1. Develop a thought experiment that attempts to uncover hidden assumptions about human freedom. 2. Find a paragraph from a book, magazine, ect. First, tell whether there are claims in the paragraph. If there are, identify the types of claims (descriptive, normative, a priori, a posteriori) in the paragraph

1. Develop a thought experiment that attempts to uncover hidden assumptions about human freedom. 2. Find a paragraph from a book, magazine, ect. First, tell whether there are claims in the paragraph. If there are, identify the types of claims (descriptive, normative, a priori, a posteriori) in the paragraph

Let us think of a thought experiment that wants to … Read More...
Why is it important for the ICC to make the distinction between International Armed Conflicts and Non-International Armed Conflicts (NIAC’s)? How does precedent set by the ICJ in the Nicaragua v. U.S. inform precedent in the Tadic Appeals Case with respect to the nature of armed conflict? Third Geneva Convention of 1949 State Responsibility Kaufman v. Belgium Dombo Beheer B.V. vs. Netherlands Articles 20 (1) and (21) 4 European Commission on Human Rights International Convention on Civil and Political Rights American Convention on Human Rights Military Prosecutor v. Omar Mahmud Kassem et al. International Court of Justice Military Prosecutor vs. Omar Mahmud Kassem 1971 “Effective Control” “Demonstrable Link” “Grave Breaches” “Agency Test”

Why is it important for the ICC to make the distinction between International Armed Conflicts and Non-International Armed Conflicts (NIAC’s)? How does precedent set by the ICJ in the Nicaragua v. U.S. inform precedent in the Tadic Appeals Case with respect to the nature of armed conflict? Third Geneva Convention of 1949 State Responsibility Kaufman v. Belgium Dombo Beheer B.V. vs. Netherlands Articles 20 (1) and (21) 4 European Commission on Human Rights International Convention on Civil and Political Rights American Convention on Human Rights Military Prosecutor v. Omar Mahmud Kassem et al. International Court of Justice Military Prosecutor vs. Omar Mahmud Kassem 1971 “Effective Control” “Demonstrable Link” “Grave Breaches” “Agency Test”

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1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

1. Frieda Birnbaum, at age 60, became the oldest U.S. women to give birth to twins after traveling to __________ for a special in-vitro fertilization treatment for older women. A.California. B.France. C.South Africa. D.New York. 2. A life course perspective: A.examines the entire course of human life from childhood to old age. B.examines the first twelve years of human life. C.examines life from age 18 to old age. D.focuses on the later years in life. 3. __________ is the specific study of aging and the elderly. A.Seniorology. B.Scientology. C.Genealogy. D.Gerontology. 4. Population aging in the U.S. is also referred to as: A.Angelology. B.“the graying of America.” C.“the whiting of America.” D.Agrology. 5. Median age refers to: A.the average age of a population. B.the most frequently occurring age in a population. C.the age where half the population is older and the other half is younger. D.the age calculated one half between the average and mode. 6. Place the appropriate median age in the U.S. with the appropriate year listed as follows: __________- 1820; __________ – 1900; __________ – 2000; __________ – 2030. A.17 years; 35 years; 23 years; 42 years. B.23 years; 17 years; 35 years; 42 years. C.35 years; 17 years; 23 years; 42 years. D.17 years; 23 years; 35 years; 42 years. 7. __________ refers to the study of the changes and trends in the population. A.Agrology. B.Demography. C.Gerontology. D.Urbanization. 8. All but which of the following have been identified as reasons why our population is aging? A.increase in birth rates. B.improvements in medical and technological advances. C.influence of birth cohorts. D.all the above are correct. 9. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the life expectancy for a child born in 2010 was: A.59.8 years. B.68.2 years. C.78.7 years. D.85.5 years. 10. It is estimated that approximately __________ people become eligible for Social Security every __________. A.1,000; day. B.1,000; month. C.10,000; month. D.10,000; day. 11. The persistent social ideals of women as homemakers and men as breadmakers is/are problematic from which of the following sociological perspectives? A.Conflict. B.Functional. C.Feminist. D.both a and c are correct. 12. From the Interactionist perspective, we create and maintain our definition of a family through: A.endogamy. B.egalitarianism. C.power struggles. D.social interaction. 13. According to the author, political and religious forces uphold and encourage a(n) __________ family form as the standard for what all families should be like. A.blended. B.egalitarian. C.matriarchal. D.patriarchal. 14. No-fault divorces were introduced in the: A.1960s. B.1970s. C.1980s. D.1990s. 15. It was noted that divorce rates have increased for all but which one of the following reasons? A.the transition from nuclear to extended family forms. B.the stigma attached to divorce has decreased. C.increasing geographic and occupational mobility of families. D.increasing economic independence of women. 16. The divorce rate in the late 1970s and early 1980s was approximately __________ per 1,000 individuals. A.2.3. B.6.7. C.1.4. D.5.3. 17. The U.S. marital rate _____ over the last ten years most recently recorded at _____ per 1,000 individuals for 2009. A.declined; 6.8. B.declined; 4.3. C.increased; 2.4. D.increased; 9.7. 18. In 2010, __________ children were more likely than children from other ethnic/racial groups to live in their grandparent’s household. A.Hispanic. B.black. C.white. D. Asian. 19. According to research, getting married at a young age __________ chances of divorce, while living with high levels of poverty __________ chances of divorce. A.increases; decreases. B.decreases; decreases. C.increases; increases. D.decreases; increases. 20. In the United States, nearly ___ of surveyed women reported that they had been raped or phyiscally assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. A.15%. B.25%. C.35%. D.40%.

1. Frieda Birnbaum, at age 60, became the oldest U.S. women to give birth to twins after traveling to __________ for a special in-vitro fertilization treatment for older women. A.California. B.France. C.South Africa. D.New York. 2. A life course perspective: A.examines the entire course of human life from childhood to old age. B.examines the first twelve years of human life. C.examines life from age 18 to old age. D.focuses on the later years in life. 3. __________ is the specific study of aging and the elderly. A.Seniorology. B.Scientology. C.Genealogy. D.Gerontology. 4. Population aging in the U.S. is also referred to as: A.Angelology. B.“the graying of America.” C.“the whiting of America.” D.Agrology. 5. Median age refers to: A.the average age of a population. B.the most frequently occurring age in a population. C.the age where half the population is older and the other half is younger. D.the age calculated one half between the average and mode. 6. Place the appropriate median age in the U.S. with the appropriate year listed as follows: __________- 1820; __________ – 1900; __________ – 2000; __________ – 2030. A.17 years; 35 years; 23 years; 42 years. B.23 years; 17 years; 35 years; 42 years. C.35 years; 17 years; 23 years; 42 years. D.17 years; 23 years; 35 years; 42 years. 7. __________ refers to the study of the changes and trends in the population. A.Agrology. B.Demography. C.Gerontology. D.Urbanization. 8. All but which of the following have been identified as reasons why our population is aging? A.increase in birth rates. B.improvements in medical and technological advances. C.influence of birth cohorts. D.all the above are correct. 9. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the life expectancy for a child born in 2010 was: A.59.8 years. B.68.2 years. C.78.7 years. D.85.5 years. 10. It is estimated that approximately __________ people become eligible for Social Security every __________. A.1,000; day. B.1,000; month. C.10,000; month. D.10,000; day. 11. The persistent social ideals of women as homemakers and men as breadmakers is/are problematic from which of the following sociological perspectives? A.Conflict. B.Functional. C.Feminist. D.both a and c are correct. 12. From the Interactionist perspective, we create and maintain our definition of a family through: A.endogamy. B.egalitarianism. C.power struggles. D.social interaction. 13. According to the author, political and religious forces uphold and encourage a(n) __________ family form as the standard for what all families should be like. A.blended. B.egalitarian. C.matriarchal. D.patriarchal. 14. No-fault divorces were introduced in the: A.1960s. B.1970s. C.1980s. D.1990s. 15. It was noted that divorce rates have increased for all but which one of the following reasons? A.the transition from nuclear to extended family forms. B.the stigma attached to divorce has decreased. C.increasing geographic and occupational mobility of families. D.increasing economic independence of women. 16. The divorce rate in the late 1970s and early 1980s was approximately __________ per 1,000 individuals. A.2.3. B.6.7. C.1.4. D.5.3. 17. The U.S. marital rate _____ over the last ten years most recently recorded at _____ per 1,000 individuals for 2009. A.declined; 6.8. B.declined; 4.3. C.increased; 2.4. D.increased; 9.7. 18. In 2010, __________ children were more likely than children from other ethnic/racial groups to live in their grandparent’s household. A.Hispanic. B.black. C.white. D. Asian. 19. According to research, getting married at a young age __________ chances of divorce, while living with high levels of poverty __________ chances of divorce. A.increases; decreases. B.decreases; decreases. C.increases; increases. D.decreases; increases. 20. In the United States, nearly ___ of surveyed women reported that they had been raped or phyiscally assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. A.15%. B.25%. C.35%. D.40%.

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3. Study Questions for excerpt from Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature (T I.4.vi) In the last sentence of the third paragraph, Hume says that “there is no such principle in me”. What is there “no such principle” of?

3. Study Questions for excerpt from Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature (T I.4.vi) In the last sentence of the third paragraph, Hume says that “there is no such principle in me”. What is there “no such principle” of?

If anyone, upon grave and tolerant manifestation, thinks he has … Read More...
Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.

Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
Why is it important to study and understand Nature, according to Epicurus and Lucretius?

Why is it important to study and understand Nature, according to Epicurus and Lucretius?

Based on Lucretius what is the initial principle associated with … Read More...
HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.