Question 1 In order to properly manage expenses, the company investigates the amount of money spent by its sales office. The below numbers are related to six randomly selected receipts provided by the staff. $147 $124 $93 $158 $164 $171 a) Calculate ̅ , s2 and s for the expense data. b) Assume that the distribution of expenses is approximately normally distributed. Calculate estimates of tolerance intervals containing 68.26 percent, 95.44 percent, and 99.73 percent of all expenses by the sales office. c) If a member of the sales office submits a receipt with the amount of $190, should this expense be considered unusually high? Explain your answer. d) Compute and interpret the z-score for each of the six expenses. Question 2 A survey presents the results of a concept study for the taste of new food. Three hundred consumers between 18 and 49 years old were randomly selected. After sampling the new cuisine, each was asked to rate the quality of food. The rating was made on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 representing “extremely agree with the quality” and with 1 representing “not at all agree with the new food.” The results obtained are given in Table 1. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer a) Would give the phrase a rating of 4. b) Would give the phrase a rating of 3 or higher. c) Is in the 18–26 age group; the 27–35 age group; the 36–49 age group. d) Is a male who gives the phrase a rating of 5. e) Is a 36- to 49-year-old who gives the phrase a rating of 2. f) Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer is a 27- to 49-year-old who gives the phrase a rating of 3. g) Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer would 1) give the phrase a rating of 2 or 4 given that the consumer is male; 2) give the phrase a rating of 4 or 5 given that the consumer is female. Based on the results of parts 1 and 2, is the appeal of the phrase among males much different from the appeal of the phrase among females? Explain. h) Give the phrase a rating of 4 or 5, 1) given that the consumer is in the 18–26 age group; 2) given that the consumer is in the 27–35 age group; 3) given that the consumer is in the 36–49 age group. Table 1. Gender Age Group Rating Total Male Female 18-26 27-35 36-49 Extremely Appealing (5) 151 68 83 48 66 37 (4) 91 51 40 36 36 19 (3) 36 21 15 9 12 15 (2) 13 7 6 4 6 3 Not at all appealing(1) 9 3 6 4 3 2 Question 3 Based on the reports provided by the brokers, it is concluded that the annual returns on common stocks are approximately normally distributed with a mean of 17.8 percent and a standard deviation of 29.3 percent. On the other hand, the company reports that the annual returns on tax-free municipal bonds are approximately normally distributed with a mean return of 4.7 percent and a standard deviation of 10.2 percent. Find the probability that a randomly selected a) Common stock will give a positive yearly return. b) Tax-free municipal bond will give a positive yearly return. c) Common stock will give more than a 13 percent return. d) Tax-free municipal bond will give more than a 11.5 percent return. e) Common stock will give a loss of at least 7 percent. f) Tax-free municipal bond will give a loss of at least 10 percent. Question 4 Based on a sample of 176 workers, it is estimated that the mean amount of paid time lost during a three-month period was 1.4 days per employee with a standard deviation of 1.3 days. It is also estimated that the mean amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period was 1.0 day per employee with a standard deviation of 1.8 days. We randomly select a sample of 100 workers. a) What is the probability that the average amount of paid time lost during a three-month period for the 100 blue-collar workers will exceed 1.5 days? Assume σ equals 1.3 days. b) What is the probability that the average amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period for the 100 workers will exceed 1.5 days? Assume σ equals 1.8 days. c) A sample of 100 workers is randomly selected. Suppose the sample mean amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period actually exceeds 1.5 days. Would it be reasonable to conclude that the mean amount of unpaid time lost has increased above the previously estimated 1.0 day? Explain. Assume σ still equals 1.8 days.

Question 1 In order to properly manage expenses, the company investigates the amount of money spent by its sales office. The below numbers are related to six randomly selected receipts provided by the staff. $147 $124 $93 $158 $164 $171 a) Calculate ̅ , s2 and s for the expense data. b) Assume that the distribution of expenses is approximately normally distributed. Calculate estimates of tolerance intervals containing 68.26 percent, 95.44 percent, and 99.73 percent of all expenses by the sales office. c) If a member of the sales office submits a receipt with the amount of $190, should this expense be considered unusually high? Explain your answer. d) Compute and interpret the z-score for each of the six expenses. Question 2 A survey presents the results of a concept study for the taste of new food. Three hundred consumers between 18 and 49 years old were randomly selected. After sampling the new cuisine, each was asked to rate the quality of food. The rating was made on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 representing “extremely agree with the quality” and with 1 representing “not at all agree with the new food.” The results obtained are given in Table 1. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer a) Would give the phrase a rating of 4. b) Would give the phrase a rating of 3 or higher. c) Is in the 18–26 age group; the 27–35 age group; the 36–49 age group. d) Is a male who gives the phrase a rating of 5. e) Is a 36- to 49-year-old who gives the phrase a rating of 2. f) Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer is a 27- to 49-year-old who gives the phrase a rating of 3. g) Estimate the probability that a randomly selected 18- to 49-year-old consumer would 1) give the phrase a rating of 2 or 4 given that the consumer is male; 2) give the phrase a rating of 4 or 5 given that the consumer is female. Based on the results of parts 1 and 2, is the appeal of the phrase among males much different from the appeal of the phrase among females? Explain. h) Give the phrase a rating of 4 or 5, 1) given that the consumer is in the 18–26 age group; 2) given that the consumer is in the 27–35 age group; 3) given that the consumer is in the 36–49 age group. Table 1. Gender Age Group Rating Total Male Female 18-26 27-35 36-49 Extremely Appealing (5) 151 68 83 48 66 37 (4) 91 51 40 36 36 19 (3) 36 21 15 9 12 15 (2) 13 7 6 4 6 3 Not at all appealing(1) 9 3 6 4 3 2 Question 3 Based on the reports provided by the brokers, it is concluded that the annual returns on common stocks are approximately normally distributed with a mean of 17.8 percent and a standard deviation of 29.3 percent. On the other hand, the company reports that the annual returns on tax-free municipal bonds are approximately normally distributed with a mean return of 4.7 percent and a standard deviation of 10.2 percent. Find the probability that a randomly selected a) Common stock will give a positive yearly return. b) Tax-free municipal bond will give a positive yearly return. c) Common stock will give more than a 13 percent return. d) Tax-free municipal bond will give more than a 11.5 percent return. e) Common stock will give a loss of at least 7 percent. f) Tax-free municipal bond will give a loss of at least 10 percent. Question 4 Based on a sample of 176 workers, it is estimated that the mean amount of paid time lost during a three-month period was 1.4 days per employee with a standard deviation of 1.3 days. It is also estimated that the mean amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period was 1.0 day per employee with a standard deviation of 1.8 days. We randomly select a sample of 100 workers. a) What is the probability that the average amount of paid time lost during a three-month period for the 100 blue-collar workers will exceed 1.5 days? Assume σ equals 1.3 days. b) What is the probability that the average amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period for the 100 workers will exceed 1.5 days? Assume σ equals 1.8 days. c) A sample of 100 workers is randomly selected. Suppose the sample mean amount of unpaid time lost during a three-month period actually exceeds 1.5 days. Would it be reasonable to conclude that the mean amount of unpaid time lost has increased above the previously estimated 1.0 day? Explain. Assume σ still equals 1.8 days.

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Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

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1 Hankerson Project Three: Culture and the African American Experience The Media Analysis This project will help you: ?develop your analytical skills. ?expand your understanding of media and how it operates. Background: For this project, we will examine select media representations of the African American culture. These media representations will further our understanding of how media portrayals–specifically African American media portrayals–operate. Ultimately, we will use this knowledge to engage with the overall task for this project which asks us to write a media analysis about a cultural media portrayal of interest. Task: As a frame for this project, we will draw from Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hopdz which explores Afrobella’s perceptions of the state of hip hop. Your task for this project will be to compose a media analysis about Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hop.dz Alternatively, you may wish to write a media analysis about another cultural media portrayal. In either case, you are asked to perform a thoughtful, close analysis of the media source. In specific, in either case, you are asked to: 1) interpret the underlying messages or implications that exist within themedia source, and 2) interpret the effectiveness of the media source.

1 Hankerson Project Three: Culture and the African American Experience The Media Analysis This project will help you: ?develop your analytical skills. ?expand your understanding of media and how it operates. Background: For this project, we will examine select media representations of the African American culture. These media representations will further our understanding of how media portrayals–specifically African American media portrayals–operate. Ultimately, we will use this knowledge to engage with the overall task for this project which asks us to write a media analysis about a cultural media portrayal of interest. Task: As a frame for this project, we will draw from Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hopdz which explores Afrobella’s perceptions of the state of hip hop. Your task for this project will be to compose a media analysis about Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hop.dz Alternatively, you may wish to write a media analysis about another cultural media portrayal. In either case, you are asked to perform a thoughtful, close analysis of the media source. In specific, in either case, you are asked to: 1) interpret the underlying messages or implications that exist within themedia source, and 2) interpret the effectiveness of the media source.

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Consciously and sub-consciously we have “boxed” leadership in the same way. Looking back we interpret events and interactions, sort out the relevant and important, and apply meaning to the events. This assignment we will use Steve Jobs as our point of focus and our source for leadership events– our retrospective examination of his life as a leader. Assess Jobs as a leader from each perspective: 1. Traits (why traits failed) 2. Style (why style was underutilized) 3. Skills (skills that should have been used) Explain how Jobs’ leadership is explained through the lens of each: 1. Path-Goal 2. LMX 3. Transactional 4. Transformational 5. Charismatic 6. Authentic Non-traditional: 1. Follower (was Jobs a follower, how were followers a part of Jobs’ leadership?) 2. Conclusion (final heading – best represents Jobs and why others were ruled out) • APA format (margins, font, spacing) • APA in-text citations when needed • APA reference page • Proofread for grammar and content • Ensure that all headings and questions are addressed See agenda for headings Remember, this is a detailed analysis. Each of the above (a-j) should be a heading and explain how Jobs, as a leader, represents (or does not represent) the corresponding school of thought. Provide supplemental sources to give your position more credibility, but keep in mind that this is not a biography of Jobs (there are many recent biographies that do not qualify as acceptable sources for this assignment). Finally, which leadership perspective best identifies Steve Jobs as a leader? Explain why, and explain why other options were ruled out (k).

Consciously and sub-consciously we have “boxed” leadership in the same way. Looking back we interpret events and interactions, sort out the relevant and important, and apply meaning to the events. This assignment we will use Steve Jobs as our point of focus and our source for leadership events– our retrospective examination of his life as a leader. Assess Jobs as a leader from each perspective: 1. Traits (why traits failed) 2. Style (why style was underutilized) 3. Skills (skills that should have been used) Explain how Jobs’ leadership is explained through the lens of each: 1. Path-Goal 2. LMX 3. Transactional 4. Transformational 5. Charismatic 6. Authentic Non-traditional: 1. Follower (was Jobs a follower, how were followers a part of Jobs’ leadership?) 2. Conclusion (final heading – best represents Jobs and why others were ruled out) • APA format (margins, font, spacing) • APA in-text citations when needed • APA reference page • Proofread for grammar and content • Ensure that all headings and questions are addressed See agenda for headings Remember, this is a detailed analysis. Each of the above (a-j) should be a heading and explain how Jobs, as a leader, represents (or does not represent) the corresponding school of thought. Provide supplemental sources to give your position more credibility, but keep in mind that this is not a biography of Jobs (there are many recent biographies that do not qualify as acceptable sources for this assignment). Finally, which leadership perspective best identifies Steve Jobs as a leader? Explain why, and explain why other options were ruled out (k).

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Paper 2. Cultural Analysis Essay Overview: The second paper for our class will be a cultural analysis. You will choose an artifact common in American culture and use the object as a way to understand an aspect of American culture. Analysis: The word analysis derives from a Greek word meaning “to dissolve, loosen, or undo.” In a sense, analysis means to divide the whole into its parts, to examine those parts carefully, to look at the relationships among the parts, and then to use this understanding of the parts to better understand the whole. Synonyms for writing to analyze would be writing to interpret, clarify and explain. Purpose: When you write to analyze, you apply your own critical thinking to a puzzling object to offer your own ideas. Your goal is raise interesting questions and make interesting observations about the object or event being analyzed. These may be questions that your audience hasn’t even thought to ask. And you will need to provide tentative answers to those questions, supported by your close examination. Analysis—not Evaluation: Please keep in mind that your purpose is to explore and explain why an artifact is important in American culture and what it says about American culture. However, you are not writing about whether or not this aspect of the culture is good or bad. You should not talk about whether or not the people who engage with this artifact are good or bad for doing so. Format: The first draft will be three typed pages, and you will bring to class 2 copies. It should have your name on every page. Ideally, it will be in MLA (Modern Language Association) format, though this is not important at that stage. See the format of the paper in the example below. Details: For your analysis, you must choose a cultural artifact and explain what this artifact says about an aspect of American culture. Please look through the class PowerPoint on Blackboard entitles “Analysis of a Cultural Artifact” to see a thorough description of the process of analysis. Assessment: In this essay, I am looking for • Superior essays will chose a good artifact, a take readers through a thorough investigation to the artifact to interpret, clarify and explain what the artifact demonstrates about American culture. • well-formed, clear sentences • unified and coherent paragraphs • use of standard grammar, diction, and mechanics of American English. Sample Paper Format (on back) Last Name 1 Your Full Name Dr. Riley-Brown ENG 110: Composition Essay 2 Date Title of Paper Centered This is where the first line of your paper will go. Double space beneath your title and indent the first line of each paragraph five (5) spaces. The essay should have margins that are one each on each side. You should use Times New Roman font in 12 point font size.

Paper 2. Cultural Analysis Essay Overview: The second paper for our class will be a cultural analysis. You will choose an artifact common in American culture and use the object as a way to understand an aspect of American culture. Analysis: The word analysis derives from a Greek word meaning “to dissolve, loosen, or undo.” In a sense, analysis means to divide the whole into its parts, to examine those parts carefully, to look at the relationships among the parts, and then to use this understanding of the parts to better understand the whole. Synonyms for writing to analyze would be writing to interpret, clarify and explain. Purpose: When you write to analyze, you apply your own critical thinking to a puzzling object to offer your own ideas. Your goal is raise interesting questions and make interesting observations about the object or event being analyzed. These may be questions that your audience hasn’t even thought to ask. And you will need to provide tentative answers to those questions, supported by your close examination. Analysis—not Evaluation: Please keep in mind that your purpose is to explore and explain why an artifact is important in American culture and what it says about American culture. However, you are not writing about whether or not this aspect of the culture is good or bad. You should not talk about whether or not the people who engage with this artifact are good or bad for doing so. Format: The first draft will be three typed pages, and you will bring to class 2 copies. It should have your name on every page. Ideally, it will be in MLA (Modern Language Association) format, though this is not important at that stage. See the format of the paper in the example below. Details: For your analysis, you must choose a cultural artifact and explain what this artifact says about an aspect of American culture. Please look through the class PowerPoint on Blackboard entitles “Analysis of a Cultural Artifact” to see a thorough description of the process of analysis. Assessment: In this essay, I am looking for • Superior essays will chose a good artifact, a take readers through a thorough investigation to the artifact to interpret, clarify and explain what the artifact demonstrates about American culture. • well-formed, clear sentences • unified and coherent paragraphs • use of standard grammar, diction, and mechanics of American English. Sample Paper Format (on back) Last Name 1 Your Full Name Dr. Riley-Brown ENG 110: Composition Essay 2 Date Title of Paper Centered This is where the first line of your paper will go. Double space beneath your title and indent the first line of each paragraph five (5) spaces. The essay should have margins that are one each on each side. You should use Times New Roman font in 12 point font size.

Module Overview Summary of Module Description For full details, go to Module Descriptor. Aims The aim of this module is to: • Develop individuals for a career in business and management • Enhance and develop employability , professional and lifelong learning skills and personal development Learning Outcomes Learners will be able to critically evaluate the acquisition of a range of academic and professional skills using a number of theoretical frameworks. Assessment – Summary Category Assessment Description Duration Word Count Weight (%) Written Assignment Essay 1 Reflective Essay N/A 3000 45 For full details, go to Assessment. Additional Information Remember that a variety of Resources is available to support your learning materials.Skills and character audit This document provides an initial picture of your skills and character. It will also provide the basis of further documents that make up the first assignment on the module. It is based on the skills statements that form a fundamental part of your Masters programme which were approved by a validation panel that consisted of members of staff in the Business School, academic staff from other higher education institutions and employers. The statements in the form are there for you and you will not be judged on whether your responses are positive or negative. The responses should enable you to identify what you are good or bad at from which you can create a personal SLOT analysis (Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities, Threats). From this SLOT analysis you can then concentrate on developing certain areas that will enhance your academic and professional development. We would very much like to” get to know” you through this document and would encourage you to also complete the notes section. In this you could give us a rationale for your responses to the questions. As a guide to how you should gauge your response consider the following: Strongly agree – I have a wide range of experience in this area and have been commended by a tutor or employer for my efforts in this area Agree – I am comfortable with this aspect and have been able to demonstrate my ability Disagree – I am Ok with this but realise that I do need to improve Strongly disagree – I know I am weak in this area and need to focus on this as I could fine this weakness to be detrimental to my progression Explain why – please take the room to consider the reasons for your answer as this is the reflection that is of most value. Do not worry if your section spills onto the next page.   Intellectual (thinking) skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am a creative person who can adapt my thinking to circumstances I am able to organise my thoughts, analyse, synthesise and critically appraise situations I can identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning, identify implicit values, define terms adequately and generalise appropriately Explain why: Professional/Vocational skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I use a wide range of techniques in approaching and solving problems. I am comfortable with a range of research techniques I am able to analyse and interpret quantitative data I am able to analyse and interpret qualitative data My leadership skills are well developed and I can adapt them to different situations I am able to manage people effectively Motivating myself and others comes easy to me I am aware of my responsibilities to myself, the organisation and other people I treat people with respect and consideration Explain why:   Key/Common skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am able to use mathematical techniques to analyse data I can effectively interpret numerical data including tables and charts I am able to use a wide range of software on a PC I use a range Information Technology devices to communicate and access information I am a good listener I am able to communicate my ideas well in a face-to-face situation I can adapt my written style to suit an audiences needs I am comfortable presenting my ideas to an audience Whenever I have completed a task I always reflect on the experience with a view to seeking continuous improvement I manage my time effectively I am always prompt when asked to complete a task I am aware of the need to be sensitive to the cultural differences to which I have been exposed I am keen to learn about other people and their country and culture I enjoy working with others to complete a task I know my own character and am sensitive of this in a group situation I understand that a group is made of individuals and I am sensitive to the needs and preferences of others I will always ensure that I get my views across in a meeting I am willing to accept the viewpoint of others I always give 100% in a group task Explain why: SLOT Analysis Having responded to the statements above you should now be in a position to look forward and recognise those areas on which your development will be based. The SLOT analysis can help you to arrange this. Strengths – can be those skills and characteristics to which you have responded positively to in the previous section. It is worth noting that whilst you may be strong in these areas that does not mean you ignore their development. Indeed you may be able to utilise these strengths in the development of areas identified as weaknesses or to overcome strengths, this will enhance those skills and characteristics. Limitations – All of us can identify some sort of limitation to our skills. None of us should be afraid of doing this as this is the first stage on the improvement and development of these weaknesses. Opportunities – These arise or can be created. When thinking of this look ahead at opportunities that will arise in a professional, academic or social context within which your development can take place. Threats – Many threats from your development can come from within – your own characteristics e.g. poor time management can lead to missing deadlines. However we could equally identify a busy lifestyle as a threat to our development. Once again think widely in terms of where the threat will come from. Do not worry if you find that a strength can also be a limitation. This is often true as a characteristic you have may be strength in one situation but a limitation in another. E.g. you may be an assertive person, which is positive, but this could be negative in a group situation. Please try and elaborate this in the notes section at the foot of the table. SLOT Analysis (you may need to use two pages to set out this analysis) Strengths Limitations Opportunities Threats Analysis of the Bullet points in the SLOT table Objectives Having undertaken some analysis of your skills and characteristics the aim of this next section is to identify various aspects of your development during the course of this module, other modules on your course, and extra-curricular activities. Make sure the objectives are SMART:- S – Specific. Clearly identified from the exercises undertaken M – Measurable. The outcomes can be easily demonstrated (to yourself, and where possible others) A – Achievable. They can be done given the opportunities available to you R – Relevant. They form part of your development either on this award, in your employability prospects or in your current job role T – Timebound. They can be achieved within a given timescale Whilst there are 5 rows in the table below, please feel free to add more. However be sure that you need to do this development and that they fit within the scope of the above criteria. Area What I am going to do. How I am going to do it When I am going to do it by Force Field Analysis This technique was designed by Kurt Lewin (1947 and 1953). In the business world it is used for decision making, looking at forces that need to be considered when implementing change – it can be said to be a specialised method of weighing up the pros and cons of a decision. Having looked at your personal strengths and weaknesses we would like you to use this technique to become aware of those factors that will help/hinder, give you motivation for or may act against, your personal development. Whilst you could do this for each of your objectives we want you to think in terms of where you would like to be at the end of your Masters programme. In the central pillar, put in a statement of where you want to be at the end of the course. Then in the arrows either side look at those factors/forces that may work in your favour. Be realistic and please add as many arrows that you think may be necessary; use a separate page for the module if it makes it easier to structure your thoughts. Forces or factors working for achieving your desired outcome Where I want to be Forces or factors against working against you achieving your desired outcome

Module Overview Summary of Module Description For full details, go to Module Descriptor. Aims The aim of this module is to: • Develop individuals for a career in business and management • Enhance and develop employability , professional and lifelong learning skills and personal development Learning Outcomes Learners will be able to critically evaluate the acquisition of a range of academic and professional skills using a number of theoretical frameworks. Assessment – Summary Category Assessment Description Duration Word Count Weight (%) Written Assignment Essay 1 Reflective Essay N/A 3000 45 For full details, go to Assessment. Additional Information Remember that a variety of Resources is available to support your learning materials.Skills and character audit This document provides an initial picture of your skills and character. It will also provide the basis of further documents that make up the first assignment on the module. It is based on the skills statements that form a fundamental part of your Masters programme which were approved by a validation panel that consisted of members of staff in the Business School, academic staff from other higher education institutions and employers. The statements in the form are there for you and you will not be judged on whether your responses are positive or negative. The responses should enable you to identify what you are good or bad at from which you can create a personal SLOT analysis (Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities, Threats). From this SLOT analysis you can then concentrate on developing certain areas that will enhance your academic and professional development. We would very much like to” get to know” you through this document and would encourage you to also complete the notes section. In this you could give us a rationale for your responses to the questions. As a guide to how you should gauge your response consider the following: Strongly agree – I have a wide range of experience in this area and have been commended by a tutor or employer for my efforts in this area Agree – I am comfortable with this aspect and have been able to demonstrate my ability Disagree – I am Ok with this but realise that I do need to improve Strongly disagree – I know I am weak in this area and need to focus on this as I could fine this weakness to be detrimental to my progression Explain why – please take the room to consider the reasons for your answer as this is the reflection that is of most value. Do not worry if your section spills onto the next page.   Intellectual (thinking) skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am a creative person who can adapt my thinking to circumstances I am able to organise my thoughts, analyse, synthesise and critically appraise situations I can identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning, identify implicit values, define terms adequately and generalise appropriately Explain why: Professional/Vocational skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I use a wide range of techniques in approaching and solving problems. I am comfortable with a range of research techniques I am able to analyse and interpret quantitative data I am able to analyse and interpret qualitative data My leadership skills are well developed and I can adapt them to different situations I am able to manage people effectively Motivating myself and others comes easy to me I am aware of my responsibilities to myself, the organisation and other people I treat people with respect and consideration Explain why:   Key/Common skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am able to use mathematical techniques to analyse data I can effectively interpret numerical data including tables and charts I am able to use a wide range of software on a PC I use a range Information Technology devices to communicate and access information I am a good listener I am able to communicate my ideas well in a face-to-face situation I can adapt my written style to suit an audiences needs I am comfortable presenting my ideas to an audience Whenever I have completed a task I always reflect on the experience with a view to seeking continuous improvement I manage my time effectively I am always prompt when asked to complete a task I am aware of the need to be sensitive to the cultural differences to which I have been exposed I am keen to learn about other people and their country and culture I enjoy working with others to complete a task I know my own character and am sensitive of this in a group situation I understand that a group is made of individuals and I am sensitive to the needs and preferences of others I will always ensure that I get my views across in a meeting I am willing to accept the viewpoint of others I always give 100% in a group task Explain why: SLOT Analysis Having responded to the statements above you should now be in a position to look forward and recognise those areas on which your development will be based. The SLOT analysis can help you to arrange this. Strengths – can be those skills and characteristics to which you have responded positively to in the previous section. It is worth noting that whilst you may be strong in these areas that does not mean you ignore their development. Indeed you may be able to utilise these strengths in the development of areas identified as weaknesses or to overcome strengths, this will enhance those skills and characteristics. Limitations – All of us can identify some sort of limitation to our skills. None of us should be afraid of doing this as this is the first stage on the improvement and development of these weaknesses. Opportunities – These arise or can be created. When thinking of this look ahead at opportunities that will arise in a professional, academic or social context within which your development can take place. Threats – Many threats from your development can come from within – your own characteristics e.g. poor time management can lead to missing deadlines. However we could equally identify a busy lifestyle as a threat to our development. Once again think widely in terms of where the threat will come from. Do not worry if you find that a strength can also be a limitation. This is often true as a characteristic you have may be strength in one situation but a limitation in another. E.g. you may be an assertive person, which is positive, but this could be negative in a group situation. Please try and elaborate this in the notes section at the foot of the table. SLOT Analysis (you may need to use two pages to set out this analysis) Strengths Limitations Opportunities Threats Analysis of the Bullet points in the SLOT table Objectives Having undertaken some analysis of your skills and characteristics the aim of this next section is to identify various aspects of your development during the course of this module, other modules on your course, and extra-curricular activities. Make sure the objectives are SMART:- S – Specific. Clearly identified from the exercises undertaken M – Measurable. The outcomes can be easily demonstrated (to yourself, and where possible others) A – Achievable. They can be done given the opportunities available to you R – Relevant. They form part of your development either on this award, in your employability prospects or in your current job role T – Timebound. They can be achieved within a given timescale Whilst there are 5 rows in the table below, please feel free to add more. However be sure that you need to do this development and that they fit within the scope of the above criteria. Area What I am going to do. How I am going to do it When I am going to do it by Force Field Analysis This technique was designed by Kurt Lewin (1947 and 1953). In the business world it is used for decision making, looking at forces that need to be considered when implementing change – it can be said to be a specialised method of weighing up the pros and cons of a decision. Having looked at your personal strengths and weaknesses we would like you to use this technique to become aware of those factors that will help/hinder, give you motivation for or may act against, your personal development. Whilst you could do this for each of your objectives we want you to think in terms of where you would like to be at the end of your Masters programme. In the central pillar, put in a statement of where you want to be at the end of the course. Then in the arrows either side look at those factors/forces that may work in your favour. Be realistic and please add as many arrows that you think may be necessary; use a separate page for the module if it makes it easier to structure your thoughts. Forces or factors working for achieving your desired outcome Where I want to be Forces or factors against working against you achieving your desired outcome

  Intellectual (thinking) skills   Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly … Read More...
BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Take Home Exam 3: Special Note Before Starting the Exam: If you scan your solutions to the exam and save it as a pdf or image file and put it on dropbox and I can not read it or open it, you will not receive credit for the exam. Furthermore, if you write the solutions up in word, latex ect. and give me a print out, which does not include all the pages you will not get credit for the missing pages. Also if your folder on dropbox is not clearly labeled and I can not find your exam then you will not get credit for the exam. Finally, please make sure you put your name on the exam!! Math 2100 Exam 3, Out of Class, Due by December 8th, 2015 at 5:00 pm. Name: Problem 1. (15 points) A random variable is said to have the (standard) Cauchy distribution if its PDF is given by f (x) = 1 π 1 1+ x2 , −∞< x <∞ This problem uses computer simulations to demonstrate that a) samples from this distribution often have extreme outliers (a consequence of the heavy tails of the distribution), and b) the sample mean is prone to the same type of outliers. Below is a graph of the pdf a) (5 points) The R commands x=rcauchy(500); summary(x) generate a random sample of size 500 from the Cauchy distribution and display the sample’s five number summary; Report the five number summary and the interquartile range, and comment on whether or not the smallest and largest numbers generated from this sample of 500 are outliers. Repeat this 10 times. b) (5 points) The R commands m=matrix(rcauchy(50000), nrow=500); xb=apply(m,1,mean);summary(xb) generate the matrix m that has 500 rows, each of which is a sample of size n=100 from the Cauchy distribution, compute the 500 sample means and store them in xb. and display the five number summary xb. Repeat these commands 10 times, and report the 10 sets of five number summaries. Compare with the 10 sets of five number summaries from part (a), and comment on whether or not the distribution of the averages seems to be more prone to extreme outliers as that of the individual observations. c) (5 points) Why does this happen? (hint: try to calculate E(X) and V(X) for this distribution) and does the LLN and CLT apply for samples from a Cauchy distribution? Hint: E(X) is undefined for this distribution unless you use the Cauchy Principle Value as such for the mean lim a→∞ xf (x)dx −a a∫ In addition x2 1+ x2 dx = x2 +1−1 1+ x2 dx = 1− 1 1+ x2 " # $ % & ' ∫ ∫ ∫ dx 1 1+ x2 dx = tan−1 ∫ x +C Problem 2. (5 points) A marketing expert for a pasta-making company believes that 40% of pasta lovers prefer lasagna. If 9 out of 20 pasta lovers choose lasagna over other pastas, what can be concluded about the expert's claim? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 3. (10 points) A coin is tossed 20 times, resulting in 5 heads. Is this sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis that the coin is balanced in favor of the alternative that heads occur less than 50% of the time (essentially is this significant evidence to claim that the coin is unbalanced in favor of tails)? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 4. (25 points) Since the chemical benzene may cause cancer, the federal government has set the maximum allowable benzene concentration in the workplace at 1 part per million (1 ppm) Suppose that a steel manufacturing plant is under investigation for possible violations regarding benzene level. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will analyze 14 air samples over a one-month period. Assume normality of the population from which the samples were drawn. a) (3 points) What is an appropriate null hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) b) (3 points) What is an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) c) (3 points) What kind of hypothesis test is this: left-tailed, right-tailed or two-tailed? Explain how you picked your answer. d) (3 points) Is this a one-sample t-test or a one-sample test using a normal distribution? Explain how you picked your answer. e) (4 points) If the test using this sample of size 14 is to be done at the 1% significance level, calculate the critical value(s) and describe the rejection region(s) for the test statistic. Show your work. f) (5 points) OHSA finds the following for their sample of size 14: a mean benzene level of 1.51 ppm and a standard deviation of 1.415 ppm. What should be concluded at the 1% significance level? Support your answer with calculation(s) and reasoning. g) (4 points) Calculate the p-value for this test and verify that this answer would lead to the same conclusion you made in part f. Problem 5. (15 points) A normally distributed random variable Y possesses a mean of μ = 20 and a standard deviation of σ = 5. A random sample of n = 31 observations is to be selected. Let X be the sample average. (X in this problem is really x _ ) a)(5 points) Describe the sampling distribution of X (i.e. describe the distribution of X and give μx, σx ) b) (5 points) Find the z-score of x = 22 c) (5 points) Find P(X ≥ 22) = Problem 6. (10 points) A restaurants receipts show that the cost of customers' dinners has a distribution with a mean of $54 and a standard deviation of $18. What is the probability that the next 100 customers will spend a total of at least $5800 on dinner? Problem 7. (10 points) The operations manager of a large production plant would like to estimate the mean amount of time a worker takes to assemble a new electronic component. Assume that the standard deviation of this assembly time is 3.6 minutes and is normally distributed. a) (3 points) After observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, the manager noticed that their average time was 16.2 minutes. Construct a 92% confidence interval for the mean assembly time. b) (2 points) How many workers should be involved in this study in order to have the mean assembly time estimated up to ± 15 seconds with 92% confidence? c) (5 points) Construct a 92% confidence interval if instead of observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, rather the manager observes 25 workers and notice their average time was 16.2 minutes with a standard deviation of 4.0 minutes. Problem 8. (10 points): A manufacturer of candy must monitor the temperature at which the candies are baked. Too much variation will cause inconsistency in the taste of the candy. Past records show that the standard deviation of the temperature has been 1.2oF . A random sample of 30 batches of candy is selected, and the sample standard deviation of the temperature is 2.1oF . a. (5 points) At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population standard deviation has increased above 1.2oF ? b. (3 points) What assumption do you need to make in order to perform this test? c. (2 points) Compute the p-value in (a) and interpret its meaning.

Take Home Exam 3: Special Note Before Starting the Exam: If you scan your solutions to the exam and save it as a pdf or image file and put it on dropbox and I can not read it or open it, you will not receive credit for the exam. Furthermore, if you write the solutions up in word, latex ect. and give me a print out, which does not include all the pages you will not get credit for the missing pages. Also if your folder on dropbox is not clearly labeled and I can not find your exam then you will not get credit for the exam. Finally, please make sure you put your name on the exam!! Math 2100 Exam 3, Out of Class, Due by December 8th, 2015 at 5:00 pm. Name: Problem 1. (15 points) A random variable is said to have the (standard) Cauchy distribution if its PDF is given by f (x) = 1 π 1 1+ x2 , −∞< x <∞ This problem uses computer simulations to demonstrate that a) samples from this distribution often have extreme outliers (a consequence of the heavy tails of the distribution), and b) the sample mean is prone to the same type of outliers. Below is a graph of the pdf a) (5 points) The R commands x=rcauchy(500); summary(x) generate a random sample of size 500 from the Cauchy distribution and display the sample’s five number summary; Report the five number summary and the interquartile range, and comment on whether or not the smallest and largest numbers generated from this sample of 500 are outliers. Repeat this 10 times. b) (5 points) The R commands m=matrix(rcauchy(50000), nrow=500); xb=apply(m,1,mean);summary(xb) generate the matrix m that has 500 rows, each of which is a sample of size n=100 from the Cauchy distribution, compute the 500 sample means and store them in xb. and display the five number summary xb. Repeat these commands 10 times, and report the 10 sets of five number summaries. Compare with the 10 sets of five number summaries from part (a), and comment on whether or not the distribution of the averages seems to be more prone to extreme outliers as that of the individual observations. c) (5 points) Why does this happen? (hint: try to calculate E(X) and V(X) for this distribution) and does the LLN and CLT apply for samples from a Cauchy distribution? Hint: E(X) is undefined for this distribution unless you use the Cauchy Principle Value as such for the mean lim a→∞ xf (x)dx −a a∫ In addition x2 1+ x2 dx = x2 +1−1 1+ x2 dx = 1− 1 1+ x2 " # $ % & ' ∫ ∫ ∫ dx 1 1+ x2 dx = tan−1 ∫ x +C Problem 2. (5 points) A marketing expert for a pasta-making company believes that 40% of pasta lovers prefer lasagna. If 9 out of 20 pasta lovers choose lasagna over other pastas, what can be concluded about the expert's claim? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 3. (10 points) A coin is tossed 20 times, resulting in 5 heads. Is this sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis that the coin is balanced in favor of the alternative that heads occur less than 50% of the time (essentially is this significant evidence to claim that the coin is unbalanced in favor of tails)? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 4. (25 points) Since the chemical benzene may cause cancer, the federal government has set the maximum allowable benzene concentration in the workplace at 1 part per million (1 ppm) Suppose that a steel manufacturing plant is under investigation for possible violations regarding benzene level. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will analyze 14 air samples over a one-month period. Assume normality of the population from which the samples were drawn. a) (3 points) What is an appropriate null hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) b) (3 points) What is an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) c) (3 points) What kind of hypothesis test is this: left-tailed, right-tailed or two-tailed? Explain how you picked your answer. d) (3 points) Is this a one-sample t-test or a one-sample test using a normal distribution? Explain how you picked your answer. e) (4 points) If the test using this sample of size 14 is to be done at the 1% significance level, calculate the critical value(s) and describe the rejection region(s) for the test statistic. Show your work. f) (5 points) OHSA finds the following for their sample of size 14: a mean benzene level of 1.51 ppm and a standard deviation of 1.415 ppm. What should be concluded at the 1% significance level? Support your answer with calculation(s) and reasoning. g) (4 points) Calculate the p-value for this test and verify that this answer would lead to the same conclusion you made in part f. Problem 5. (15 points) A normally distributed random variable Y possesses a mean of μ = 20 and a standard deviation of σ = 5. A random sample of n = 31 observations is to be selected. Let X be the sample average. (X in this problem is really x _ ) a)(5 points) Describe the sampling distribution of X (i.e. describe the distribution of X and give μx, σx ) b) (5 points) Find the z-score of x = 22 c) (5 points) Find P(X ≥ 22) = Problem 6. (10 points) A restaurants receipts show that the cost of customers' dinners has a distribution with a mean of $54 and a standard deviation of $18. What is the probability that the next 100 customers will spend a total of at least $5800 on dinner? Problem 7. (10 points) The operations manager of a large production plant would like to estimate the mean amount of time a worker takes to assemble a new electronic component. Assume that the standard deviation of this assembly time is 3.6 minutes and is normally distributed. a) (3 points) After observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, the manager noticed that their average time was 16.2 minutes. Construct a 92% confidence interval for the mean assembly time. b) (2 points) How many workers should be involved in this study in order to have the mean assembly time estimated up to ± 15 seconds with 92% confidence? c) (5 points) Construct a 92% confidence interval if instead of observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, rather the manager observes 25 workers and notice their average time was 16.2 minutes with a standard deviation of 4.0 minutes. Problem 8. (10 points): A manufacturer of candy must monitor the temperature at which the candies are baked. Too much variation will cause inconsistency in the taste of the candy. Past records show that the standard deviation of the temperature has been 1.2oF . A random sample of 30 batches of candy is selected, and the sample standard deviation of the temperature is 2.1oF . a. (5 points) At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population standard deviation has increased above 1.2oF ? b. (3 points) What assumption do you need to make in order to perform this test? c. (2 points) Compute the p-value in (a) and interpret its meaning.

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art 1: Some of the more characteristic doctrines of the Enlightenment focused on the power and goodness of human rationality: 1) Reason is the most significant and positive capacity of the human; 2) reason enables one to break free from primitive, dogmatic, and superstitious beliefs holding one in the bonds of irrationality and ignorance; 3) in realizing the liberating potential of reason, one not only learns to think correctly, but to act correctly as well; 4) through philosophical and scientific progress, reason can lead humanity as a whole to a state of earthly perfection; 5) reason makes all humans equal and, therefore, deserving of equal liberty and treatment before the law; 6) beliefs of any sort should be accepted only on the basis of reason, and not on traditional or priestly authority; and 7) all human endeavors should seek to impart and develop knowledge, not feelings or character. (pbs.com) Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson embodied the Age of Enlightenment. Use your choice of three of the seven doctrines to explain and prove these author’s philosophies. Make sure you draw on our readings to support your choices. Next, consider and discuss how these doctrines have been advanced, tested, and revised as the nation has grown and evolved. Part II: Briefly describe several, meaning more than two, of the conditions of the slave ship as experienced by Olaudah Equiano and related in his narrative. Compare his narrative to that of Phillis Wheatley’s experience. You must use selected quotes from each, but then interpret, in your own words, what the quotes mean and what their impact is on the reader.

art 1: Some of the more characteristic doctrines of the Enlightenment focused on the power and goodness of human rationality: 1) Reason is the most significant and positive capacity of the human; 2) reason enables one to break free from primitive, dogmatic, and superstitious beliefs holding one in the bonds of irrationality and ignorance; 3) in realizing the liberating potential of reason, one not only learns to think correctly, but to act correctly as well; 4) through philosophical and scientific progress, reason can lead humanity as a whole to a state of earthly perfection; 5) reason makes all humans equal and, therefore, deserving of equal liberty and treatment before the law; 6) beliefs of any sort should be accepted only on the basis of reason, and not on traditional or priestly authority; and 7) all human endeavors should seek to impart and develop knowledge, not feelings or character. (pbs.com) Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson embodied the Age of Enlightenment. Use your choice of three of the seven doctrines to explain and prove these author’s philosophies. Make sure you draw on our readings to support your choices. Next, consider and discuss how these doctrines have been advanced, tested, and revised as the nation has grown and evolved. Part II: Briefly describe several, meaning more than two, of the conditions of the slave ship as experienced by Olaudah Equiano and related in his narrative. Compare his narrative to that of Phillis Wheatley’s experience. You must use selected quotes from each, but then interpret, in your own words, what the quotes mean and what their impact is on the reader.

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