Q12 A ambulance, with sirens frequency of 2000 hz was parked by the palm Bay road. You were driving fast detected a frequency different of 300 hz as you approached and left the ambulance . he fast were you driving ? assume the speed of sound is 343 m/sec. (Im/sec=2.2mph)

Q12 A ambulance, with sirens frequency of 2000 hz was parked by the palm Bay road. You were driving fast detected a frequency different of 300 hz as you approached and left the ambulance . he fast were you driving ? assume the speed of sound is 343 m/sec. (Im/sec=2.2mph)

  ANS  
suppose that you wish to construct a simple AC generator with an output of 12.0576 v maximum when rotated at 60 Hz . A magnetic fields of 0.050 T is available . If the area of the rotating coil is 100 cm, How many turns are needed? A) 16 B)32 C)64 D) 128 E)160.

suppose that you wish to construct a simple AC generator with an output of 12.0576 v maximum when rotated at 60 Hz . A magnetic fields of 0.050 T is available . If the area of the rotating coil is 100 cm, How many turns are needed? A) 16 B)32 C)64 D) 128 E)160.

Lectorial 5: The Gravitron The Gravitron (shown in figure 1 [1]) is a carnival ride designed to simulate the experience of zero gravity. The ride consists of a 15 metre diameter circular chamber which spins around a centre shaft. The spinning motion applies a force to the occupants of the ride pinning them up against their seat. Figure 1: The Gravitron carnival ride. For this lectorial task we want to study the forces being applied to the ride’s occupants and determine the g-forces they would be experiencing. According to physics, the rules for uniform circular motion are: where: 1. If the ride has a maximum rotational speed of 24 revolutions per minute (rpm), determine the force being applied to the ride’s occupants. What gforces are the people experiencing (assume occupants are 65 kg adults)? [1] “Gravitron” used under Creative Commons licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/). Photo by: bobdole369 Newtons 2 r v F = ma = m angular speed in radians per second rotational speed in revolutions per second (or Hz) radius of the Gravitron tangential velocity of the Gravitron mass of occupant = = = = = w f r v m -1 v = wr ms w = 2pf rad/sec Typically the Gravitron ride takes approximately 20 seconds to reach its maximum rotational speed of 24 rpms and the whole ride lasts for around 80 seconds. This means the ride’s occupants are exposed to non-uniform circular motion meaning there is changing linear velocity at certain parts of the ride. For non-uniform circular motion the following formulae are useful: where: A GPS tracking device was attached to a person in the Gravitron and data was obtained about their x,y displacement vs. time over the 80 second duration of the ride. The data was saved in a .csv file called ‘gravitron.csv.’ This file contains three columns: time, x-displacement and y-displacement, e.g.: Time, sec x-displacement y-displacement 0.00 0.10 0.20 … 2. Download this .csv file from Blackboard. Find the g-forces being applied to the ride’s occupants for the whole 80 second duration of the ride. Again assume the occupants are 65 kg adults. Think about how you could effectively present these results. -2 2 ms r v -1 a = 2 2 ms     +     = dt dy dt dx v centripetal acceleration time in seconds displacement in y direction displacement in x direction = = = = a t y x

Lectorial 5: The Gravitron The Gravitron (shown in figure 1 [1]) is a carnival ride designed to simulate the experience of zero gravity. The ride consists of a 15 metre diameter circular chamber which spins around a centre shaft. The spinning motion applies a force to the occupants of the ride pinning them up against their seat. Figure 1: The Gravitron carnival ride. For this lectorial task we want to study the forces being applied to the ride’s occupants and determine the g-forces they would be experiencing. According to physics, the rules for uniform circular motion are: where: 1. If the ride has a maximum rotational speed of 24 revolutions per minute (rpm), determine the force being applied to the ride’s occupants. What gforces are the people experiencing (assume occupants are 65 kg adults)? [1] “Gravitron” used under Creative Commons licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/). Photo by: bobdole369 Newtons 2 r v F = ma = m angular speed in radians per second rotational speed in revolutions per second (or Hz) radius of the Gravitron tangential velocity of the Gravitron mass of occupant = = = = = w f r v m -1 v = wr ms w = 2pf rad/sec Typically the Gravitron ride takes approximately 20 seconds to reach its maximum rotational speed of 24 rpms and the whole ride lasts for around 80 seconds. This means the ride’s occupants are exposed to non-uniform circular motion meaning there is changing linear velocity at certain parts of the ride. For non-uniform circular motion the following formulae are useful: where: A GPS tracking device was attached to a person in the Gravitron and data was obtained about their x,y displacement vs. time over the 80 second duration of the ride. The data was saved in a .csv file called ‘gravitron.csv.’ This file contains three columns: time, x-displacement and y-displacement, e.g.: Time, sec x-displacement y-displacement 0.00 0.10 0.20 … 2. Download this .csv file from Blackboard. Find the g-forces being applied to the ride’s occupants for the whole 80 second duration of the ride. Again assume the occupants are 65 kg adults. Think about how you could effectively present these results. -2 2 ms r v -1 a = 2 2 ms     +     = dt dy dt dx v centripetal acceleration time in seconds displacement in y direction displacement in x direction = = = = a t y x

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which is false 1) Blue light with a wavelength of 500 nm has a frequency of 6*10 Hz 2) Electromagnatic waves are transverse 3)Electromagnatic waves are energy 4) it take light 500 second to travel the 93 millions miles front the sun to the earth 5) Microwaves with a frequency of 3*10Hz have a wavelength of 10nm.

which is false 1) Blue light with a wavelength of 500 nm has a frequency of 6*10 Hz 2) Electromagnatic waves are transverse 3)Electromagnatic waves are energy 4) it take light 500 second to travel the 93 millions miles front the sun to the earth 5) Microwaves with a frequency of 3*10Hz have a wavelength of 10nm.

1 Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3.1 Laboratory Objective The objective of this laboratory is to understand the basic properties of sinusoids and sinusoid measurements. 3.2 Educational Objectives After performing this experiment, students should be able to: 1. Understand the properties of sinusoids. 2. Understand sinusoidal manipulation 3. Use a function generator 4. Obtain measurements using an oscilloscope 3.3 Background Sinusoids are sine or cosine waveforms that can describe many engineering phenomena. Any oscillatory motion can be described using sinusoids. Many types of electrical signals such as square, triangle, and sawtooth waves are modeled using sinusoids. Their manipulation incurs the understanding of certain quantities that describe sinusoidal behavior. These quantities are described below. 3.3.1 Sinusoid Characteristics Amplitude The amplitude A of a sine wave describes the height of the hills and valleys of a sinusoid. It carries the physical units of what the sinusoid is describing (volts, amps, meters, etc.). Frequency There are two types of frequencies that can describe a sinusoid. The normal frequency f is how many times the sinusoid repeats per unit time. It has units of cycles per second (s-1) or Hertz (Hz). The angular frequency ω is how many radians pass per second. Consequently, ω has units of radians per second. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 2 Period The period T is how long a sinusoid takes to repeat one complete cycle. The period is measured in seconds. Phase The phase φ of a sinusoid causes a horizontal shift along the t-axis. The phase has units of radians. TimeShift The time shift ts of a sinusoid is a horizontal shift along the t-axis and is a time measurement of the phase. The time shift has units of seconds. NOTE: A sine wave and a cosine wave only differ by a phase shift of 90° or ?2 radians. In reality, they are the same waveform but with a different φ value. 3.3.2 Sinusoidal Relationships Figure 3.1: Sinusoid The general equation of a sinusoid is given below and refers to Figure 3.1. ?(?) = ????(?? +?) (3.1) The angular frequency is related to the normal frequency by Equation 3.2. ?= 2?? (3.2) The angular frequency is also related to the period by Equation 3.3. ?=2?? (3.3) By inspection, the normal frequency is related to the period by Equation 3.4. ? =1? (3.4) ?? Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3 The time shift is related to the phase (radians) and the frequency by Equation 3.5. ??= ∅2?? (3.5) 3.3.3 Equipment 3.3.3.1 Inductors Inductors are electrical components that resist a change in the flow of current passing through them. They are essentially coils of wire. Inductors are electromagnets too. They are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment (with or without exposed wire): Figure 3.2: Symbol and Physical Example for Inductors 3.3.3.2 Capacitors Capacitors are electrical components that store energy. This enables engineers to store electrical energy from an input source such as a battery. Some capacitors are polarized and therefore have a negative and positive plate. One plate is straight, representing the positive terminal on the device, and the other is curved, representing the negative one. Polarized capacitors are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment: Figure 3.3: Symbol and Physical Example for Capacitors 3.3.3.3 Function Generator A function generator is used to create different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. It generates standard sine, square, and triangle waveforms and uses the analog output channel. 3.3.3.5 Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. It displays voltage data over time for the analysis of one or two voltage measurements taken from the analog input channels of the Oscilloscope. The observed waveform can be analyzed for amplitude, frequency, time interval and more. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 4 3.4 Procedure Follow the steps outlined below after the instructor has explained how to use the laboratory equipment 3.4.1 Sinusoidal Measurements 1. Connect the output channel of the Function Generator to the channel one of the Oscilloscope. 2. Complete Table 3.1 using the given values for voltage and frequency. Table 3.1: Sinusoid Measurements Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Voltage Amplitude, A (V ) Frequency (Hz) 2*A (Vp−p ) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) T (sec) 2.5 1000 3 5000 3.4.2 Circuit Measurements 1. Connect the circuit in figure 3.4 below with the given resistor and capacitor NOTE: Vs from the circuit comes from the Function Generator using a BNC connector. Figure 3.4: RC Circuit Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 5 2. Using the alligator to BNC cables, connect channel one of the Oscilloscope across the capacitor and complete Table 3.2 Table 3.2: Capacitor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) Vc (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 3. Disconnect channel one and connect channel two of the oscilloscope across the resistor and complete table 3.3. Table 3.3: Resistor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) VR (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 4. Leaving channel two connected across the resistor, clip the positive lead to the positive side of the capacitor and complete table 3.4 Table 3.4: Phase Difference Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (volts) Frequency (Hz) Divisions Time/Div (sec) ts (sec) ɸ (rad) ɸ (degrees) 2.5 100 5. Using the data from Tables 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, plot the capacitor sinusoidal equation and the resistor sinusoidal equation on the same graph using MATLAB. HINT: Plot over one period. 6. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law states that ??(?)=??(?)+??(?). Calculate Vs by hand using the following equation and Tables 3.2 and 3.3 ??(?)=√??2+??2???(??−???−1(????)) Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 6 3.5 New MATLAB Commands hold on  This command allows multiple graphs to be placed on the same XY axis and is placed after the first plot statement. legend (’string 1’, ’string2’, ‘string3’)  This command adds a legend to the plot. Strings must be placed in the order as the plots were generated. plot (x, y, ‘line specifiers’)  This command plots the data and uses line specifiers to differentiate between different plots on the same XY axis. In this lab, only use different line styles from the table below. Table 3.5: Line specifiers for the plot() command sqrt(X)  This command produces the square root of the elements of X. NOTE: The “help” command in MATLAB can be used to find a description and example for functions such as input.  For example, type “help input” in the command window to learn more about the input function. NOTE: Refer to section the “MATLAB Commands” sections from prior labs for previously discussed material that you may also need in order to complete this assignment. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 7 3.6 Lab Report Requirements 1. Complete Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 (5 points each) 2. Show hand calculations for all four tables. Insert after this page (5 points each) 3. Draw the two sinusoids by hand from table 3.1. Label amplitude, period, and phase. Insert after this page. (5 points) 4. Insert MATLAB plot of Vc and VR as obtained from data in Tables 3.2 and 3.3 after this page. (5 points each) 5. Show hand calculations for Vs(t). Insert after this page. (5 points) 6. Using the data from the Tables, write: (10 points) a) Vc(t) = b) VR(t) = 7. Also, ???(?)=2.5???(628?). Write your Vs below and give reasons why they are different. (10 points) a) Vs(t) = b) Reasons: 8. Write an executive summary for this lab describing what you have done, and learned. (20 points)

1 Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3.1 Laboratory Objective The objective of this laboratory is to understand the basic properties of sinusoids and sinusoid measurements. 3.2 Educational Objectives After performing this experiment, students should be able to: 1. Understand the properties of sinusoids. 2. Understand sinusoidal manipulation 3. Use a function generator 4. Obtain measurements using an oscilloscope 3.3 Background Sinusoids are sine or cosine waveforms that can describe many engineering phenomena. Any oscillatory motion can be described using sinusoids. Many types of electrical signals such as square, triangle, and sawtooth waves are modeled using sinusoids. Their manipulation incurs the understanding of certain quantities that describe sinusoidal behavior. These quantities are described below. 3.3.1 Sinusoid Characteristics Amplitude The amplitude A of a sine wave describes the height of the hills and valleys of a sinusoid. It carries the physical units of what the sinusoid is describing (volts, amps, meters, etc.). Frequency There are two types of frequencies that can describe a sinusoid. The normal frequency f is how many times the sinusoid repeats per unit time. It has units of cycles per second (s-1) or Hertz (Hz). The angular frequency ω is how many radians pass per second. Consequently, ω has units of radians per second. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 2 Period The period T is how long a sinusoid takes to repeat one complete cycle. The period is measured in seconds. Phase The phase φ of a sinusoid causes a horizontal shift along the t-axis. The phase has units of radians. TimeShift The time shift ts of a sinusoid is a horizontal shift along the t-axis and is a time measurement of the phase. The time shift has units of seconds. NOTE: A sine wave and a cosine wave only differ by a phase shift of 90° or ?2 radians. In reality, they are the same waveform but with a different φ value. 3.3.2 Sinusoidal Relationships Figure 3.1: Sinusoid The general equation of a sinusoid is given below and refers to Figure 3.1. ?(?) = ????(?? +?) (3.1) The angular frequency is related to the normal frequency by Equation 3.2. ?= 2?? (3.2) The angular frequency is also related to the period by Equation 3.3. ?=2?? (3.3) By inspection, the normal frequency is related to the period by Equation 3.4. ? =1? (3.4) ?? Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 3 The time shift is related to the phase (radians) and the frequency by Equation 3.5. ??= ∅2?? (3.5) 3.3.3 Equipment 3.3.3.1 Inductors Inductors are electrical components that resist a change in the flow of current passing through them. They are essentially coils of wire. Inductors are electromagnets too. They are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment (with or without exposed wire): Figure 3.2: Symbol and Physical Example for Inductors 3.3.3.2 Capacitors Capacitors are electrical components that store energy. This enables engineers to store electrical energy from an input source such as a battery. Some capacitors are polarized and therefore have a negative and positive plate. One plate is straight, representing the positive terminal on the device, and the other is curved, representing the negative one. Polarized capacitors are represented in schematics using the following symbol and physically using the following equipment: Figure 3.3: Symbol and Physical Example for Capacitors 3.3.3.3 Function Generator A function generator is used to create different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. It generates standard sine, square, and triangle waveforms and uses the analog output channel. 3.3.3.5 Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. It displays voltage data over time for the analysis of one or two voltage measurements taken from the analog input channels of the Oscilloscope. The observed waveform can be analyzed for amplitude, frequency, time interval and more. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 4 3.4 Procedure Follow the steps outlined below after the instructor has explained how to use the laboratory equipment 3.4.1 Sinusoidal Measurements 1. Connect the output channel of the Function Generator to the channel one of the Oscilloscope. 2. Complete Table 3.1 using the given values for voltage and frequency. Table 3.1: Sinusoid Measurements Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Voltage Amplitude, A (V ) Frequency (Hz) 2*A (Vp−p ) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) T (sec) 2.5 1000 3 5000 3.4.2 Circuit Measurements 1. Connect the circuit in figure 3.4 below with the given resistor and capacitor NOTE: Vs from the circuit comes from the Function Generator using a BNC connector. Figure 3.4: RC Circuit Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 5 2. Using the alligator to BNC cables, connect channel one of the Oscilloscope across the capacitor and complete Table 3.2 Table 3.2: Capacitor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) Vc (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 3. Disconnect channel one and connect channel two of the oscilloscope across the resistor and complete table 3.3. Table 3.3: Resistor Sinusoid Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (Volts) Frequency (Hz) VR (volts) f (Hz) T (sec) ω (rad/sec) 2.5 100 4. Leaving channel two connected across the resistor, clip the positive lead to the positive side of the capacitor and complete table 3.4 Table 3.4: Phase Difference Function Generator Oscilloscope (Measured) Calculated Vs (volts) Frequency (Hz) Divisions Time/Div (sec) ts (sec) ɸ (rad) ɸ (degrees) 2.5 100 5. Using the data from Tables 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, plot the capacitor sinusoidal equation and the resistor sinusoidal equation on the same graph using MATLAB. HINT: Plot over one period. 6. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law states that ??(?)=??(?)+??(?). Calculate Vs by hand using the following equation and Tables 3.2 and 3.3 ??(?)=√??2+??2???(??−???−1(????)) Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 6 3.5 New MATLAB Commands hold on  This command allows multiple graphs to be placed on the same XY axis and is placed after the first plot statement. legend (’string 1’, ’string2’, ‘string3’)  This command adds a legend to the plot. Strings must be placed in the order as the plots were generated. plot (x, y, ‘line specifiers’)  This command plots the data and uses line specifiers to differentiate between different plots on the same XY axis. In this lab, only use different line styles from the table below. Table 3.5: Line specifiers for the plot() command sqrt(X)  This command produces the square root of the elements of X. NOTE: The “help” command in MATLAB can be used to find a description and example for functions such as input.  For example, type “help input” in the command window to learn more about the input function. NOTE: Refer to section the “MATLAB Commands” sections from prior labs for previously discussed material that you may also need in order to complete this assignment. Laboratory 3 – Sinusoids in Engineering: Measurement and Analysis of Harmonic Signals 7 3.6 Lab Report Requirements 1. Complete Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 (5 points each) 2. Show hand calculations for all four tables. Insert after this page (5 points each) 3. Draw the two sinusoids by hand from table 3.1. Label amplitude, period, and phase. Insert after this page. (5 points) 4. Insert MATLAB plot of Vc and VR as obtained from data in Tables 3.2 and 3.3 after this page. (5 points each) 5. Show hand calculations for Vs(t). Insert after this page. (5 points) 6. Using the data from the Tables, write: (10 points) a) Vc(t) = b) VR(t) = 7. Also, ???(?)=2.5???(628?). Write your Vs below and give reasons why they are different. (10 points) a) Vs(t) = b) Reasons: 8. Write an executive summary for this lab describing what you have done, and learned. (20 points)

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ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A4 Lab: AC Parallel Circuits Introduction In this experiment we work with AC parallel circuits. As we did in the AC series circuits lab, the results obtained through Transient Analysis in MultiSim will be verified by manual calculations. Procedure 1. Figure 1 is the circuit we want to analyze.The voltage source is 24 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: AC parallel circuit used for analysis using MultiSim Unlike the series circuit, there is no resistor in series with the voltage source that allows us to plot the current by taking advantage of its in-phase relationship. So, in order to measure the current produced by the source (total current) add a 1 Ohm resistor in series with the source. This small resistor will not affect the calculations. Figure 2: Arrangement for analyzing the current waveforms 2. Run the simulations and with the oscilloscope measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor. You should get a plot similar to the following graph: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and source current (blue) waveforms 3. From the resulting analysis plot, determine the peak current. Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5. Calculate the phase-shift. Using the method presented in the last lab, measure the time difference at the zero-crossing of the two signals. Record it here. Time difference 6. From the resulting calculation, determine the phase shift by using the following formula Record it here. Measured Phase Shift 7. Determine the phase shift by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured phase shift? Explain. Calculated Phase Shift 8. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 9. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 10. Replace the capacitor with a 0.8 H inductor. Set the source frequency back to 1000 Hz. Perform Transient Analysis and measure the current amplitude and phase shift. Record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 11. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 12. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 13. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Write-up and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.

ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A4 Lab: AC Parallel Circuits Introduction In this experiment we work with AC parallel circuits. As we did in the AC series circuits lab, the results obtained through Transient Analysis in MultiSim will be verified by manual calculations. Procedure 1. Figure 1 is the circuit we want to analyze.The voltage source is 24 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: AC parallel circuit used for analysis using MultiSim Unlike the series circuit, there is no resistor in series with the voltage source that allows us to plot the current by taking advantage of its in-phase relationship. So, in order to measure the current produced by the source (total current) add a 1 Ohm resistor in series with the source. This small resistor will not affect the calculations. Figure 2: Arrangement for analyzing the current waveforms 2. Run the simulations and with the oscilloscope measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor. You should get a plot similar to the following graph: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and source current (blue) waveforms 3. From the resulting analysis plot, determine the peak current. Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5. Calculate the phase-shift. Using the method presented in the last lab, measure the time difference at the zero-crossing of the two signals. Record it here. Time difference 6. From the resulting calculation, determine the phase shift by using the following formula Record it here. Measured Phase Shift 7. Determine the phase shift by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured phase shift? Explain. Calculated Phase Shift 8. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 9. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 10. Replace the capacitor with a 0.8 H inductor. Set the source frequency back to 1000 Hz. Perform Transient Analysis and measure the current amplitude and phase shift. Record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 11. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 12. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 13. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Write-up and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.

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suppose that you wish to construct a simple AC generator with a peak output of 12 V when rotated at 60 Hz. A magnetic field of 0.0497 T is available. If the area of the rotating coil is 0.01 m, how many turns are needed ? 1) 16 2) 32 3) 64 4) 128 5) 256

suppose that you wish to construct a simple AC generator with a peak output of 12 V when rotated at 60 Hz. A magnetic field of 0.0497 T is available. If the area of the rotating coil is 0.01 m, how many turns are needed ? 1) 16 2) 32 3) 64 4) 128 5) 256

Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

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