Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
Use the link provided to answer the questions below. http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=384 According to the article, what was President George W. Bush’s main rationale for going to war with Iraq? A. Bush believed that by promoting democracy, we promote peace around the world. B. Bush believed that Iraq was a key player in the global drug trade. C. Bush feared Osama bin Laden would assume power in Iraq. D. Intelligence reports showed Iraq was planning to attack Afghanistan. E. Bush had no opinion about invading Iraq. What is the democratic peace theory? A. the theory that indicates that democracy will inevitably spread and we should assist it peacefully B. the theory that economic growth leads to a peaceful democratic state C. the theory that democracies tend not to fight one another D. the theory that the key to a successful democratic transition is through a peaceful transfer of power E. the theory that peace and democracy are actually inconsistent with one another What did Mansfield and Syder conclude happens during the initial phases of democratization? A. Newly democratized countries are incapable of holding independent elections. B. Citizens are more engaged in politics and willing to be peaceful. C. New democracies are the strongest democracies in the world. D. Other countries are more likely to form alliances with new democracies. E. Newly democratized countries become more aggressive and warlike, not less. New democracies are more likely to elect which of the following types of parties into office? A. socialists B. religious extremists C. the country’s elite and wealthy class D. people who personify “the average Joe” E. the largest, most prominent parties According to Mansfield and Snyder’s prescription, what should the United States do with democratizing states? A. provide an international military force to ensure peace B. keep a close eye and replace bad leaders if necessary C. make certain that reforms are implemented in the right order D. strengthen international awareness of democratizing states so that peaceful states can arm themselves E. attempt to push through elections as soon as possible above all else Watch the video below, and then answer the questions below. To save your answers, click the Save to Notebook button above. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=796LfXwzIUk According to Joseph Nye, what is power transition? A. a change of power among states B. a change of power among presidents C. a change of power within the European Union or other leading organizations D. a change of power within cultures E. a change of power to non-state actors How does Nye define power diffusion? A. a change of power among states B. a change of power in regions C. a change of power within cultures D. a change of power from states to non-state actors E. a change of power from non-state actors to states Which of the following is an example of a non-state actor given by Nye? A. Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad B. Oxfam C. the former USSR D. socialism E. the mayor of Tehran Why does Nye claim it is important to be cautious of power projections? A. Simple projections don’t tell us much about power transition. B. History is not linear. C. Simple projections tend to focus soley on GDP. D. Simple projections don’t tell you anything about military or soft power. E. all of these options Nye describes a three-dimensional chess game as a metaphor for modern-day power distribution. What is the top board? A. economic power among states B. military power among states C. power among state leaders D. the deciding board for the other two boards E. the board where Kasparov faces off against the computer What is the middle board in Nye’s chess game metaphor? A. non-state actors B. a metaphor for the international underground economy C. military power among states D. economic power among states E. political power among states What is the bottom board in Nye’s chess game metaphor? A. transnational relations B. things that cross borders outside government control C. a place where power is chaotically distributed D. an area where things cross borders outside the control of governments E. all of these options What is the difference between a positive-sum game and a zero-sum game? A. A positive-sum game is when one person has all the power and a zero-sum game is when power is evenly distributed. B. A positive-sum game is a two-player power game and a zero-sum game is a one-player power game. C. A positive-sum game where my gain is your gain and a zero-sum game is my win and your loss. D. A postive-sum game is when you bet and win and a zero-sum game is when you bet and lose. E. A positive-sum game is like Tetris and a zero-sum game is like Super Mario Brothers. Nye quotes Hillary Clinton, describing her foreign policy agenda as utilizing “smart power.” What does this mean? A. Smart power addresses the two great power shifts in the 21st century. B. Smart power is “using all the tools in our toolbox.” C. Smart power combines both hard and soft power. D. Smart power reflects a new narrative of dealing with power. E. all of these options

Use the link provided to answer the questions below. http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=384 According to the article, what was President George W. Bush’s main rationale for going to war with Iraq? A. Bush believed that by promoting democracy, we promote peace around the world. B. Bush believed that Iraq was a key player in the global drug trade. C. Bush feared Osama bin Laden would assume power in Iraq. D. Intelligence reports showed Iraq was planning to attack Afghanistan. E. Bush had no opinion about invading Iraq. What is the democratic peace theory? A. the theory that indicates that democracy will inevitably spread and we should assist it peacefully B. the theory that economic growth leads to a peaceful democratic state C. the theory that democracies tend not to fight one another D. the theory that the key to a successful democratic transition is through a peaceful transfer of power E. the theory that peace and democracy are actually inconsistent with one another What did Mansfield and Syder conclude happens during the initial phases of democratization? A. Newly democratized countries are incapable of holding independent elections. B. Citizens are more engaged in politics and willing to be peaceful. C. New democracies are the strongest democracies in the world. D. Other countries are more likely to form alliances with new democracies. E. Newly democratized countries become more aggressive and warlike, not less. New democracies are more likely to elect which of the following types of parties into office? A. socialists B. religious extremists C. the country’s elite and wealthy class D. people who personify “the average Joe” E. the largest, most prominent parties According to Mansfield and Snyder’s prescription, what should the United States do with democratizing states? A. provide an international military force to ensure peace B. keep a close eye and replace bad leaders if necessary C. make certain that reforms are implemented in the right order D. strengthen international awareness of democratizing states so that peaceful states can arm themselves E. attempt to push through elections as soon as possible above all else Watch the video below, and then answer the questions below. To save your answers, click the Save to Notebook button above. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=796LfXwzIUk According to Joseph Nye, what is power transition? A. a change of power among states B. a change of power among presidents C. a change of power within the European Union or other leading organizations D. a change of power within cultures E. a change of power to non-state actors How does Nye define power diffusion? A. a change of power among states B. a change of power in regions C. a change of power within cultures D. a change of power from states to non-state actors E. a change of power from non-state actors to states Which of the following is an example of a non-state actor given by Nye? A. Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad B. Oxfam C. the former USSR D. socialism E. the mayor of Tehran Why does Nye claim it is important to be cautious of power projections? A. Simple projections don’t tell us much about power transition. B. History is not linear. C. Simple projections tend to focus soley on GDP. D. Simple projections don’t tell you anything about military or soft power. E. all of these options Nye describes a three-dimensional chess game as a metaphor for modern-day power distribution. What is the top board? A. economic power among states B. military power among states C. power among state leaders D. the deciding board for the other two boards E. the board where Kasparov faces off against the computer What is the middle board in Nye’s chess game metaphor? A. non-state actors B. a metaphor for the international underground economy C. military power among states D. economic power among states E. political power among states What is the bottom board in Nye’s chess game metaphor? A. transnational relations B. things that cross borders outside government control C. a place where power is chaotically distributed D. an area where things cross borders outside the control of governments E. all of these options What is the difference between a positive-sum game and a zero-sum game? A. A positive-sum game is when one person has all the power and a zero-sum game is when power is evenly distributed. B. A positive-sum game is a two-player power game and a zero-sum game is a one-player power game. C. A positive-sum game where my gain is your gain and a zero-sum game is my win and your loss. D. A postive-sum game is when you bet and win and a zero-sum game is when you bet and lose. E. A positive-sum game is like Tetris and a zero-sum game is like Super Mario Brothers. Nye quotes Hillary Clinton, describing her foreign policy agenda as utilizing “smart power.” What does this mean? A. Smart power addresses the two great power shifts in the 21st century. B. Smart power is “using all the tools in our toolbox.” C. Smart power combines both hard and soft power. D. Smart power reflects a new narrative of dealing with power. E. all of these options

Use the link provided to answer the questions below. http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=384 … Read More...
Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.

Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.