Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
“How to Date a Black girl, Brown girl, Halfie or White girl” written by Junot Diaz

“How to Date a Black girl, Brown girl, Halfie or White girl” written by Junot Diaz

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HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

Chapter 06 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A Which of the following represents an example of intraspecific exploitation competition? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A A species’s realized niche _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Two species of ant compete for limited resources in a front yard, until only one species is able to remain. This is an example of _____. ANSWER: Hungry and fighting for a meal, a jackal quickly consumes the carcass of a young antelope while fighting off the feeding efforts of a vulture. Two species of worker ants converge on pieces of a donut left behind from the people in the park. The leaves of the huge hickory tree overshadow the young hickory tree saplings struggling for light just below. Spotting a fresh source of grasses, the large male bison moves over to graze, pushing the smaller bison out of the way. is smaller than the fundamental niche because of the constraints of competition is broader than a species’s fundamental niche does not overlap with similar species includes environmental conditions that are not included in the fundamental niche Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A In which of the following situations would we expect a parasite to spread the fastest? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Many plants have evolved adaptations to discourage herbivore feeding. Which one of the following is an example of such coevolution between bison and prairie plants? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A When predators selectively prey on the old and sick members of a prey population, they _____. ANSWER: mutualism intraspecific competition the competitive exclusion principle niche differentiation concentrated hosts with slowly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with rapidly moving vectors concentrated hosts with rapidly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with slow-moving vectors the ability to regrow after a wildfire thorns the production of nutritious fruits longer and thicker roots Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Cattle egrets are large white birds that follow grazing cattle. The cattle disturb the grass and stir up insects upon which the egrets feed. The cattle do not seem to mind the birds and gain nothing from this relationship. This relationship between cattle and cattle egrets is a type of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following is a mutualistic relationship that has a significant effect on an entire ecological community? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Which one of the following relationships would be considered a win/win? ANSWER: cause the overall health of the prey population to increase illustrate the process of prey switching increase the likelihood of parasitic infections of the prey cause the overall health of the prey population to decrease parasitism commensalism mimicry mutualism Polar bears are the top predator influencing the abundance of seals and sea lions in a region. Hermit crabs inhabit the abandoned shells of marine snails that died long ago. Fungus-plant root associations benefit most of the plants living in a prairie. Mosquitoes function as a vector in the widespread transmission of malaria to people living in Ecuador. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In examining a terrestrial food web, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Energy is lost as it moves from one trophic level to the next because _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The research on the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park reveals that in this ecosystem, wolves represent _____. ANSWER: mutualism predation parasitism commensalism biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of producers number of secondary consumers exceeds the number of producers biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of secondary consumers number of tertiary consumers exceeds the number of secondary consumers one trophic level does not consume the entire trophic level below it some of the calories consumed drive cellular activities and do not add mass some ingested materials are undigested and eliminated All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Overhunting of deer followed by a very difficult winter caused the deer population on an island to drop by 80%. In the next two years, visitors to the island were surprised to see many young trees sprouting up at the edges of the forest. This change in the number of saplings as a result of the decline of the deer population represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount Saint Helens blasted away soil and produced massive mudflows that scoured the adjacent region down to bare rock. Pumice rock that covered the area is eroding down to smaller gravel. This situation represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A In some ecosystems, succession increases the chance of disturbance. In these ecosystems, _____. a keystone producer a keystone herbivore a vital primary consumer a keystone predator a trophic cascade a decline in trophic level efficiency the emergence of a new ecological community a loss of a trophic level from a food web primary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with several ecological legacies primary succession with several ecological legacies Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A A forest is logged, leaving behind the seeds and saplings of many shrubs and trees. These seeds and saplings represent _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A During primary succession, populations of different species replace one another over time because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following represents a climax community in southern Alaska? ANSWER: ecosystems begin again with primary succession climax communities are expected climax communities may not occur disturbances usually result in virtually no ecological legacy ecological legacies a climax community primary succession pioneer species migration facilitation competition All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A In general, _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. the group of species associated with a white spruce forest lichens and mosses that colonize exposed rock birch and alder trees herbs and a few low shrubs that replace lichens and mosses food webs usually have 8-10 trophic levels food webs are interconnected food chains food chains consist of many interrelated food webs food webs consist of either consumers or producers Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A Which of the following represents an example of intraspecific exploitation competition? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 3 Part A A species’s realized niche _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Two species of ant compete for limited resources in a front yard, until only one species is able to remain. This is an example of _____. ANSWER: Hungry and fighting for a meal, a jackal quickly consumes the carcass of a young antelope while fighting off the feeding efforts of a vulture. Two species of worker ants converge on pieces of a donut left behind from the people in the park. The leaves of the huge hickory tree overshadow the young hickory tree saplings struggling for light just below. Spotting a fresh source of grasses, the large male bison moves over to graze, pushing the smaller bison out of the way. is smaller than the fundamental niche because of the constraints of competition is broader than a species’s fundamental niche does not overlap with similar species includes environmental conditions that are not included in the fundamental niche Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A In which of the following situations would we expect a parasite to spread the fastest? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Many plants have evolved adaptations to discourage herbivore feeding. Which one of the following is an example of such coevolution between bison and prairie plants? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A When predators selectively prey on the old and sick members of a prey population, they _____. ANSWER: mutualism intraspecific competition the competitive exclusion principle niche differentiation concentrated hosts with slowly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with rapidly moving vectors concentrated hosts with rapidly moving vectors widely dispersed hosts with slow-moving vectors the ability to regrow after a wildfire thorns the production of nutritious fruits longer and thicker roots Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 21 Part A Cattle egrets are large white birds that follow grazing cattle. The cattle disturb the grass and stir up insects upon which the egrets feed. The cattle do not seem to mind the birds and gain nothing from this relationship. This relationship between cattle and cattle egrets is a type of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A Which of the following is a mutualistic relationship that has a significant effect on an entire ecological community? ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A Which one of the following relationships would be considered a win/win? ANSWER: cause the overall health of the prey population to increase illustrate the process of prey switching increase the likelihood of parasitic infections of the prey cause the overall health of the prey population to decrease parasitism commensalism mimicry mutualism Polar bears are the top predator influencing the abundance of seals and sea lions in a region. Hermit crabs inhabit the abandoned shells of marine snails that died long ago. Fungus-plant root associations benefit most of the plants living in a prairie. Mosquitoes function as a vector in the widespread transmission of malaria to people living in Ecuador. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A In examining a terrestrial food web, we expect that the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Energy is lost as it moves from one trophic level to the next because _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The research on the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park reveals that in this ecosystem, wolves represent _____. ANSWER: mutualism predation parasitism commensalism biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of producers number of secondary consumers exceeds the number of producers biomass of primary consumers exceeds the biomass of secondary consumers number of tertiary consumers exceeds the number of secondary consumers one trophic level does not consume the entire trophic level below it some of the calories consumed drive cellular activities and do not add mass some ingested materials are undigested and eliminated All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Overhunting of deer followed by a very difficult winter caused the deer population on an island to drop by 80%. In the next two years, visitors to the island were surprised to see many young trees sprouting up at the edges of the forest. This change in the number of saplings as a result of the decline of the deer population represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount Saint Helens blasted away soil and produced massive mudflows that scoured the adjacent region down to bare rock. Pumice rock that covered the area is eroding down to smaller gravel. This situation represents _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A In some ecosystems, succession increases the chance of disturbance. In these ecosystems, _____. a keystone producer a keystone herbivore a vital primary consumer a keystone predator a trophic cascade a decline in trophic level efficiency the emergence of a new ecological community a loss of a trophic level from a food web primary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with the removal of all ecological legacies secondary succession with several ecological legacies primary succession with several ecological legacies Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A A forest is logged, leaving behind the seeds and saplings of many shrubs and trees. These seeds and saplings represent _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A During primary succession, populations of different species replace one another over time because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following represents a climax community in southern Alaska? ANSWER: ecosystems begin again with primary succession climax communities are expected climax communities may not occur disturbances usually result in virtually no ecological legacy ecological legacies a climax community primary succession pioneer species migration facilitation competition All of the listed responses are correct. Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 6 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A In general, _____. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. the group of species associated with a white spruce forest lichens and mosses that colonize exposed rock birch and alder trees herbs and a few low shrubs that replace lichens and mosses food webs usually have 8-10 trophic levels food webs are interconnected food chains food chains consist of many interrelated food webs food webs consist of either consumers or producers Chapter 06 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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