Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Standard based Curriculum In standard based curriculum, the initial point … Read More...
Members of the kingdom Animalia can obtain their food by eating other organisms. can obtain their food either by absorption or by photosynthesis. are composed of cells that lack a cell membrane. make their own food through photosynthesis

Members of the kingdom Animalia can obtain their food by eating other organisms. can obtain their food either by absorption or by photosynthesis. are composed of cells that lack a cell membrane. make their own food through photosynthesis

can obtain their food by eating other organisms
Define: 41 Things Philosophy is: 1. Ignorant 2. Selfish 3. Ironic 4. Plain 5. Misunderstood 6. A failure 7. Poor 8. Unscientific 9. Unteachable 10. Foolish 11. Abnormal 12. Divine trickery 13. Egalitarian 14. A divine calling 15. Laborious 16. Countercultural 17. Uncomfortable 18. Virtuous 19. Dangerous 20. Simplistic<br />21. Polemical 22. Therapeutic 23. “conformist” 24. Embarrassi ng 25. Invulnerable 26. Annoying 27. Pneumatic 28. Apolitic al 29. Docile/teachable 30. Messianic 31. Pious 32. Impract ical 33. Happy 34. Necessary 35. Death-defying 36. Fallible 37. Immortal 38. Confident 39. Painful 40. agnostic</br

Define: 41 Things Philosophy is: 1. Ignorant 2. Selfish 3. Ironic 4. Plain 5. Misunderstood 6. A failure 7. Poor 8. Unscientific 9. Unteachable 10. Foolish 11. Abnormal 12. Divine trickery 13. Egalitarian 14. A divine calling 15. Laborious 16. Countercultural 17. Uncomfortable 18. Virtuous 19. Dangerous 20. Simplistic
21. Polemical 22. Therapeutic 23. “conformist” 24. Embarrassi ng 25. Invulnerable 26. Annoying 27. Pneumatic 28. Apolitic al 29. Docile/teachable 30. Messianic 31. Pious 32. Impract ical 33. Happy 34. Necessary 35. Death-defying 36. Fallible 37. Immortal 38. Confident 39. Painful 40. agnostic

Ignorant- A person is said to be ignorant if he … Read More...
Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be … Read More...
1 IN2009: Language Processors Coursework Part 3: The Interpreter Introduction This is the 3rd and final part of the coursework. In the second part of the coursework you created a parser for the Moopl grammar which, given a syntactically correct Moopl program as input, builds an AST representation of the program. In Part 3 you will develop an interpreter which executes Moopl programs by visiting their AST representations. For this part of the coursework we provide functional code (with limitations, see below) for parsing, building a symbol table, type checking and variable allocation. Marks This part of the coursework is worth 12 of the 30 coursework marks for the Language Processors module. This part of the coursework is marked out of 12. Submission deadline This part of the coursework should be handed in before 5pm on Sunday 9th April 2017. In line with school policy, late submissions will be awarded no marks. Return & Feedback Marks and feedback will be available as soon as possible, certainly on or before Wed 3rd May 2017. Plagiarism If you copy the work of others (either that of fellow students or of a third party), with or without their permission, you will score no marks and further disciplinary action will be taken against you. Group working You will be working in the same groups as for the previous parts of the coursework except where group changes have already been approved. Submission: Submit a zip archive (not a rar file) of all your source code (the src folder of your project). We do not want the other parts of your NetBeans project, only the source code. Note 1: Submissions which do not compile will get zero marks. Note 2: You must not change the names or types of any of the existing packages, classes or public methods. 2 Getting started Download either moopl-interp.zip or moopl-interp.tgz from Moodle and extract all files. Key contents to be aware of: • A fully implemented Moopl parser (also implements a parser for the interpreter command language; see below). • A partially implemented Moopl type checker. • Test harnesses for the type checker and interpreter. • A directory of a few example Moopl programs (see Testing below). • Folder interp containing prototype interpreter code. The type-checker is only partially implemented but a more complete implementation will be provided following Session 6. That version is still not fully complete because it doesn’t support inheritance. Part d) below asks you to remove this restriction. The VarAllocator visitor in the interp package uses a simple implementation which only works for methods in which all parameter and local variable names are different. Part e) below asks you to remove this restriction. The three parts below should be attempted in sequence. When you have completed one part you should make a back-up copy of the work and keep it safe, in case you break it in your attempt at the next part. Be sure to test old functionality as well as new (regression testing). We will not assess multiple versions so, if your attempt at part d) or e) breaks previously working code, you may gain a better mark by submitting the earlier version for assessment. c) [8 marks] The Basic Interpreter: complete the implementation of the Interpreter visitor in the interp package. d) [2 marks] Inheritance: extend the type-checker, variable allocator and interpreter to support inheritance. e) [2 marks] Variable Allocation: extend the variable allocator to fully support blockstructure and lexical scoping, removing the requirement that all parameter and local variable names are different. Aim to minimise the number of local variable slots allocated in a stack frame. Note: variable and parameter names declared at the same scope level are still required to be different from each other (a method cannot have two different parameters called x, for example) and this is enforced by the existing typechecking code. But variables declared in different blocks (even when nested) can have the same name. Exceptions Your interpreter will only ever be run on Moopl code which is type-correct (and free from uninitialised local variables). But it is still possible that the Moopl code contains logical errors which may cause runtime errors (such as null-reference or array-bound errors). Your interpreter should throw a MooplRunTimeException with an appropriate error message in these cases. The only kind of exception your interpreter should ever throw is a MooplRunTimeException. 3 Testing The examples folder does not contain a comprehensive test-suite. You need to invent and run your own tests. The document Moopl compared with Java gives a concise summary of how Moopl programs are supposed to behave. You can (and should) also compare the behaviour of your interpreter with that of the online tool: https://smcse.city.ac.uk/student/sj353/langproc/Moopl.html (Note: the online tool checks for uninitialised local variables. Your implementation is not expected to do this.) To test your work, run the top-level Interpret harness, providing the name of a Moopl source file as a command-line argument. When run on a type-correct Moopl source file, Interpret will pretty-print the Moopl program then display a command prompt (>) at which you can enter one of the following commands: :quit This will quit the interpreter. :call main() This will call the top-level proc main, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program. (Any top-level proc can be called this way). :eval Exp ; This will evaluate expression Exp, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program, and print the result. Note the required terminating semi-colon. Testing your Expression visitors To unit-test your Exp visit methods, run the top-level Interpret harness on a complete Moopl program (though it can be trivial) and use the :eval command. For example, to test your visit methods for the Boolean-literals (ExpTrue and ExpFalse), you would enter the commands > :eval true ; > :eval false ; which should output 1 and 0, respectively. For the most basic cases, the Moopl program is essentially irrelevant (a single top-level proc with empty body may be sufficient). For other cases you will need to write programs containing class definitions (in order, for example, to test object creation and method call). Testing your Statement visitors To unit-test your Stm visit methods, write very simple Moopl programs, each with a top-level proc main() containing just a few lines of code. Run the top-level Interpret harness on these simple programs and enter the command > :call main() You will find a few examples to get you started in the folder examples/unittests. As for the Exp tests, simple cases can be tested using Moopl programs with just a main proc but for the more complex tests you will need to write Moopl programs containing class definitions. 4 Grading criteria Solutions will be graded according to their functional correctness, and the elegance of their implementation. Below are criteria that guide the award of marks. 70 – 100 [1st class] Work that meets all the requirements in full, constructed and presented to a professional standard. Showing evidence of independent reading, thinking and analysis. 60 – 69 [2:1] Work that makes a good attempt to address the requirements, realising all to some extent and most well. Well-structured and well presented. 50 – 59 [2:2] Work that attempts to address requirements realising all to some extent and some well but perhaps also including irrelevant or underdeveloped material. Structure and presentation may not always be clear. 40 – 49 [3rd class] Work that attempts to address the requirements but only realises them to some extent and may not include important elements or be completely accurate. Structure and presentation may lack clarity. 0 – 39 [fail] Unsatisfactory work that does not adequately address the requirements. Structure and presentation may be confused or incoherent.

1 IN2009: Language Processors Coursework Part 3: The Interpreter Introduction This is the 3rd and final part of the coursework. In the second part of the coursework you created a parser for the Moopl grammar which, given a syntactically correct Moopl program as input, builds an AST representation of the program. In Part 3 you will develop an interpreter which executes Moopl programs by visiting their AST representations. For this part of the coursework we provide functional code (with limitations, see below) for parsing, building a symbol table, type checking and variable allocation. Marks This part of the coursework is worth 12 of the 30 coursework marks for the Language Processors module. This part of the coursework is marked out of 12. Submission deadline This part of the coursework should be handed in before 5pm on Sunday 9th April 2017. In line with school policy, late submissions will be awarded no marks. Return & Feedback Marks and feedback will be available as soon as possible, certainly on or before Wed 3rd May 2017. Plagiarism If you copy the work of others (either that of fellow students or of a third party), with or without their permission, you will score no marks and further disciplinary action will be taken against you. Group working You will be working in the same groups as for the previous parts of the coursework except where group changes have already been approved. Submission: Submit a zip archive (not a rar file) of all your source code (the src folder of your project). We do not want the other parts of your NetBeans project, only the source code. Note 1: Submissions which do not compile will get zero marks. Note 2: You must not change the names or types of any of the existing packages, classes or public methods. 2 Getting started Download either moopl-interp.zip or moopl-interp.tgz from Moodle and extract all files. Key contents to be aware of: • A fully implemented Moopl parser (also implements a parser for the interpreter command language; see below). • A partially implemented Moopl type checker. • Test harnesses for the type checker and interpreter. • A directory of a few example Moopl programs (see Testing below). • Folder interp containing prototype interpreter code. The type-checker is only partially implemented but a more complete implementation will be provided following Session 6. That version is still not fully complete because it doesn’t support inheritance. Part d) below asks you to remove this restriction. The VarAllocator visitor in the interp package uses a simple implementation which only works for methods in which all parameter and local variable names are different. Part e) below asks you to remove this restriction. The three parts below should be attempted in sequence. When you have completed one part you should make a back-up copy of the work and keep it safe, in case you break it in your attempt at the next part. Be sure to test old functionality as well as new (regression testing). We will not assess multiple versions so, if your attempt at part d) or e) breaks previously working code, you may gain a better mark by submitting the earlier version for assessment. c) [8 marks] The Basic Interpreter: complete the implementation of the Interpreter visitor in the interp package. d) [2 marks] Inheritance: extend the type-checker, variable allocator and interpreter to support inheritance. e) [2 marks] Variable Allocation: extend the variable allocator to fully support blockstructure and lexical scoping, removing the requirement that all parameter and local variable names are different. Aim to minimise the number of local variable slots allocated in a stack frame. Note: variable and parameter names declared at the same scope level are still required to be different from each other (a method cannot have two different parameters called x, for example) and this is enforced by the existing typechecking code. But variables declared in different blocks (even when nested) can have the same name. Exceptions Your interpreter will only ever be run on Moopl code which is type-correct (and free from uninitialised local variables). But it is still possible that the Moopl code contains logical errors which may cause runtime errors (such as null-reference or array-bound errors). Your interpreter should throw a MooplRunTimeException with an appropriate error message in these cases. The only kind of exception your interpreter should ever throw is a MooplRunTimeException. 3 Testing The examples folder does not contain a comprehensive test-suite. You need to invent and run your own tests. The document Moopl compared with Java gives a concise summary of how Moopl programs are supposed to behave. You can (and should) also compare the behaviour of your interpreter with that of the online tool: https://smcse.city.ac.uk/student/sj353/langproc/Moopl.html (Note: the online tool checks for uninitialised local variables. Your implementation is not expected to do this.) To test your work, run the top-level Interpret harness, providing the name of a Moopl source file as a command-line argument. When run on a type-correct Moopl source file, Interpret will pretty-print the Moopl program then display a command prompt (>) at which you can enter one of the following commands: :quit This will quit the interpreter. :call main() This will call the top-level proc main, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program. (Any top-level proc can be called this way). :eval Exp ; This will evaluate expression Exp, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program, and print the result. Note the required terminating semi-colon. Testing your Expression visitors To unit-test your Exp visit methods, run the top-level Interpret harness on a complete Moopl program (though it can be trivial) and use the :eval command. For example, to test your visit methods for the Boolean-literals (ExpTrue and ExpFalse), you would enter the commands > :eval true ; > :eval false ; which should output 1 and 0, respectively. For the most basic cases, the Moopl program is essentially irrelevant (a single top-level proc with empty body may be sufficient). For other cases you will need to write programs containing class definitions (in order, for example, to test object creation and method call). Testing your Statement visitors To unit-test your Stm visit methods, write very simple Moopl programs, each with a top-level proc main() containing just a few lines of code. Run the top-level Interpret harness on these simple programs and enter the command > :call main() You will find a few examples to get you started in the folder examples/unittests. As for the Exp tests, simple cases can be tested using Moopl programs with just a main proc but for the more complex tests you will need to write Moopl programs containing class definitions. 4 Grading criteria Solutions will be graded according to their functional correctness, and the elegance of their implementation. Below are criteria that guide the award of marks. 70 – 100 [1st class] Work that meets all the requirements in full, constructed and presented to a professional standard. Showing evidence of independent reading, thinking and analysis. 60 – 69 [2:1] Work that makes a good attempt to address the requirements, realising all to some extent and most well. Well-structured and well presented. 50 – 59 [2:2] Work that attempts to address requirements realising all to some extent and some well but perhaps also including irrelevant or underdeveloped material. Structure and presentation may not always be clear. 40 – 49 [3rd class] Work that attempts to address the requirements but only realises them to some extent and may not include important elements or be completely accurate. Structure and presentation may lack clarity. 0 – 39 [fail] Unsatisfactory work that does not adequately address the requirements. Structure and presentation may be confused or incoherent.

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. What behaviors indicate psychological distress? Name 5 and explain.

. What behaviors indicate psychological distress? Name 5 and explain.

The term ‘distress’ is commonly used in nursing literature to … Read More...
Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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5. What approaches can be taken to develop a supply chain infrastructure that provide and accurate view of overall channel performance?

5. What approaches can be taken to develop a supply chain infrastructure that provide and accurate view of overall channel performance?

  Join forces in areas where we have a solid … Read More...