Southwest Rafters Case 2:Case 1: Capital Budgeting Cash Flows and Capital Budgeting Techniques Create a data sheet (or section) and link calculations to the data so that if the data is updated the calculations automatically update. 1) Calculate the Initial Cash Outlay and Annual Capital Budgeting Cash Flow for years 1 thru 5 for both alternatives. 2) Discuss the ethical implications of this business. Might there be a difference between these two alternatives? 3) Calculate the Payback Period, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for both alternatives based on your Initial Cash Outlay and Capital Budgeting Cash Flows. 4) Calculate NPV and IRR if cash flows increase at an estimated 6% annual rate. 5) What discount rate would leave them indifferent between the two alternatives? 6) What does the discount rate in #5 imply about the growth rate needed to make the Buenaventura better than the Green? 7) What is the probability of negative NPV both in the case of perfect serial correlation and in the case of independence of cash flows for both alternatives? Assume no growth and a $5,000 standard deviation of annual cash flow for both alternatives. 8) Calculate Accounting (Profit) and Cash Breakeven Points (average number of clients per trip) and the Degree of Operating Leverage for both alternatives for year 1. Treat all revenue as variable. Treat all expenses as fixed except the client portion of transportation and food and the administrative cost. Include externalities. If you spreadsheet is functional BEP is easy! 9) Could either alternative have Multiple Internal Rates of Return? Explain 10) Discuss the option values associated with these alternatives. Is there a difference between them? 11) Which alternative do you recommend for Southwest Rafters? Defend your choice using the results from the other questions. Assume that the assumptions are reasonable.

Southwest Rafters Case 2:Case 1: Capital Budgeting Cash Flows and Capital Budgeting Techniques Create a data sheet (or section) and link calculations to the data so that if the data is updated the calculations automatically update. 1) Calculate the Initial Cash Outlay and Annual Capital Budgeting Cash Flow for years 1 thru 5 for both alternatives. 2) Discuss the ethical implications of this business. Might there be a difference between these two alternatives? 3) Calculate the Payback Period, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for both alternatives based on your Initial Cash Outlay and Capital Budgeting Cash Flows. 4) Calculate NPV and IRR if cash flows increase at an estimated 6% annual rate. 5) What discount rate would leave them indifferent between the two alternatives? 6) What does the discount rate in #5 imply about the growth rate needed to make the Buenaventura better than the Green? 7) What is the probability of negative NPV both in the case of perfect serial correlation and in the case of independence of cash flows for both alternatives? Assume no growth and a $5,000 standard deviation of annual cash flow for both alternatives. 8) Calculate Accounting (Profit) and Cash Breakeven Points (average number of clients per trip) and the Degree of Operating Leverage for both alternatives for year 1. Treat all revenue as variable. Treat all expenses as fixed except the client portion of transportation and food and the administrative cost. Include externalities. If you spreadsheet is functional BEP is easy! 9) Could either alternative have Multiple Internal Rates of Return? Explain 10) Discuss the option values associated with these alternatives. Is there a difference between them? 11) Which alternative do you recommend for Southwest Rafters? Defend your choice using the results from the other questions. Assume that the assumptions are reasonable.

Case 1 The answer is in excel sheet no 1. … Read More...
With the need for students to be proficient in reading, math, and science by 2014, was common core the solution? What is the impact of common core on education today? How are student with exceptional needs affected by this new initiative?

With the need for students to be proficient in reading, math, and science by 2014, was common core the solution? What is the impact of common core on education today? How are student with exceptional needs affected by this new initiative?

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Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms Typesetting math: 100% What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Typesetting math: 100% Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 Typesetting math: 100% block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a Typesetting math: 100% period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Typesetting math: 100% Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = s t = 0 s cm cm/s Typesetting math: 100% Incorrect; Try Again Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: 0 = g cm s Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm 0.628 s Typesetting math: 100% The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Typesetting math: 100% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? N/m cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms m L T Typesetting math: 10T0% L , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. ANSWER: T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T &2T 2T g/6 T/6 T/&6 &6T 6T Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. g ( s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz N amax = 6.6 μm Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 81.4%. You received 117.25 out of a possible total of 144 points. vmax = 41 ms

Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms Typesetting math: 100% What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Typesetting math: 100% Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 Typesetting math: 100% block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a Typesetting math: 100% period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Typesetting math: 100% Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = s t = 0 s cm cm/s Typesetting math: 100% Incorrect; Try Again Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: 0 = g cm s Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm 0.628 s Typesetting math: 100% The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Typesetting math: 100% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? N/m cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms m L T Typesetting math: 10T0% L , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. ANSWER: T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T &2T 2T g/6 T/6 T/&6 &6T 6T Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. g ( s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz N amax = 6.6 μm Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 81.4%. You received 117.25 out of a possible total of 144 points. vmax = 41 ms

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Corporate Report Assignment Due April 17 Your final paper should include: -5 pages double-spaced narrative. Papers over 5 pages will receive point deduction. -Additional Pages: -Graph of stock performance 3 year price history of company (with article marked), S&P 500, and a benchmark company -Bibliography. But you still need to cite sources in the body of your paper. -Ratio Worksheets – fully completed. You will attach the same ratios that were graded; any corrections that were indicated in the initial grading should be made. -Headings and page numbers -Labels for the ratios (example: times, %, days) Format of Paper: COMPANY BACKGROUND (½-1 page) Include information like founding date, headquarters location, product or service provided, date when first traded in public markets, market on which it trades, and any other information that seems important for understanding the company. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (2-3 pages) Discuss at least 8 ratios from the Ratio Worksheet that you feel explain the trends/changes within the company over the time period. You will need to choose at least one ratio from each of the overall categories (i.e. one from asset utilization, one from liquidity, etc.) Discuss all of the following for the ratios chosen: -Has it improved, deteriorated or stayed the same over the last 3 years? Do not use the words increasing/decreasing or higher/lower. Instead use better/worse or improving/deteriorating. Explain whether the change in the ratio was a good thing or a bad thing. -What is the reason behind the changes in the ratio? Not just what part of the ratio changed, but what was happening with the company that could have affected the ratio? If you can not find specific news, what do you think was affecting the ratio? -How does it compare to the industry? At least one ratio from each category should be discussed. As you write your paper think about (These were top reasons I docked points in the past): What are the ratios? This is a finance class give me numbers What does the ratio mean or measure? Discuss components (assets increasing but not as much as_____) Discuss company specific things that might impact the component Compare to industry or benchmark After talking about ratios in a specific category, state how the company is doing in that category of ratios. For example: Liquidity ratios measure the firm’s ability to meet short-term obligations. Are you confident your company can meet their short term obligations? Overall discussion of the company’s performance based upon the ratio analysis. Although you don’t have to tell me every number you looked at you should include plenty of numbers in your paper. STOCK GRAPH (1-2 pages) Analyze your company’s stock performance over the last 3 years. Comment on any patterns you notice for your company and how it moves with the S&P500. When and what was the high price/low price? Does this make sense with what you see overall in your financial analysis? Discuss if the Beta of your company makes sense with what you see on the graph (and your financial analysis.) If your company is too new that no beta has been calculated, you will have to estimate what you believe the beta would be based on the performance. What was the price trend throughout the semester? Why did it move this way? Discuss at least one news event found in an article from a business publication or journal (i.e. Wall Street Journal, Business Week, or any article from library website) that occurred in the 3 year time period you are evaluating. Summarize the article (more than one sentence) and tell me whether you thought the stock price would increase or decrease when investors heard this news; and then tell me what actually happened. Mark the date of the article on your graph. The news event should be about the company not just about the industry. CONCLUSION (¼-½ page) State what actions you think the company should take to become or remain financially strong. The paper should end with a statement about whether you would buy, hold or sell your stock in this company. BIBLIOGRAPHY All sources used should be referenced on the bibliography and throughout the paper.

Corporate Report Assignment Due April 17 Your final paper should include: -5 pages double-spaced narrative. Papers over 5 pages will receive point deduction. -Additional Pages: -Graph of stock performance 3 year price history of company (with article marked), S&P 500, and a benchmark company -Bibliography. But you still need to cite sources in the body of your paper. -Ratio Worksheets – fully completed. You will attach the same ratios that were graded; any corrections that were indicated in the initial grading should be made. -Headings and page numbers -Labels for the ratios (example: times, %, days) Format of Paper: COMPANY BACKGROUND (½-1 page) Include information like founding date, headquarters location, product or service provided, date when first traded in public markets, market on which it trades, and any other information that seems important for understanding the company. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (2-3 pages) Discuss at least 8 ratios from the Ratio Worksheet that you feel explain the trends/changes within the company over the time period. You will need to choose at least one ratio from each of the overall categories (i.e. one from asset utilization, one from liquidity, etc.) Discuss all of the following for the ratios chosen: -Has it improved, deteriorated or stayed the same over the last 3 years? Do not use the words increasing/decreasing or higher/lower. Instead use better/worse or improving/deteriorating. Explain whether the change in the ratio was a good thing or a bad thing. -What is the reason behind the changes in the ratio? Not just what part of the ratio changed, but what was happening with the company that could have affected the ratio? If you can not find specific news, what do you think was affecting the ratio? -How does it compare to the industry? At least one ratio from each category should be discussed. As you write your paper think about (These were top reasons I docked points in the past): What are the ratios? This is a finance class give me numbers What does the ratio mean or measure? Discuss components (assets increasing but not as much as_____) Discuss company specific things that might impact the component Compare to industry or benchmark After talking about ratios in a specific category, state how the company is doing in that category of ratios. For example: Liquidity ratios measure the firm’s ability to meet short-term obligations. Are you confident your company can meet their short term obligations? Overall discussion of the company’s performance based upon the ratio analysis. Although you don’t have to tell me every number you looked at you should include plenty of numbers in your paper. STOCK GRAPH (1-2 pages) Analyze your company’s stock performance over the last 3 years. Comment on any patterns you notice for your company and how it moves with the S&P500. When and what was the high price/low price? Does this make sense with what you see overall in your financial analysis? Discuss if the Beta of your company makes sense with what you see on the graph (and your financial analysis.) If your company is too new that no beta has been calculated, you will have to estimate what you believe the beta would be based on the performance. What was the price trend throughout the semester? Why did it move this way? Discuss at least one news event found in an article from a business publication or journal (i.e. Wall Street Journal, Business Week, or any article from library website) that occurred in the 3 year time period you are evaluating. Summarize the article (more than one sentence) and tell me whether you thought the stock price would increase or decrease when investors heard this news; and then tell me what actually happened. Mark the date of the article on your graph. The news event should be about the company not just about the industry. CONCLUSION (¼-½ page) State what actions you think the company should take to become or remain financially strong. The paper should end with a statement about whether you would buy, hold or sell your stock in this company. BIBLIOGRAPHY All sources used should be referenced on the bibliography and throughout the paper.

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Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

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Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A In the second stage of the demographic transition, called the mortality transition, the death rate _____ while the birth rate _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A About a century ago, the population in Latin America moved from an agricultural to an urban-industrial base. During this period birth rates _____, death rates _____, and the overall population _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Over the course of human history, the greatest increases in human populations have been due to_____. ANSWER: increases, decreases decreases, decreases decreases, remains high or increases increases, remains high or increases stayed about the same, decreased, and the population grew even faster increased greatly, increased, declined decreased dramatically, decreased, declined stayed about the same, increased, increased Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Compared to women in the United States, women in poor countries such as Ethiopia typically have _____ children at _____ age. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A Women in two developed countries have similar total fertility rates of 3.5. However, women in country A typically have their children about 2 years earlier than women in country B. How will the populations of the two countries compare? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Overall population growth rates are most likely to be highest when the median age of a population is _____ and a country is in stage _____ of the demographic transition. ANSWER: improved medicine improved water supplies discovery of new land increased food production fewer, an older more, a younger more, an older fewer, a younger The population of country B will increase faster than country A. The population of country A will increase but the population of country B will decline. The population of country A will increase faster than country B. The populations of both countries will be stable, with similar totals and little increase or decrease. Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A An age-structure diagram of a poor country in stage 1 of the demographic transition will be closest to the shape of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Predictions about global growth rates have been difficult because of changes in human values and behavior largely based upon _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Because human suffering _____ as the human population approaches its carrying capacity, sustainability of the global human population must be _____ the carrying capacity of the Earth. ANSWER: older, 1 younger, 4 older, 3 younger, 2 the letter O, widest in the middle a pyramid, with a broad base and narrow top the letter V, widest at the top column, with even width from top to bottom shifting weather patterns increasing abilities to travel between countries the spread of infectious disease economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The IPAT formula is used to estimate the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A If everyone in the world had the ecological footprint of people currently living in the United States and Canada, the world would _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A If the population of the United States continues to grow and consumption levels also increase, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: increases, below decreases, above increases, above decreases, below birth rate of a population shift from one stage to another in the demographic transition age structure of a population ecological footprint of a society have just enough biocapacity without any additional population growth exceed its biocapacity by 40% still have enough biocapacity for 20% more humans exceed its biocapacity by five times over Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A Given the increasing global population and increased rates of consumption in developing countries, the most likely avenue to sustainability is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Which one of the following typically contributes to population growth? ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Members of the neo-Malthusian movement advocated for _____. ANSWER: ecological footprint will eventually exceed the biocapacity of the environment biocapacity will eventually exceed the ecological footprint of the environment United States will eventually become an ecological debtor ecological debt of the United States will continue to increase more efficient use of natural resources the discovery of ways to dramatically increase the global biocapacity to have developed countries use more natural resources from developing countries increase our reliance upon fossil fuels better education empowerment of women high infant mortality economic development Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A China, Mexico, and India have all made progress in reducing the population growth rates in their countries by adopting policies that encourage _____. ANSWER: Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Malthus found that populations in the American colonies were increasing _____ than populations on the European continent due to _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 17 points. increasing population size to support greater economic development birth control to limit population growth greater use of natural resources to increase the biocapacity of Earth to support a growing human population greater conservation of natural resources to limit the environmental impact of a growing human population limits on family size women to work only inside of their homes women to start having children at a younger age couples to marry earlier faster, no political conflicts or wars faster, greater resources were available in the American colonies slower, fewer resources were available in the American colonies slower, greater disease in the American colonies Chapter 05 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 6 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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What is the prime purpose of selecting a composite material over material from the other family groups? MODULE 3 – STRUCTURE OF SOLID MATERIALS The ability of a material to exist in different space lattices is called a. Allotropic b. Crystalline c. Solvent d. Amorphous Amorphous metals develop their microstructure as a result of ___________. a. Dendrites b. Directional solidification c. Slip d. Extremely rapid cooling In an alloy, the material that dissolves the alloying element is the ___________. a. Solute b. Solvent c. Matrix d. Allotrope What is the coordination number (CN) for the fcc structure formed by ions of sodium and chlorine that is in the chemical compound NaCl (salt) ? a. 6 b. 8 c. 14 d. 16 What pressure is normally used in constructing a phase diagram? a. 100 psi b. Depends on material c. Ambient d. Normal atmospheric pressure What line on a binary diagram indicates the upper limit of the solid solution phase? a. Liquidus b. Eutectic c. Eutectoid d. Solidus What holds the atoms (ions) together in a compound such as NaCl are electrostatic forces between ___________. a. Atom and ion b. Covalent bonds c. Electrons and nuclei d. Neutrons Diffusion of atoms through a solid takes place by two main mechanisms. One is diffusion through vacancies in the atomic structure. Another method of diffusion is ___________. a. Cold b. APF c. Substitutional d. Interstitial Give a brief explanation of the Lever rule (P117) Grain boundaries ___________ movement of dislocations through a solid. a. Improve b. Inhibit c. Do not affect Iron can be alloyed with carbon because it is ___________. a. Crystalline b. Amorphous c. A mixture d. Allotropic Metals can be cooled only to crystalline solids. a. T (true) b. F (false) Sketch an fcc unit cell. Metals are classified as crystalline materials. Name one metal that is an amorphous solid and name at least one recent application in which its use is saving energy or providing greater strength and/or corrosion resistance. MODULE 4 – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Give two examples of a mechanical property. a. Thermal resistance b. Wear resistance c. Hardness d. Strength Scissors used in the home cut material by concentrating forces that ultimately produce a certain type of stress within the material. Identify this stress. a. Bearing stress b. Shearing stress c. Compressive stress An aluminum rod 1 in. in diameter (E =10.4 x 106psi) experiences an elastic tensile strain of 0.0048 in./in. Calculate the stress in the rod. a. 49,920 ksi b. 49,920 psi c. 49,920 msi A 1-in.-diameter steel circular rod is subject to a tensile load that reduces its cross-sectional area to 0.64 in2. Express the rod’s ductility using a standard unit of measure. a. 18.5% b. 1.85% c. 18.5 d. (a) and (c) What term is used to describe the low-temperature creep of polymerics? a. Springback b. Creep rupture c. Cold flow d. Creep forming MODULE 7 – TESTING, FAILURE ANALYSIS, STANDARDS, & INSPECTION Factors of safety are defined either in terms of the ultimate strength of a material or its yield strength. In other words, by the use of a suitable factor, the ultimate or yield strength is reduced in size to what is known as the design stress or safe working stress. Which factor of safety would be more appropriate for a material that will be subjected to repetitious, suddenly applied loads? Product liability court cases have risen sharply in recent years because of poor procedures in selecting materials for particular applications. Assuming that a knowledge of a material’s properties is a valid step in the selection process, cite two examples where such lack of knowledge could or did lead to failure or unsatisfactory performance. Make a sketch and fully dimension an Izod impact test specimen. Which agency publishes the Annual Book of standard test methods used worldwide for evaluation of materials? a. NASA b. NIST c. ASTM d. SPE

What is the prime purpose of selecting a composite material over material from the other family groups? MODULE 3 – STRUCTURE OF SOLID MATERIALS The ability of a material to exist in different space lattices is called a. Allotropic b. Crystalline c. Solvent d. Amorphous Amorphous metals develop their microstructure as a result of ___________. a. Dendrites b. Directional solidification c. Slip d. Extremely rapid cooling In an alloy, the material that dissolves the alloying element is the ___________. a. Solute b. Solvent c. Matrix d. Allotrope What is the coordination number (CN) for the fcc structure formed by ions of sodium and chlorine that is in the chemical compound NaCl (salt) ? a. 6 b. 8 c. 14 d. 16 What pressure is normally used in constructing a phase diagram? a. 100 psi b. Depends on material c. Ambient d. Normal atmospheric pressure What line on a binary diagram indicates the upper limit of the solid solution phase? a. Liquidus b. Eutectic c. Eutectoid d. Solidus What holds the atoms (ions) together in a compound such as NaCl are electrostatic forces between ___________. a. Atom and ion b. Covalent bonds c. Electrons and nuclei d. Neutrons Diffusion of atoms through a solid takes place by two main mechanisms. One is diffusion through vacancies in the atomic structure. Another method of diffusion is ___________. a. Cold b. APF c. Substitutional d. Interstitial Give a brief explanation of the Lever rule (P117) Grain boundaries ___________ movement of dislocations through a solid. a. Improve b. Inhibit c. Do not affect Iron can be alloyed with carbon because it is ___________. a. Crystalline b. Amorphous c. A mixture d. Allotropic Metals can be cooled only to crystalline solids. a. T (true) b. F (false) Sketch an fcc unit cell. Metals are classified as crystalline materials. Name one metal that is an amorphous solid and name at least one recent application in which its use is saving energy or providing greater strength and/or corrosion resistance. MODULE 4 – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Give two examples of a mechanical property. a. Thermal resistance b. Wear resistance c. Hardness d. Strength Scissors used in the home cut material by concentrating forces that ultimately produce a certain type of stress within the material. Identify this stress. a. Bearing stress b. Shearing stress c. Compressive stress An aluminum rod 1 in. in diameter (E =10.4 x 106psi) experiences an elastic tensile strain of 0.0048 in./in. Calculate the stress in the rod. a. 49,920 ksi b. 49,920 psi c. 49,920 msi A 1-in.-diameter steel circular rod is subject to a tensile load that reduces its cross-sectional area to 0.64 in2. Express the rod’s ductility using a standard unit of measure. a. 18.5% b. 1.85% c. 18.5 d. (a) and (c) What term is used to describe the low-temperature creep of polymerics? a. Springback b. Creep rupture c. Cold flow d. Creep forming MODULE 7 – TESTING, FAILURE ANALYSIS, STANDARDS, & INSPECTION Factors of safety are defined either in terms of the ultimate strength of a material or its yield strength. In other words, by the use of a suitable factor, the ultimate or yield strength is reduced in size to what is known as the design stress or safe working stress. Which factor of safety would be more appropriate for a material that will be subjected to repetitious, suddenly applied loads? Product liability court cases have risen sharply in recent years because of poor procedures in selecting materials for particular applications. Assuming that a knowledge of a material’s properties is a valid step in the selection process, cite two examples where such lack of knowledge could or did lead to failure or unsatisfactory performance. Make a sketch and fully dimension an Izod impact test specimen. Which agency publishes the Annual Book of standard test methods used worldwide for evaluation of materials? a. NASA b. NIST c. ASTM d. SPE

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Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:
 What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:
 What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

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