sugar molecules. Part B Which organisms play a role in returning carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: higher-level consumer. producer. primary consumer. decomposer. None of the above Consumers and decomposers, but not producers. Producers only. Decomposers only. Consumers only. Producers, consumers, and decomposers. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Producers, consumers, and decomposers all return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part C Every carbon atom in the organic molecules that make up your body MUST recently have been part of Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct You are a consumer, and all your carbon comes ultimately from plants and other producers. Part D Imagine following a single carbon atom through the carbon cycle. Which of the following is a possible path for the carbon atom to take? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct Carbon moves from the atmosphere into a producer (such as a plant), up the food chain, and then back to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part E Which process or processes return carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct Cellular respiration results in the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. a higher-level consumer. a primary consumer. a decomposer. a producer. a sugar molecule made in one of your chloroplasts. The atmosphere; a plant; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a plant; an herbivore; another plant; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere, a plant, a herbivore, a decomposer, then back to the atmosphere The atmosphere; a decomposer; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a decomposer; then back to the atmosphere. Cellular respiration only Photosynthesis only Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Cellular respiration and the breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Activity: The Nitrogen Cycle Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Nitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium to nitrites. Part B _____ removes nitrogen from the atmosphere. ANSWER: Correct Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen gas to a form that can be used by plants (and other organisms). Part C Assimilation is indicated by the letter(s) _____. nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrogen gas … nitrates ammonium … nitrites nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas Denitrification Nitrification Mineralization Nitrogen fixation Assimilation Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM ANSWER: Correct Assimilation is the uptake of nutrients into an organism. Part D Nitrogen-fixing bacteria is(are) indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: Correct Both of these pointers are indicating nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen to a form that plants can use. Part E Nitrification is indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: C B A D and E C and D B and C A and B D and E C and D A Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Nitrification is the conversion of organic nitrogen-containing compounds to nitrites and nitrates. Part F Denitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Part G Which one of these is a nitrate? ANSWER: Correct NO3 – is a nitrate. Part H Which one of these is a nitrite? ANSWER: Correct This is a nitrite. GeoScience: Earth’s Water and the Hydrologic Cycle A B B and C D and E B and E nitrogen gas … nitrites nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas nitrogen gas … nitrates NO2 – NH4 – NH2 SH NO3 – PO4 – NH2 NH4 – NO2 – NO3 – Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM When you have finished, answer the questions. Part A The largest percentage of fresh water today is located in: ANSWER: Correct Ice sheets and glaciers are the greatest single repository of fresh water: they contain 77.3% of all Earth’s fresh water and 99.357% of all Earth’s surface fresh water. Part B Earth’s oceans hold: ANSWER: Correct The oceans contain 97.22% of all water, comprising about 1.321 billion cubic kilometers of salt water. This leaves only 2.78% of all of Earth’s water as fresh water (non-oceanic). Part C Which of the following is true of the hydrologic cycle? ANSWER: Correct About 20% of the moisture evaporated from the ocean combines with 2% of land-derived moisture to produce 22% of all precipitation that falls over land. Clearly, the bulk of continental precipitation comes from the oceanic portion of the cycle. Concept Review: Eutrophication Can you sequence the steps in the eutrophication process that occurs in a body of water? Part A Drag each statement to the appropriate location in the flowchart of the eutrophication process. ANSWER: soil. ice sheets and glaciers. the rivers and lakes of the world. groundwater resources. about the same amount of water as all groundwater sources combined. most of the fresh water on Earth. the bulk of all of the water found on Earth. about the same amount of water as all Earth’s rivers and lakes combined. Atmospheric water and surface water do not mix. Most evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents. The bulk of the precipitation occurs over land. Most of the water that falls on the continents is derived from the oceans. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Concept Review: Biogeochemical Cycles Can you sort the items by which biogeochemical cycle they apply to? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 62.3%. You received 12.45 out of a possible total of 20 points. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 07 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy BioFlix Quiz: The Carbon Cycle Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. Part A An organism gets carbon by using carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make sugar molecules. This organism is a Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct During photosynthesis, producers use carbon dioxide to make sugar molecules. Part B Which organisms play a role in returning carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: higher-level consumer. producer. primary consumer. decomposer. None of the above Consumers and decomposers, but not producers. Producers only. Decomposers only. Consumers only. Producers, consumers, and decomposers. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Producers, consumers, and decomposers all return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part C Every carbon atom in the organic molecules that make up your body MUST recently have been part of Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct You are a consumer, and all your carbon comes ultimately from plants and other producers. Part D Imagine following a single carbon atom through the carbon cycle. Which of the following is a possible path for the carbon atom to take? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct Carbon moves from the atmosphere into a producer (such as a plant), up the food chain, and then back to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part E Which process or processes return carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct Cellular respiration results in the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. a higher-level consumer. a primary consumer. a decomposer. a producer. a sugar molecule made in one of your chloroplasts. The atmosphere; a plant; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a plant; an herbivore; another plant; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere, a plant, a herbivore, a decomposer, then back to the atmosphere The atmosphere; a decomposer; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a decomposer; then back to the atmosphere. Cellular respiration only Photosynthesis only Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Cellular respiration and the breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Activity: The Nitrogen Cycle Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Nitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium to nitrites. Part B _____ removes nitrogen from the atmosphere. ANSWER: Correct Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen gas to a form that can be used by plants (and other organisms). Part C Assimilation is indicated by the letter(s) _____. nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrogen gas … nitrates ammonium … nitrites nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas Denitrification Nitrification Mineralization Nitrogen fixation Assimilation Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM ANSWER: Correct Assimilation is the uptake of nutrients into an organism. Part D Nitrogen-fixing bacteria is(are) indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: Correct Both of these pointers are indicating nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen to a form that plants can use. Part E Nitrification is indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: C B A D and E C and D B and C A and B D and E C and D A Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Nitrification is the conversion of organic nitrogen-containing compounds to nitrites and nitrates. Part F Denitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Part G Which one of these is a nitrate? ANSWER: Correct NO3 – is a nitrate. Part H Which one of these is a nitrite? ANSWER: Correct This is a nitrite. GeoScience: Earth’s Water and the Hydrologic Cycle A B B and C D and E B and E nitrogen gas … nitrites nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas nitrogen gas … nitrates NO2 – NH4 – NH2 SH NO3 – PO4 – NH2 NH4 – NO2 – NO3 – Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM When you have finished, answer the questions. Part A The largest percentage of fresh water today is located in: ANSWER: Correct Ice sheets and glaciers are the greatest single repository of fresh water: they contain 77.3% of all Earth’s fresh water and 99.357% of all Earth’s surface fresh water. Part B Earth’s oceans hold: ANSWER: Correct The oceans contain 97.22% of all water, comprising about 1.321 billion cubic kilometers of salt water. This leaves only 2.78% of all of Earth’s water as fresh water (non-oceanic). Part C Which of the following is true of the hydrologic cycle? ANSWER: Correct About 20% of the moisture evaporated from the ocean combines with 2% of land-derived moisture to produce 22% of all precipitation that falls over land. Clearly, the bulk of continental precipitation comes from the oceanic portion of the cycle. Concept Review: Eutrophication Can you sequence the steps in the eutrophication process that occurs in a body of water? Part A Drag each statement to the appropriate location in the flowchart of the eutrophication process. ANSWER: soil. ice sheets and glaciers. the rivers and lakes of the world. groundwater resources. about the same amount of water as all groundwater sources combined. most of the fresh water on Earth. the bulk of all of the water found on Earth. about the same amount of water as all Earth’s rivers and lakes combined. Atmospheric water and surface water do not mix. Most evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents. The bulk of the precipitation occurs over land. Most of the water that falls on the continents is derived from the oceans. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Concept Review: Biogeochemical Cycles Can you sort the items by which biogeochemical cycle they apply to? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 62.3%. You received 12.45 out of a possible total of 20 points. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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ENGR216: Mechanics and Vibrations Tutorial sheet 1 Michaelmas Term AY 2015/2016 Problems will be solved in class in week 5 PROBLEM 1 A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity E1 has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of cross-sectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. A force P is applied on a rigid plate attached to both tube and rod, as shown in the sketch below. Determine: a) the horizontal displacement of the rigid plate; b) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=E2; c) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=2E2; HINT: deformation of tube and rod is constrained to be the same. PROBLEM 2 A steel beam has a rectangular cross section of height lx=20 mm and width ly=30 mm, and length lz=1 m (lengths lx, ly and lz are measured respectively along x, y and z axes of a Cartesian system). The material of the beam has Young modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson ratio ν=0.29, and maximum allowable normal stress of 175 MPa. The beam is subject to a compressive centric axial load Pz of 80 KN applied at its ends (load acts along z axis). a) State whether the area of the cross section of the beam will increase or decrease under the effect of the applied centric axial load and explain why. b) Determine the variation of the section height lx in mm, indicating if such variation is a contraction or an elongation. c) Determine the maximum axial load (Pz)max applicable to the beam and the maximum shear stress in these conditions. d) In the loading condition (c), state whether the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis leading to a zero variation of the section height lx is compressive or tensile and justify your answer. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis resulting in zero variation of the section height lx. f) After application of the uniformly distributed normal load, determine the bulk modulus and the beam dilatation indicating its sign. PROBLEM 3 A beam has a constant circular cross section of radius 20 mm, and is subject to a tensile axial load of 4 KN. a) Determine the magnitude of the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at the centre of the section. b) In the loading condition (a), state whether a neutral axis exists or not, and explain why. c) State whether the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at 10 mm from the centre of the section is compressive or tensile and explain why. d) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the cross section. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the distance of the neutral axis from the centre of the cross section. PROBLEM 4 Consider a simply supported beam subject to the distributed load sketched below. a) Determine the equations of shear force V(x) and bending-moment M(x); b) plot V(x) and M(x) along the beam axis; c) assuming the cross section is square and has length a , determine the position along the beam where the maximum normal stress occurs and the value of such maximum normal stress; d) determine the position along the beam where the maximum shear stress occurs and the value of such maximum shear stress.

ENGR216: Mechanics and Vibrations Tutorial sheet 1 Michaelmas Term AY 2015/2016 Problems will be solved in class in week 5 PROBLEM 1 A rod of length L, cross-sectional area A1, and modulus of elasticity E1 has been placed inside a tube of the same length L, but of cross-sectional area A2 and modulus of elasticity E2. A force P is applied on a rigid plate attached to both tube and rod, as shown in the sketch below. Determine: a) the horizontal displacement of the rigid plate; b) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=E2; c) the fixed support reactions acting on the rod and tube when E1=2E2; HINT: deformation of tube and rod is constrained to be the same. PROBLEM 2 A steel beam has a rectangular cross section of height lx=20 mm and width ly=30 mm, and length lz=1 m (lengths lx, ly and lz are measured respectively along x, y and z axes of a Cartesian system). The material of the beam has Young modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson ratio ν=0.29, and maximum allowable normal stress of 175 MPa. The beam is subject to a compressive centric axial load Pz of 80 KN applied at its ends (load acts along z axis). a) State whether the area of the cross section of the beam will increase or decrease under the effect of the applied centric axial load and explain why. b) Determine the variation of the section height lx in mm, indicating if such variation is a contraction or an elongation. c) Determine the maximum axial load (Pz)max applicable to the beam and the maximum shear stress in these conditions. d) In the loading condition (c), state whether the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis leading to a zero variation of the section height lx is compressive or tensile and justify your answer. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the uniformly distributed normal load to be applied on the beam faces normal to the x axis resulting in zero variation of the section height lx. f) After application of the uniformly distributed normal load, determine the bulk modulus and the beam dilatation indicating its sign. PROBLEM 3 A beam has a constant circular cross section of radius 20 mm, and is subject to a tensile axial load of 4 KN. a) Determine the magnitude of the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at the centre of the section. b) In the loading condition (a), state whether a neutral axis exists or not, and explain why. c) State whether the maximum stress in the cross section when the axial load is applied at 10 mm from the centre of the section is compressive or tensile and explain why. d) In the loading condition (c), determine the magnitude of the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the cross section. e) In the loading condition (c), determine the distance of the neutral axis from the centre of the cross section. PROBLEM 4 Consider a simply supported beam subject to the distributed load sketched below. a) Determine the equations of shear force V(x) and bending-moment M(x); b) plot V(x) and M(x) along the beam axis; c) assuming the cross section is square and has length a , determine the position along the beam where the maximum normal stress occurs and the value of such maximum normal stress; d) determine the position along the beam where the maximum shear stress occurs and the value of such maximum shear stress.

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Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

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Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

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