Louis D. Brandeis said, “Behind every argument is someone’s ignorance.” Describe a time when someone’s lack of knowledge led to an argument. this is the topic I need an essay one page

Louis D. Brandeis said, “Behind every argument is someone’s ignorance.” Describe a time when someone’s lack of knowledge led to an argument. this is the topic I need an essay one page

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GLG 110: Dangerous World Assignment #2: Landslides Part 1: Disasters in the News On March 22nd 2014, a large landslide occurred near Oso, Washington. As of July 23rd, 2014, all remains had been recovered and the death toll stood at 43 people. Lots of information about the landslide can be found on the American Geophysical Union’s Landslide blog. Read about the landslide here (don’t worry, each entry is quite short): http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/23/oso-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/24/oso-landslip-useful-resources/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/25/the-steelhead-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/28/oso-mechanisms-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/04/02/steelhead-landslide-in-washington/ Answer the following questions: 1) Describe the factors that led to this landslide: What type of material was involved- how cohesive/prone to failure is it? Was the cause primarily due to a change in slope, a change in friction/cohesion, or addition of mass? What was this cause? 2) Was the cause of this slide natural, man-made, or a combination of both? 3) Discuss the hazard assessment/mitigation efforts in effect before the slide. What evidence in the surrounding geology/geography suggests an existing landslide hazard? Was anything being to done to reduce the risk of a damaging landslide? For questions 4 & 5, use the photo of the Oso Landslide below: 4) What type of slide do you think this is (rotational or translational)? What visual evidence in the photo above supports your choice? 5) On the image above and using diagrams from the lecture and your textbook, label the different parts of the slide. Terms you can include, but are not limited to, are: scarp, original surface, toe, head, foot. 6) When the failed material entered the river, it created another type of mass movement; what is this mass movement and why did it make the slide more damaging? Part 2: A little physics (it is a science class after all) We discussed in class how whether or not a slope will fail is based on the balance of gravitational vs. frictional forces using the following diagram and equations: For simplicity, we will ignore FR, the force of the base of the slope supporting the upper slope. In the case shown above, for the slope to be stable, the frictional resistance force, Ff, must be larger than the gravitational force acting down the slope, Fll: Fll < Ff 7) For a slope with angle θ = 30o and coefficient of friction μ = 0.6, is the slope stable? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 8) For a slope with θ = 15o, for what values of μ will the slope be unstable? In other words, at what value of μ does, Fll = Ff, such that any decrease in μ will result in a slope failure? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 9) For a slope where the cohesion of the vegetation and soil leads to a coefficient of friction of μ = 0.75, above what slope angle θ will the slope fail? Note: please answer in degrees, not radians. Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 10) Describe why the mass of a potential slide, in the slope force balance used above, does not affect whether or not the slope will fail.

GLG 110: Dangerous World Assignment #2: Landslides Part 1: Disasters in the News On March 22nd 2014, a large landslide occurred near Oso, Washington. As of July 23rd, 2014, all remains had been recovered and the death toll stood at 43 people. Lots of information about the landslide can be found on the American Geophysical Union’s Landslide blog. Read about the landslide here (don’t worry, each entry is quite short): http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/23/oso-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/24/oso-landslip-useful-resources/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/25/the-steelhead-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/28/oso-mechanisms-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/04/02/steelhead-landslide-in-washington/ Answer the following questions: 1) Describe the factors that led to this landslide: What type of material was involved- how cohesive/prone to failure is it? Was the cause primarily due to a change in slope, a change in friction/cohesion, or addition of mass? What was this cause? 2) Was the cause of this slide natural, man-made, or a combination of both? 3) Discuss the hazard assessment/mitigation efforts in effect before the slide. What evidence in the surrounding geology/geography suggests an existing landslide hazard? Was anything being to done to reduce the risk of a damaging landslide? For questions 4 & 5, use the photo of the Oso Landslide below: 4) What type of slide do you think this is (rotational or translational)? What visual evidence in the photo above supports your choice? 5) On the image above and using diagrams from the lecture and your textbook, label the different parts of the slide. Terms you can include, but are not limited to, are: scarp, original surface, toe, head, foot. 6) When the failed material entered the river, it created another type of mass movement; what is this mass movement and why did it make the slide more damaging? Part 2: A little physics (it is a science class after all) We discussed in class how whether or not a slope will fail is based on the balance of gravitational vs. frictional forces using the following diagram and equations: For simplicity, we will ignore FR, the force of the base of the slope supporting the upper slope. In the case shown above, for the slope to be stable, the frictional resistance force, Ff, must be larger than the gravitational force acting down the slope, Fll: Fll < Ff 7) For a slope with angle θ = 30o and coefficient of friction μ = 0.6, is the slope stable? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 8) For a slope with θ = 15o, for what values of μ will the slope be unstable? In other words, at what value of μ does, Fll = Ff, such that any decrease in μ will result in a slope failure? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 9) For a slope where the cohesion of the vegetation and soil leads to a coefficient of friction of μ = 0.75, above what slope angle θ will the slope fail? Note: please answer in degrees, not radians. Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 10) Describe why the mass of a potential slide, in the slope force balance used above, does not affect whether or not the slope will fail.

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HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

HST 102: Paper 7 Formal essay, due in class on the day of the debate No late papers will be accepted. Answer the following inquiry in a typed (and stapled) 2 page essay in the five-paragraph format. Present and describe three of your arguments that you will use to defend your position concerning eugenics. Each argument must be unique (don’t describe the same argument twice from a different angle). Each argument must include at least one quotation from the texts to support your position (a minimum of 3 total). You may discuss your positions and arguments with other people on your side (but not your opponents); however, each student must write their own essay in their own words. Do not copy sentences or paragraphs from another student’s paper, this is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. HST 102: Debate 4 Eugenics For or Against? Basics of the debate: The term ‘Eugenics’ was derived from two Greek words and literally means ‘good genes’. Eugenics is the social philosophy or practice of engineering society based on genes, or promoting the reproduction of good genes while reducing (or prohibiting) the reproduction of bad genes. Your group will argue either for or against the adoption of eugenic policies in your society. Key Terms: Eugenics – The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). Darwinism – The Darwinian theory that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind. Social Darwinism – A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions. Mendelian Inheritance – Theory proposed by Gregor Johann Mendal in 1865 that became the first theory of genetic inheritance derived from experiments with peas. Birth Control – Any means to artificially prevent biological conception. Euthanasia – A policy of ending the life of an individual for their betterment (for example, because of excessive pain, brain dead, etc.) or society’s benefit. Genocide – A policy of murdering all members of a specific group of people who share a common characteristic. Deductive Logic – Deriving a specific conclusion based on a set of general definitions. Inductive Logic – Deriving a general conclusion based on a number of specific examples. Brief Historical Background: Eugenics was first proposed by Francis Galton in his 1883 work, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin and an early supporter of Darwin’s theories of natural selection and evolution. Galton defined eugenics as the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations. Galton’s work utilized a number of other scientific pursuits at the time including the study of heredity, genes, chromosomes, evolution, social Darwinism, zoology, birth control, sociology, psychology, chemistry, atomic theory and electrodynamics. The number of significant scientific advances was accelerating throughout the 19th century altering what science was and what its role in society could and should be. Galton’s work had a significant influence throughout all areas of society, from scientific communities to politics, culture and literature. A number of organizations were created to explore the science of eugenics and its possible applications to society. Ultimately, eugenics became a means by which to improve society through policies based on scientific study. Most of these policies related to reproductive practices within a society, specifically who could or should not reproduce. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s a number of policies were enacted at various levels throughout Europe and the United States aimed at controlling procreation. Some specific policies included compulsory sterilization laws (usually concerning criminals and the mentally ill) as well as banning interracial marriages to prevent ‘cross-racial’ breeding. In the United States a number of individuals and foundations supported the exploration of eugenics as a means to positively influence society, including: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institution, the Race Betterment Foundation of Battle Creek, MI, the Eugenics Record Office, the American Breeders Association, the Euthanasia Society of America; and individuals such as Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, Alexander Graham Bell, Irving Fisher, John D. Rockefeller, Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, David Starr Jordan, Vernon Kellogg, H. G. Wells (though he later changed sides) Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt. Some early critics of eugenics included: Dr. John Haycroft, Halliday Sutherland, Lancelot Hogben, Franz Boaz, Lester Ward, G. K. Chesterton, J. B. S. Haldane, and R. A. Fisher. In 1911 the Carnegie Institute recommended constructing gas chambers around the country to euthanize certain elements of the American population (primarily the poor and criminals) considered to be harmful to the future of society as a possible eugenic solution. President Woodrow Wilson signed the first Sterilization Act in US history. In the 1920s and 30s, 30 states passed various eugenics laws, some of which were overturned by the Supreme Court. Eugenics of various forms was a founding principle of the Progressive Party, strongly supported by the first progressive president Theodore Roosevelt, and would continue to play an important part in influencing progressive policies into at least the 1940s. Many American individuals and societies supported German research on eugenics that would eventually be used to develop and justify the policies utilized by the NAZI party against minority groups including Jews, Africans, gypsies and others that ultimately led to programs of genocide and the holocaust. Following WWII and worldwide exposure of the holocaust eugenics generally fell out of favor among the public, though various lesser forms of eugenics are still advocated for today by such individuals as Dottie Lamm, Geoffrey Miller, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, John Glad and Richard Dawson. Eugenics still influences many modern debates including: capital punishment, over-population, global warming, medicine (disease control and genetic disorders), birth control, abortion, artificial insemination, evolution, social engineering, and education. Key Points to discuss during the debate: • Individual rights vs. collective rights • The pros and cons of genetically engineering society • The practicality of genetically engineering society • Methods used to determine ‘good traits’ and ‘bad traits’ • Who determines which people are ‘fit’ or ‘unfit’ for future society • The role of science in society • Methods used to derive scientific conclusions • Ability of scientists to determine the future hereditary conditions of individuals • The value/accuracy of scientific conclusions • The role of the government to implement eugenic policies • Some possible eugenic political policies or laws • The ways these policies may be used effectively or abused • The relationship between eugenics and individual rights • The role of ethics in science and eugenics Strategies: 1. Use this guide to help you (particularly the key points). 2. Read all of the texts. 3. If needed, read secondary analysis concerning eugenics. 4. Identify key quotations as you read each text. Perhaps make a list of them to print out and/or group quotes by topic or point. 5. Develop multiple arguments to defend your position. 6. Prioritize your arguments from most persuasive to least persuasive and from most evidence to least evidence. 7. Anticipate the arguments of your opponents and develop counter-arguments for them. 8. Anticipate counter-arguments to your own arguments and develop responses to them.

Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

Design of Electrical Systems Name: ______________________________ Note: All problems weighted equally. Show your work on all problems to receive partial credit. Resources: a) The Fundamental Logic Gate Family, Author Unknown b) Electric Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition, Boylestad c) Introductory Circuit Analysis 10th Edition, Boylestad d) Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) Chapter 19, Boylestad e) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad f) Operational Amplifiers Handout, Self g) Switch Mode Power Supplies, Philips Semiconductor h) NI Tutorial 13714-en October 6, 2013 i) NI Tutorial 13714-en V2.0 October 6, 2013 j) National Instruments Circuit Design Applications http://www.ni.com/multisim/applications/pro/ k) ENERGY STAR https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_comp_monitor_under_23_inches l) Manufactures Device Data Sheets 1) For the VDB shown below, please find the following quantities and plot the load line (Saturation / Cutoff), Q pt (Quiescent Point) and sketch input waveform and output wave form. Remember to test for Exact vs. Approximate Method. Given Bdc = hfe = 150 and RL of 10KΩ. Efficiency _ Class _____ Degrees ___ VR2_______ VE_______ VC _______ VCE ______ IC _______ IE _______ IB _______ PD _______ re’ _______ Av _______ mpp ______ Vout______ What is the effect of reducing RL to 500Ω ________________________________ What is the effect of reducing the Source Frequency to 50 Hz ________________ | | | | | | |____________________________________________ 2) For the following Networks, please complete the Truth Tables, Logic Gate Type, provide the Boolean Logic Expression. A | Vout 0 | 1 | Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B| Vout 0 0| 0 1| 1 0| 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ A B C| Vout 0 0 0| 0 0 1| 0 1 0| 0 1 1| 1 0 0| 1 0 1| 1 1 0| 1 1 1| Logic Gate Type _______ Boolean Logic Expression _________ Operation of Transistors ____________ 3) For the Network shown below, please refer to Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 5, Boylestad to solve for the following values: Given: Bdc1 = hfe1 = 55 Bdc2 = hfe2 = 70 Bdc Total ______ IB1 _________ IB2 _________ VC1 __________ VC2 __________ VE1 __________ VE2 __________ What is this Transistor Configuration? _______________________ What are the advantages of this Transistor Configuration? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4) Design a Four (4) output Power Supply with the following Specifications, Provide a clean schematic sketch of circuit (Please provide the schematic sketch on a separate piece of graph paper). Use a straight edge and label everything. Refer to Data Sheets as necessary. Specifications: 120 VAC rms 60 Hz Source Positive + 15 VDC Driving a 15Ω 20 Watt Resistive Load Positive +8 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 12 VDC Driving a 10Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Negative – 5 VDC Driving a 4Ω 2 Watt Resistive Load Parts available (Must use parts): 1x 120 VAC 40 Volt 3.5 Amp Center Tap Transformer 1x Fuse 1x Bridge Rectifier 12 Amp 1x LM7808 1x LM7815 1x LM7905 1x LM7912 Psource _____________ Fuse size with 25% Service Factor, 1-10 Amps increments of 1A, 10 – 50 Amps increments of 5 Amps ______ Are we exceeding Power Dissipation of any components? If so please identify and provide a brief explanation: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5) For the circuit shown below please calculate the following quantities, and Plot the Trans-Conductance Curve (Transfer Curve), (Please provide the plot on a separate piece of graph paper): You will need to refer to the 2N3819 N-Channel JFET ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb. VDS _________ VP ___________ VGS(off) ______ VS __________ VD __________ VG __________ PDD _________ PSource ______ VGSQ ________ IDQ __________ 6) Determine both the Upper and Lower Cutoff frequencies. Sketch Bode plot and label everything including dB Role-Off. Construct Network in Multisim and perform AC Analysis verifying frequency response and Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies in support of your calculations. Attach Screen shot of your Multisim Model and AC Analysis. Repeat the above for a 2nd Order Active BP Filter. You will need to research this configuration. Make sure that you use the same values for R and C. Upper and Lower Cutoff Frequencies are determined by for the 2nd Order Active BP Filter fc = 1/(2(3.14)SQRT(R1R2C1C2)). Demonstrate a change in Roll-Off from 1st Order to 2nd Order. First Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ Second Order: Lower Cutoff Frequency ________ Upper Cutoff Frequency ________ Roll-Off ______________________ | | | | | | |_____________________________________________________________ 7) The following questions relate to LED Backlight LCD Monitors. (Please feel free to use more paper if need be). See Resources. Please explain the differences between LED Backlight LCD Monitor, LCD and CCFL Monitors (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Monitors. What are some advantages of LED Backlight LCD Monitors when compared with LCD and CCFL Monitors? What color LEDs are used in the creation of an LED Backlight LCD Monitor? Does a Black Background use less energy than a White Background? If you can believe the hype, how and why are LED Backlight LCD Monitors among the most energy efficient, higher than heirs apparent? 8) In this problem the goal is to verify the Transfer Characteristics of the 2N7000G Enhancement Mode N-Channel MOSFET against the manufactures Data Sheets. Please create in Multisim a Model as exampled below. First Plot by hand on Graph Paper various VGS Voltages vs ID. Second simulate using the DC Sweep Analysis. From these results verify against the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet Posted on Bb, remembering that the 2N7000G ON Semiconductor Data Sheet includes both Tabulated Data and Figure 2. Transfer Characteristics. Attach all results, screen shots and write a brief description of your work. • I estimate that my mark for this exam will be: ________ % • Time spent on this exam: __________ Hours • Average of time spent per week on work for EGR-330 (outside class sessions): ______________ Hours

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Que 1: true of false a) Both silicon and germanium atoms have four valances electrons b) When forward-biased , a diode has a very high resistance c) A zener diode is designed to operate in the forward-bias region and has higher reverse breakdown voltage level than regular diode Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: d) In semiconductor, in addition to the electron flow, there is also another kind of charge flow referred as………………. e) A silicon diode in placed in series with 2kΩresistor and a 14 V dc power supply. The current ID is: i) 6.65 mA ii) 2.2 mA iii)7.5 mA iv) 14 mA f) The series resistor that limits the forward current length through a silicon diode to 8 mA if the power supply voltage is 9.5V is : i) 1.1 kΩ ii) 2.2 kΩ iii) 9.5 mA iv) 4.7 mA FIGURE g) Determine the diode current IZ for the circuit of figure 1-2: assume VZ = 3.9 V i) 8.1 mA ii) 3.55 mA iii) 24.5 mA iv) 13.64 mA h) Determine the current through a 20 mA yellow LED when the power supply voltage is 15 V the series resistor is 2k ohm and the diode is put in backward. Assume VLED = 2V i) 20 mA ii) 0 mA iii) 10 mA iv) 6.5 mA Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: i) Zener diode is a p-n junction diode that is desgined for specifc…………………voltage j) ………………………….is the process by which impurity atoms are introduced to the instrisic semiconductor in order to alter the balance between holes and electrons. 1) The average value of s full-wave rectifier with a peak vaue of 17V ia 108V 2) If the frequency of input signal of the full wave reflector is 60Hz, the output frequency is 120Hz 3) The cathode of a zener diode, when conducting is:y i) at 0.7V ii) more positive than anode iii) more negative than anode iv) -0.7V 4) A given transformer with turn ratio 12:1has an input of 115V at 60Hzthe paek output voltage v0 (p) is i) 9.58 V ii) 6.78V iii) 11.5 V iv) 13.55 V FIGURE 2-1 5) The output voltage of V0(DC)for the full wave rectifier of figure 2-1 is i) 18.07 V ii) 12.78 V iii) 8.3 V iv) 5.74 V FIGURE 2-2 6) The voltage V2(P) for the full-wavr bridge rectifier of figure 2-2 is i) 17.37 V ii)1 6.67 V iii) 12.78 V iv) 18.07 V 7) Assume the current I0(DC) in figure is 100mA and C= 2400µF .the ripple voltage vr (p-p) i) 694mV ii) 424 mV iii) 121 V iv) 347 V Use figure 2-3 for questions below: Assume that RS = 75, RL = 160 FIGURE 2-3 8) The output voltage V0 is i) 7.5 V ii) 10 V iii) 8.5 V iv) 12 V Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: 9) The magnitude of the peak-to-peak ripple voltage vr (p-p) is directly proportional to the output …………………. 10) The ripple voltage at the filter section vr (p-p) can be reduced by increasing the value

Que 1: true of false a) Both silicon and germanium atoms have four valances electrons b) When forward-biased , a diode has a very high resistance c) A zener diode is designed to operate in the forward-bias region and has higher reverse breakdown voltage level than regular diode Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: d) In semiconductor, in addition to the electron flow, there is also another kind of charge flow referred as………………. e) A silicon diode in placed in series with 2kΩresistor and a 14 V dc power supply. The current ID is: i) 6.65 mA ii) 2.2 mA iii)7.5 mA iv) 14 mA f) The series resistor that limits the forward current length through a silicon diode to 8 mA if the power supply voltage is 9.5V is : i) 1.1 kΩ ii) 2.2 kΩ iii) 9.5 mA iv) 4.7 mA FIGURE g) Determine the diode current IZ for the circuit of figure 1-2: assume VZ = 3.9 V i) 8.1 mA ii) 3.55 mA iii) 24.5 mA iv) 13.64 mA h) Determine the current through a 20 mA yellow LED when the power supply voltage is 15 V the series resistor is 2k ohm and the diode is put in backward. Assume VLED = 2V i) 20 mA ii) 0 mA iii) 10 mA iv) 6.5 mA Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: i) Zener diode is a p-n junction diode that is desgined for specifc…………………voltage j) ………………………….is the process by which impurity atoms are introduced to the instrisic semiconductor in order to alter the balance between holes and electrons. 1) The average value of s full-wave rectifier with a peak vaue of 17V ia 108V 2) If the frequency of input signal of the full wave reflector is 60Hz, the output frequency is 120Hz 3) The cathode of a zener diode, when conducting is:y i) at 0.7V ii) more positive than anode iii) more negative than anode iv) -0.7V 4) A given transformer with turn ratio 12:1has an input of 115V at 60Hzthe paek output voltage v0 (p) is i) 9.58 V ii) 6.78V iii) 11.5 V iv) 13.55 V FIGURE 2-1 5) The output voltage of V0(DC)for the full wave rectifier of figure 2-1 is i) 18.07 V ii) 12.78 V iii) 8.3 V iv) 5.74 V FIGURE 2-2 6) The voltage V2(P) for the full-wavr bridge rectifier of figure 2-2 is i) 17.37 V ii)1 6.67 V iii) 12.78 V iv) 18.07 V 7) Assume the current I0(DC) in figure is 100mA and C= 2400µF .the ripple voltage vr (p-p) i) 694mV ii) 424 mV iii) 121 V iv) 347 V Use figure 2-3 for questions below: Assume that RS = 75, RL = 160 FIGURE 2-3 8) The output voltage V0 is i) 7.5 V ii) 10 V iii) 8.5 V iv) 12 V Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the questions: 9) The magnitude of the peak-to-peak ripple voltage vr (p-p) is directly proportional to the output …………………. 10) The ripple voltage at the filter section vr (p-p) can be reduced by increasing the value

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

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1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

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Morgan Extra Pages Graphing with Excel to be carried out in a computer lab, 3rd floor Calloway Hall or elsewhere The Excel spreadsheet consists of vertical columns and horizontal rows; a column and row intersect at a cell. A cell can contain data for use in calculations of all sorts. The Name Box shows the currently selected cell (Fig. 1). In the Excel 2007 and 2010 versions the drop-down menus familiar in most software screens have been replaced by tabs with horizontally-arranged command buttons of various categories (Fig. 2) ___________________________________________________________________ Open Excel, click on the Microsoft circle, upper left, and Save As your surname. xlsx on the desktop. Before leaving the lab e-mail the file to yourself and/or save to a flash drive. Also e-mail it to your instructor. Figure 1. Parts of an Excel spreadsheet. Name Box Figure 2. Tabs. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 1: BASIC OPERATIONS Click Save often as you work. 1. Type the heading “Edge Length” in Cell A1 and double click the crack between the A and B column heading for automatic widening of column A. Similarly, write headings for columns B and C and enter numbers in Cells A2 and A3 as in Fig. 3. Highlight Cells A2 and A3 by dragging the cursor (chunky plus-shape) over the two of them and letting go. 2. Note that there are three types of cursor crosses: chunky for selecting, barbed for moving entries or blocks of entries from cell to cell, and tiny (appearing only at the little square in the lower-right corner of a cell). Obtain a tiny arrow for Cell A3 and perform a plus-drag down Column A until the cells are filled up to 40 (in Cell A8). Note that the two highlighted cells set both the starting value of the fill and the intervals. 3. Click on Cell B2 and enter a formula for face area of a cube as follows: type =, click on Cell A2, type ^2, and press Enter (note the formula bar in Fig. 4). 4. Enter the formula for cube volume in Cell C2 (same procedure, but “=, click on A2, ^3, Enter”). 5. Highlight Cells B2 and C2; plus-drag down to Row 8 (Fig. 5). Do the numbers look correct? Click on some cells in the newly filled area and notice how Excel steps the row designations as it moves down the column (it can do it for horizontal plusdrags along rows also). This is the major programming development that has led to the popularity of spreadsheets. Figure 3. Entries. Figure 4. A formula. Figure 5. Plus-dragging formulas. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 6. Now let’s graph the Face Area versus Edge Length: select Cells A1 through B8, choose the Insert tab, and click the Scatter drop-down menu and select “Scatter with only Markers” (Fig. 6). 7. Move the graph (Excel calls it a “chart”) that appears up alongside your number table and dress it up as follows: a. Note that some Chart Layouts have appeared above. Click Layout 1 and alter each title to read Face Area for the vertical axis, Edge Length for the horizontal and Face Area vs. Edge Length for the Graph Title. b. Activate the Excel Least squares routine, called “fitting a trendline” in the program: right click any of the data markers and click Add Trendline. Choose Power and also check “Display equation on chart” and “Display R-squared value on chart.” Fig. 7 shows what the graph will look like at this point. c. The titles are explicit, so the legend is unnecessary. Click on it and press the delete button to remove it. Figure 6. Creating a scatter graph. Figure 7. A graph with a fitted curve. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 8. Now let’s overlay the Volume vs. Edge Length curve onto the same graph (optional for 203L/205L): Make a copy of your graph by clicking on the outer white area, clicking ctrl-c (or right click, copy), and pasting the copy somewhere else (ctrl-v). If you wish, delete the trendline as in Fig. 8. a. Right click on the outer white space, choose Select Data and click the Add button. b. You can type in the cell ranges by hand in the dialog box that comes up, but it is easier to click the red, white, and blue button on the right of each space and highlight what you want to go in. Click the red, white, and blue of the bar that has appeared, and you will bounce back to the Add dialog box. Use the Edge Length column for the x’s and Volume for the y’s. c. Right-click on any volume data point and choose Format Data Series. Clicking Secondary Axis will place its scale on the right of the graph as in Fig. 8. d. Dress up your graph with two axis titles (Layout-Labels-Axis Titles), etc. Figure 8. Adding a second curve and y-axis to the graph Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2: INTERPRETING A LINEAR GRAPH Introduction: Many experiments are repeated a number of times with one of the parameters involved varied from run to run. Often the goal is to measure the rate of change of a dependent variable, rather than a particular value. If the dependent variable can be expressed as a linear function of the independent parameter, then the slope and yintercept of an appropriate graph will give the rate of change and a particular value, respectively. An example of such an experiment in PHYS.203L/205L is the first part of Lab 20, in which weights are added to the bottom of a suspended spring (Figure 9). This experiment shows that a spring exerts a force Fs proportional to the distance stretched y = (y-yo), a relationship known as Hooke’s Law: Fs = – k(y – yo) (Eq. 1) where k is called the Hooke’s Law constant. The minus sign shows that the spring opposes any push or pull on it. In Lab 20 Fs is equal to (- Mg) and y is given by the reading on a meter stick. Masses were added to the bottom of the spring in 50-g increments giving weights in newtons of 0.49, 0.98, etc. The weight pan was used as the pointer for reading y and had a mass of 50 g, so yo could not be directly measured. For convenient graphing Equation 1 can be rewritten: -(Mg) = – ky + kyo Or (Mg) = ky – kyo (Eq. 1′) Procedure 1. On your spreadsheet note the tabs at the bottom left and double-click Sheet1. Type in “Basics,” and then click the Sheet2 tab to bring up a fresh worksheet. Change the sheet name to “Linear Fit” and fill in data as in this table. Hooke’s Law Experiment y (m) -Fs = Mg (N) 0.337 0.49 0.388 0.98 0.446 1.47 0.498 1.96 0.550 2.45 2. Highlight the cells with the numbers, and graph (Mg) versus y as in Steps 6 and 7 of the Basics section. Your Trendline this time will be Linear of course. If you are having trouble remembering what’s versus what, “y” looks like “v”, so what comes before the “v” of “versus” goes on the y (vertical) axis. Yes, this graph is confusing: the horizontal (“x”) axis is distance y, and the “y” axis is something else. 3. Click on the Equation/R2 box on the graph and highlight just the slope, that is, only the number that comes before the “x.” Copy it (control-c is a fast way to Figure 9. A spring with a weight stretching it Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com do it) and paste it (control-v) into an empty cell. Do likewise for the intercept (including the minus sign). SAVE YOUR FILE! 5. The next steps use the standard procedure for obtaining information from linear data. Write the general equation for a straight line immediately below a hand-written copy of Equation 1′ then circle matching items: (Mg) = k y + (- k yo) (Eq. 1′) y = m x + b Note the parentheses around the intercept term of Equation 1′ to emphasize that the minus sign is part of it. Equating above and below, you can create two useful new equations: slope m = k (Eq. 2) y-intercept b = -kyo (Eq. 3) 6. Solve Equation 2 for k, that is, rewrite left to right. Then substitute the value for slope m from your graph, and you have an experimental value for the Hooke’s Law constant k. Next solve Equation 3 for yo, substitute the value for intercept b from your graph and the value of k that you just found, and calculate yo. 7. Examine your linear graph for clues to finding the units of the slope and the yintercept. Use these units to find the units of k and yo. 8. Present your values of k and yo with their units neatly at the bottom of your spreadsheet. 9. R2 in Excel, like r in our lab manual and Corr. in the LoggerPro software, is a measure of how well the calculated line matches the data points. 1.00 would indicate a perfect match. State how good a match you think was made in this case? 10. Do the Homework, Further Exercises on Interpreting Linear Graphs, on the following pages. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Eq.1 M m f M a g               , (Eq.2) M slope m g       (Eq.3) M b f        Morgan Extra Pages Homework: Graph Interpretation Exercises EXAMPLE WITH COMPLETE SOLUTION In PHYS.203L and 205L we do Lab 9 Newton’s Second Law on Atwood’s Machine using a photogate sensor (Fig. 1). The Atwood’s apparatus can slow the rate of fall enough to be measured even with primitive timing devices. In our experiment LoggerPro software automatically collects and analyzes the data giving reliable measurements of g, the acceleration of gravity. The equation governing motion for Atwood’s Machine can be written: where a is the acceleration of the masses and string, g is the acceleration of gravity, M is the total mass at both ends of the string, m is the difference between the masses, and f is the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. In this exercise you are given a graph of a vs. m obtained in this experiment with the values of M and the slope and intercept (Fig. 2). The goal is to extract values for acceleration of gravity g and frictional force f from this information. To analyze the graph we write y = mx + b, the general equation for a straight line, directly under Equation 1 and match up the various parameters: Equating above and below, you can create two new equations: and y m x b M m f M a g                Figure 1. The Atwood’s Machine setup (from the LoggerPro handout). Figure 2. Graph of acceleration versus mass difference; data from a Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine M = 0.400 kg a = 24.4 m – 0.018 R2 = 0.998 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060  m (kg) a (m/s2) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 2 2 9.76 / 0.400 24.4 /( ) m s kg m kg s g Mm      To handle Equation 2 it pays to consider what the units of the slope are. A slope is “the rise over the run,“ so its units must be the units of the vertical axis divided by those of the horizontal axis. In this case: Now let’s solve Equation 2 for g and substitute the values of total mass M and of the slope m from the graph: Using 9.80 m/s2 as the Baltimore accepted value for g, we can calculate the percent error: A similar process with Equation 3 leads to a value for f, the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. Note that the units of intercept b are simply whatever the vertical axis units are, m/s2 in this case. Solving Equation 3 for f: EXERCISE 1 The Picket Fence experiment makes use of LoggerPro software to calculate velocities at regular time intervals as the striped plate passes through the photogate (Fig. 3). The theoretical equation is v = vi + at (Eq. 4) where vi = 0 (the fence is dropped from rest) and a = g. a. Write Equation 4 with y = mx + b under it and circle matching factors as in the Example. b. What is the experimental value of the acceleration of gravity? What is its percent error from the accepted value for Baltimore, 9.80 m/s2? c. Does the value of the y-intercept make sense? d. How well did the straight Trendline match the data? 2 / 2 kg s m kg m s   0.4% 100 9.80 9.76 9.80 100 . . . %        Acc Exp Acc Error kg m s mN kg m s f Mb 7.2 10 / 7.2 0.400 ( 0.018 / ) 3 2 2           Figure 3. Graph of speed versus time as calculated by LoggerPro as a picket fence falls freely through a photogate. Picket Fence Drop y = 9.8224x + 0.0007 R2 = 0.9997 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 t (s) v (m/s) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2 This is an electrical example from PHYS.204L/206L, potential difference, V, versus current, I (Fig. 4). The theoretical equation is V = IR (Eq. 5) and is known as “Ohm’s Law.” The unit symbols stand for volts, V, and Amperes, A. The factor R stands for resistance and is measured in units of ohms, symbol  (capital omega). The definition of the ohm is: V (Eq. 6) By coincidence the letter symbols for potential (a quantity ) and volts (its unit) are identical. Thus “voltage” has become the laboratory slang name for potential. a. Rearrange the Ohm’s Law equation to match y = mx + b.. b. What is the experimental resistance? c. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? EXERCISE 3 This graph (Fig. 5) also follows Ohm’s Law, but solved for current I. For this graph the experimenter held potential difference V constant at 15.0V and measured the current for resistances of 100, 50, 40, and 30  Solve Ohm’s Law for I and you will see that 1/R is the logical variable to use on the x axis. For units, someone once jokingly referred to a “reciprocal ohm” as a “mho,” and the name stuck. a. Rearrange Equation 5 solved for I to match y = mx + b. b. What is the experimental potential difference? c. Calculate the percent difference from the 15.0 V that the experimenter set on the power supply (the instrument used for such experiments). d. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? Figure 4. Graph of potential difference versus current; data from a Physics II experiment. The theoretical equation, V = IR, is known as “Ohm’s Law.” Ohm’s Law y = 0.628x – 0.0275 R2 = 0.9933 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Current, I (A) Potential difference, V (V) Figure 5. Another application of Ohm’s Law: a graph of current versus the inverse of resistance, from a different electric circuit experiment. Current versus (1/Resistance) y = 14.727x – 0.2214 R2 = 0.9938 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 R-1 (millimhos) I (milliamperes) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 4 The Atwood’s Machine experiment (see the solved example above) can be done in another way: keep mass difference m the same and vary the total mass M (Fig. 6). a. Rewrite Equation 1 and factor out (1/M). b. Equate the coefficient of (1/M) with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the values for slope, mass difference, and frictional force and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? EXERCISE 5 In the previous two exercises the reciprocal of a variable was used to make the graph come out linear. In this one the trick will be to use the square root of a variable (Fig. 7). In PHYS.203L and 205L Lab 19 The Pendulum the theoretical equation is where the period T is the time per cycle, L is the length of the string, and g is the acceleration of gravity. a. Rewrite Equation 7 with the square root of L factored out and placed at the end. b. Equate the coefficient of √L with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the value for slope and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? 2 (Eq . 7) g T   L Figure 6. Graph of acceleration versus the reciprocal of total mass; data from a another Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine m = 0.020 kg f = 7.2 mN y = 0.1964x – 0.0735 R2 = 0.995 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 1/M (1/kg) a (m/s2) Effect of Pendulum Length on Period y = 2.0523x – 0.0331 R2 = 0.999 0.400 0.800 1.200 1.600 2.000 2.400 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 L1/2 (m1/2) T (s) Figure 7. Graph of period T versus the square root of pendulum length; data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 6 In Exercise 5 another approach would have been to square both sides of Equation 7 and plot T2 versus L. Lab 20 directs us to use that alternative. It involves another case of periodic or harmonic motion with a similar, but more complicated, equation for the period: where T is the period of the bobbing (Fig. 8), M is the suspended mass, ms is the mass of the spring, k is a measure of stiffness called the spring constant, and C is a dimensionless factor showing how much of the spring mass is effectively bobbing. a. Square both sides of Equation 8 and rearrange it to match y = mx + b. b. Write y = mx + b under your rearranged equation and circle matching factors as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating k and the second for finding C from the data of Fig. 9. d. A theoretical analysis has shown that for most springs C = 1/3. Find the percent error from that value. e. Derive the units of the slope and intercept; show that the units of k come out as N/m and that C is dimensionless. 2 (Eq . 8) k T M Cm s    Figure 8. In Lab 20 mass M is suspended from a spring which is set to bobbing up and down, a good approximation to simple harmonic motion (SHM), described by Equation 8. Lab 20: SHM of a Spring Mass of the spring, ms = 25.1 g y = 3.0185x + 0.0197 R2 = 0.9965 0.0000 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 M (kg) T 2 2 Figure 9. Graph of the square of the period T2 versus suspended mass M data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 7 This last exercise deals with an exponential equation, and the trick is to take the logarithm of both sides. In PHYS.204L/206L we do Lab 33 The RC Time Constant with theoretical equation: where V is the potential difference at time t across a circuit element called a capacitor (the  is dropped for simplicity), Vo is V at t = 0 (try it), and  (tau) is a characteristic of the circuit called the time constant. a. Take the natural log of both sides and apply the addition rule for logarithms of a product on the right-hand side. b. Noting that the graph (Fig. 10) plots lnV versus t, arrange your equation in y = mx + b order, write y = mx + b under it, and circle the parts as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating  and the second for finding lnVo and then Vo. d. Note that the units of lnV are the natural log of volts, lnV. As usual derive the units of the slope and interecept and use them to obtain the units of your experimental V and t. V V e (Eq. 9) t o    Figure 10. Graph of a logarithm versus time; data from Lab 33, a Physics II experiment. Discharge of a Capacitor y = -9.17E-03x + 2.00E+00 R2 = 9.98E-01 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

Morgan Extra Pages Graphing with Excel to be carried out in a computer lab, 3rd floor Calloway Hall or elsewhere The Excel spreadsheet consists of vertical columns and horizontal rows; a column and row intersect at a cell. A cell can contain data for use in calculations of all sorts. The Name Box shows the currently selected cell (Fig. 1). In the Excel 2007 and 2010 versions the drop-down menus familiar in most software screens have been replaced by tabs with horizontally-arranged command buttons of various categories (Fig. 2) ___________________________________________________________________ Open Excel, click on the Microsoft circle, upper left, and Save As your surname. xlsx on the desktop. Before leaving the lab e-mail the file to yourself and/or save to a flash drive. Also e-mail it to your instructor. Figure 1. Parts of an Excel spreadsheet. Name Box Figure 2. Tabs. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 1: BASIC OPERATIONS Click Save often as you work. 1. Type the heading “Edge Length” in Cell A1 and double click the crack between the A and B column heading for automatic widening of column A. Similarly, write headings for columns B and C and enter numbers in Cells A2 and A3 as in Fig. 3. Highlight Cells A2 and A3 by dragging the cursor (chunky plus-shape) over the two of them and letting go. 2. Note that there are three types of cursor crosses: chunky for selecting, barbed for moving entries or blocks of entries from cell to cell, and tiny (appearing only at the little square in the lower-right corner of a cell). Obtain a tiny arrow for Cell A3 and perform a plus-drag down Column A until the cells are filled up to 40 (in Cell A8). Note that the two highlighted cells set both the starting value of the fill and the intervals. 3. Click on Cell B2 and enter a formula for face area of a cube as follows: type =, click on Cell A2, type ^2, and press Enter (note the formula bar in Fig. 4). 4. Enter the formula for cube volume in Cell C2 (same procedure, but “=, click on A2, ^3, Enter”). 5. Highlight Cells B2 and C2; plus-drag down to Row 8 (Fig. 5). Do the numbers look correct? Click on some cells in the newly filled area and notice how Excel steps the row designations as it moves down the column (it can do it for horizontal plusdrags along rows also). This is the major programming development that has led to the popularity of spreadsheets. Figure 3. Entries. Figure 4. A formula. Figure 5. Plus-dragging formulas. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 6. Now let’s graph the Face Area versus Edge Length: select Cells A1 through B8, choose the Insert tab, and click the Scatter drop-down menu and select “Scatter with only Markers” (Fig. 6). 7. Move the graph (Excel calls it a “chart”) that appears up alongside your number table and dress it up as follows: a. Note that some Chart Layouts have appeared above. Click Layout 1 and alter each title to read Face Area for the vertical axis, Edge Length for the horizontal and Face Area vs. Edge Length for the Graph Title. b. Activate the Excel Least squares routine, called “fitting a trendline” in the program: right click any of the data markers and click Add Trendline. Choose Power and also check “Display equation on chart” and “Display R-squared value on chart.” Fig. 7 shows what the graph will look like at this point. c. The titles are explicit, so the legend is unnecessary. Click on it and press the delete button to remove it. Figure 6. Creating a scatter graph. Figure 7. A graph with a fitted curve. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 8. Now let’s overlay the Volume vs. Edge Length curve onto the same graph (optional for 203L/205L): Make a copy of your graph by clicking on the outer white area, clicking ctrl-c (or right click, copy), and pasting the copy somewhere else (ctrl-v). If you wish, delete the trendline as in Fig. 8. a. Right click on the outer white space, choose Select Data and click the Add button. b. You can type in the cell ranges by hand in the dialog box that comes up, but it is easier to click the red, white, and blue button on the right of each space and highlight what you want to go in. Click the red, white, and blue of the bar that has appeared, and you will bounce back to the Add dialog box. Use the Edge Length column for the x’s and Volume for the y’s. c. Right-click on any volume data point and choose Format Data Series. Clicking Secondary Axis will place its scale on the right of the graph as in Fig. 8. d. Dress up your graph with two axis titles (Layout-Labels-Axis Titles), etc. Figure 8. Adding a second curve and y-axis to the graph Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2: INTERPRETING A LINEAR GRAPH Introduction: Many experiments are repeated a number of times with one of the parameters involved varied from run to run. Often the goal is to measure the rate of change of a dependent variable, rather than a particular value. If the dependent variable can be expressed as a linear function of the independent parameter, then the slope and yintercept of an appropriate graph will give the rate of change and a particular value, respectively. An example of such an experiment in PHYS.203L/205L is the first part of Lab 20, in which weights are added to the bottom of a suspended spring (Figure 9). This experiment shows that a spring exerts a force Fs proportional to the distance stretched y = (y-yo), a relationship known as Hooke’s Law: Fs = – k(y – yo) (Eq. 1) where k is called the Hooke’s Law constant. The minus sign shows that the spring opposes any push or pull on it. In Lab 20 Fs is equal to (- Mg) and y is given by the reading on a meter stick. Masses were added to the bottom of the spring in 50-g increments giving weights in newtons of 0.49, 0.98, etc. The weight pan was used as the pointer for reading y and had a mass of 50 g, so yo could not be directly measured. For convenient graphing Equation 1 can be rewritten: -(Mg) = – ky + kyo Or (Mg) = ky – kyo (Eq. 1′) Procedure 1. On your spreadsheet note the tabs at the bottom left and double-click Sheet1. Type in “Basics,” and then click the Sheet2 tab to bring up a fresh worksheet. Change the sheet name to “Linear Fit” and fill in data as in this table. Hooke’s Law Experiment y (m) -Fs = Mg (N) 0.337 0.49 0.388 0.98 0.446 1.47 0.498 1.96 0.550 2.45 2. Highlight the cells with the numbers, and graph (Mg) versus y as in Steps 6 and 7 of the Basics section. Your Trendline this time will be Linear of course. If you are having trouble remembering what’s versus what, “y” looks like “v”, so what comes before the “v” of “versus” goes on the y (vertical) axis. Yes, this graph is confusing: the horizontal (“x”) axis is distance y, and the “y” axis is something else. 3. Click on the Equation/R2 box on the graph and highlight just the slope, that is, only the number that comes before the “x.” Copy it (control-c is a fast way to Figure 9. A spring with a weight stretching it Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com do it) and paste it (control-v) into an empty cell. Do likewise for the intercept (including the minus sign). SAVE YOUR FILE! 5. The next steps use the standard procedure for obtaining information from linear data. Write the general equation for a straight line immediately below a hand-written copy of Equation 1′ then circle matching items: (Mg) = k y + (- k yo) (Eq. 1′) y = m x + b Note the parentheses around the intercept term of Equation 1′ to emphasize that the minus sign is part of it. Equating above and below, you can create two useful new equations: slope m = k (Eq. 2) y-intercept b = -kyo (Eq. 3) 6. Solve Equation 2 for k, that is, rewrite left to right. Then substitute the value for slope m from your graph, and you have an experimental value for the Hooke’s Law constant k. Next solve Equation 3 for yo, substitute the value for intercept b from your graph and the value of k that you just found, and calculate yo. 7. Examine your linear graph for clues to finding the units of the slope and the yintercept. Use these units to find the units of k and yo. 8. Present your values of k and yo with their units neatly at the bottom of your spreadsheet. 9. R2 in Excel, like r in our lab manual and Corr. in the LoggerPro software, is a measure of how well the calculated line matches the data points. 1.00 would indicate a perfect match. State how good a match you think was made in this case? 10. Do the Homework, Further Exercises on Interpreting Linear Graphs, on the following pages. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Eq.1 M m f M a g               , (Eq.2) M slope m g       (Eq.3) M b f        Morgan Extra Pages Homework: Graph Interpretation Exercises EXAMPLE WITH COMPLETE SOLUTION In PHYS.203L and 205L we do Lab 9 Newton’s Second Law on Atwood’s Machine using a photogate sensor (Fig. 1). The Atwood’s apparatus can slow the rate of fall enough to be measured even with primitive timing devices. In our experiment LoggerPro software automatically collects and analyzes the data giving reliable measurements of g, the acceleration of gravity. The equation governing motion for Atwood’s Machine can be written: where a is the acceleration of the masses and string, g is the acceleration of gravity, M is the total mass at both ends of the string, m is the difference between the masses, and f is the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. In this exercise you are given a graph of a vs. m obtained in this experiment with the values of M and the slope and intercept (Fig. 2). The goal is to extract values for acceleration of gravity g and frictional force f from this information. To analyze the graph we write y = mx + b, the general equation for a straight line, directly under Equation 1 and match up the various parameters: Equating above and below, you can create two new equations: and y m x b M m f M a g                Figure 1. The Atwood’s Machine setup (from the LoggerPro handout). Figure 2. Graph of acceleration versus mass difference; data from a Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine M = 0.400 kg a = 24.4 m – 0.018 R2 = 0.998 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060  m (kg) a (m/s2) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com 2 2 9.76 / 0.400 24.4 /( ) m s kg m kg s g Mm      To handle Equation 2 it pays to consider what the units of the slope are. A slope is “the rise over the run,“ so its units must be the units of the vertical axis divided by those of the horizontal axis. In this case: Now let’s solve Equation 2 for g and substitute the values of total mass M and of the slope m from the graph: Using 9.80 m/s2 as the Baltimore accepted value for g, we can calculate the percent error: A similar process with Equation 3 leads to a value for f, the frictional force at the hub of the pulley wheel. Note that the units of intercept b are simply whatever the vertical axis units are, m/s2 in this case. Solving Equation 3 for f: EXERCISE 1 The Picket Fence experiment makes use of LoggerPro software to calculate velocities at regular time intervals as the striped plate passes through the photogate (Fig. 3). The theoretical equation is v = vi + at (Eq. 4) where vi = 0 (the fence is dropped from rest) and a = g. a. Write Equation 4 with y = mx + b under it and circle matching factors as in the Example. b. What is the experimental value of the acceleration of gravity? What is its percent error from the accepted value for Baltimore, 9.80 m/s2? c. Does the value of the y-intercept make sense? d. How well did the straight Trendline match the data? 2 / 2 kg s m kg m s   0.4% 100 9.80 9.76 9.80 100 . . . %        Acc Exp Acc Error kg m s mN kg m s f Mb 7.2 10 / 7.2 0.400 ( 0.018 / ) 3 2 2           Figure 3. Graph of speed versus time as calculated by LoggerPro as a picket fence falls freely through a photogate. Picket Fence Drop y = 9.8224x + 0.0007 R2 = 0.9997 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 t (s) v (m/s) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 2 This is an electrical example from PHYS.204L/206L, potential difference, V, versus current, I (Fig. 4). The theoretical equation is V = IR (Eq. 5) and is known as “Ohm’s Law.” The unit symbols stand for volts, V, and Amperes, A. The factor R stands for resistance and is measured in units of ohms, symbol  (capital omega). The definition of the ohm is: V (Eq. 6) By coincidence the letter symbols for potential (a quantity ) and volts (its unit) are identical. Thus “voltage” has become the laboratory slang name for potential. a. Rearrange the Ohm’s Law equation to match y = mx + b.. b. What is the experimental resistance? c. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? EXERCISE 3 This graph (Fig. 5) also follows Ohm’s Law, but solved for current I. For this graph the experimenter held potential difference V constant at 15.0V and measured the current for resistances of 100, 50, 40, and 30  Solve Ohm’s Law for I and you will see that 1/R is the logical variable to use on the x axis. For units, someone once jokingly referred to a “reciprocal ohm” as a “mho,” and the name stuck. a. Rearrange Equation 5 solved for I to match y = mx + b. b. What is the experimental potential difference? c. Calculate the percent difference from the 15.0 V that the experimenter set on the power supply (the instrument used for such experiments). d. Comment on the experimental intercept: is its value reasonable? Figure 4. Graph of potential difference versus current; data from a Physics II experiment. The theoretical equation, V = IR, is known as “Ohm’s Law.” Ohm’s Law y = 0.628x – 0.0275 R2 = 0.9933 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Current, I (A) Potential difference, V (V) Figure 5. Another application of Ohm’s Law: a graph of current versus the inverse of resistance, from a different electric circuit experiment. Current versus (1/Resistance) y = 14.727x – 0.2214 R2 = 0.9938 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 R-1 (millimhos) I (milliamperes) Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 4 The Atwood’s Machine experiment (see the solved example above) can be done in another way: keep mass difference m the same and vary the total mass M (Fig. 6). a. Rewrite Equation 1 and factor out (1/M). b. Equate the coefficient of (1/M) with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the values for slope, mass difference, and frictional force and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? EXERCISE 5 In the previous two exercises the reciprocal of a variable was used to make the graph come out linear. In this one the trick will be to use the square root of a variable (Fig. 7). In PHYS.203L and 205L Lab 19 The Pendulum the theoretical equation is where the period T is the time per cycle, L is the length of the string, and g is the acceleration of gravity. a. Rewrite Equation 7 with the square root of L factored out and placed at the end. b. Equate the coefficient of √L with the experimental slope and solve for acceleration of gravity g. c. Substitute the value for slope and calculate the experimental of g. d. Derive the units of the slope and show that the units of g come out as they should. e. Is the value of the experimental intercept reasonable? 2 (Eq . 7) g T   L Figure 6. Graph of acceleration versus the reciprocal of total mass; data from a another Physics I experiment. Atwood’s Machine m = 0.020 kg f = 7.2 mN y = 0.1964x – 0.0735 R2 = 0.995 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 1/M (1/kg) a (m/s2) Effect of Pendulum Length on Period y = 2.0523x – 0.0331 R2 = 0.999 0.400 0.800 1.200 1.600 2.000 2.400 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 L1/2 (m1/2) T (s) Figure 7. Graph of period T versus the square root of pendulum length; data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 6 In Exercise 5 another approach would have been to square both sides of Equation 7 and plot T2 versus L. Lab 20 directs us to use that alternative. It involves another case of periodic or harmonic motion with a similar, but more complicated, equation for the period: where T is the period of the bobbing (Fig. 8), M is the suspended mass, ms is the mass of the spring, k is a measure of stiffness called the spring constant, and C is a dimensionless factor showing how much of the spring mass is effectively bobbing. a. Square both sides of Equation 8 and rearrange it to match y = mx + b. b. Write y = mx + b under your rearranged equation and circle matching factors as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating k and the second for finding C from the data of Fig. 9. d. A theoretical analysis has shown that for most springs C = 1/3. Find the percent error from that value. e. Derive the units of the slope and intercept; show that the units of k come out as N/m and that C is dimensionless. 2 (Eq . 8) k T M Cm s    Figure 8. In Lab 20 mass M is suspended from a spring which is set to bobbing up and down, a good approximation to simple harmonic motion (SHM), described by Equation 8. Lab 20: SHM of a Spring Mass of the spring, ms = 25.1 g y = 3.0185x + 0.0197 R2 = 0.9965 0.0000 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 M (kg) T 2 2 Figure 9. Graph of the square of the period T2 versus suspended mass M data from a Physics I experiment. Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com Click to buy NOW! PDF-XChange Viewer www.docu-track.com EXERCISE 7 This last exercise deals with an exponential equation, and the trick is to take the logarithm of both sides. In PHYS.204L/206L we do Lab 33 The RC Time Constant with theoretical equation: where V is the potential difference at time t across a circuit element called a capacitor (the  is dropped for simplicity), Vo is V at t = 0 (try it), and  (tau) is a characteristic of the circuit called the time constant. a. Take the natural log of both sides and apply the addition rule for logarithms of a product on the right-hand side. b. Noting that the graph (Fig. 10) plots lnV versus t, arrange your equation in y = mx + b order, write y = mx + b under it, and circle the parts as in the Example. c. Write two new equations analogous to Equations 2 and 3 in the Example. Use the first of the two for calculating  and the second for finding lnVo and then Vo. d. Note that the units of lnV are the natural log of volts, lnV. As usual derive the units of the slope and interecept and use them to obtain the units of your experimental V and t. V V e (Eq. 9) t o    Figure 10. Graph of a logarithm versus time; data from Lab 33, a Physics II experiment. Discharge of a Capacitor y = -9.17E-03x + 2.00E+00 R2 = 9.98E-01 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

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EE214 Fall 2015 Problem Set1 I am submitting my own work in this exercise, and I am aware of the penalties for cheating that will be assessed if I submit work for credit that is not my own. Print Name Sign Name Date Contains material © Digilent, Inc. 7 pages 1. (15 points) Below are some circuit elements from a simple digital system. 3.3V 20mA VB 1Kohm VA 1.3V RB 1K RC RD SW1 SW2 RA VC When the pushbutton SW1 is not pressed, what is the voltage at VA? (1pt) When the SW1 is pressed, what is the voltage at VA? (1pt) When the SW1 is pressed, what current flows in the 1K resistor RA? (1pt) When SW1 is pressed, what power is dissipated in RA? (2pt) In the LED circuit, 1.3V is required at VB to forward-bias the LED and cause current to flow. Given there is a 1.3V drop across the LED, what resistance RB is required for 20mA to flow through the LED? (2pt) What power is dissipated in the LED? (1pt) In the circuit on the far right, if RC dissipates 25mW, what is VC? (2pt) Using the VC voltage you calculated, if RC is changed to 100Ohms, how much power would it dissipate? (2pt) Using the VC voltage you calculated and a 1K RC, if pressing SW2 causes the total circuit power to increase to 75mW, what value must RD be? (3pt) EE214 Problem Set 1 2. (20 points) Complete the truth tables below. Provide SOP equations for the bottom three tables. F <= Σ ( ) F <= Σ ( ) F <= Σ ( ) 3. (12 points) Write the number of transistors required for each logic gate below inside the gate symbol, and then write the logic gate name below the symbol. 4. (12 points) Complete truth tables for the circuits shown below A B F AND A B F OR A B F XOR A F INV A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ̅ ∙ ? + ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ∙ ? ∙? ̅ + ? ∙ ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ∙? ̅+? ̅ ∙ ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 A F B C A B C Y EE214 Problem Set 1 5. (18 points) Show the total transistor count and gate/input number for the circuits below. Then sketch equivalent circuits using NAND gates that use fewer transistors (do not minimize the circuits). 6. (12 points) Sketch circuits for the following logic equations F = A̅ ∙ B ∙ C + A ∙B̅ ∙C̅ +A̅ ∙ C F = A̅ ∙ B ∙C̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ + ̅A̅̅+̅̅̅B̅ F = (? +? ̅ ) ∙ ̅̅?̅̅̅̅̅+̅̅̅̅̅̅̅?̅̅̅∙̅̅?̅̅ G AB C D AB C D H G F F AB C EE214 Problem Set 1 7. (22 points) Sketch a circuit similar to the figure below that asserts logic 1 only when both switches are closed. Label the switches 1 and 2, and complete the truth table below. Then circle the correct term (high or low, and open or closed) to complete the following sentences describing the AND and OR relationships: AND Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], and SW2 is [open / closed]. OR Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], or SW2 is [open / closed]. Sketch a circuit similar to the figure below that asserts logic 0 whenever one or both switches are closed. Label the switches 1 and 2, and complete the truth table below. Circle the correct term (high or low, and open or closed) to complete the following sentences describing the AND and OR relationships: AND Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], and SW2 is [open / closed]. OR Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], or SW2 is [open / closed]. 8. (4 points) Complete the following. A pFET turns [ ON / OFF ] with LLV and conducts [ LHV / LLV ] well (circle one in each bracket). An nFET turns [ ON / OFF ] with LLV and conducts [ LHV / LLV ] well (circle one in each bracket). Vdd GND F SW1 SW2 Vdd GND F SW1 SW2 SW1 SW2 F SW1 SW2 F EE214 Problem Set 1 9. (8 points) Sketch circuits and write Verilog assignment statements for the following equations. F = m(1, 2, 6) F = M(0, 7) 10. (21 points) Complete the truth tables below (enter “on” or “off” under each transistor entry, and “1” or “0” for output F), and enter the gate name and schematic shapes in the tables. You get 1/2 point for each correct column, and 1/2 point each for correct names and shapes. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 A B F Vdd Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 A B F Vdd A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape EE214 Problem Set 1 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 A B F Q5 Q6 Vdd Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 A B F Q5 Q6 Vdd (2 points) Enter the logic equation for the 3-input circuit above: A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B C Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 F = Q1 Q2 Q4 Q5 A B F Q6 Vdd C Q3 EE214 Problem Set 1 11. (20 points) In a logic function with n inputs, there are 2? unique combinations of inputs and 22? possible logic functions. The table below has four rows that show the four possible combinations of two inputs (22 = 4), and 16 output columns that show all possible two-input logic function (222 = 16). Six of these output columns are associated with common logic functions of two variables. Circle the six columns, and label them with the appropriate logic gate name. Draw the circuit symbols for the functions represented. INPUTS ALL POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A table like the one above for 3 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. A table like the one above for 4 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. A table like the one above for 5 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. 12. (15 points) Find global minimum circuits for the following three logic signal outputs that are all functions of the same three inputs. Show all work. F1 =  m (0, 3, 4) F2 =  m (1, 6, 7) F3 =  m (0, 1, 3, 4)

EE214 Fall 2015 Problem Set1 I am submitting my own work in this exercise, and I am aware of the penalties for cheating that will be assessed if I submit work for credit that is not my own. Print Name Sign Name Date Contains material © Digilent, Inc. 7 pages 1. (15 points) Below are some circuit elements from a simple digital system. 3.3V 20mA VB 1Kohm VA 1.3V RB 1K RC RD SW1 SW2 RA VC When the pushbutton SW1 is not pressed, what is the voltage at VA? (1pt) When the SW1 is pressed, what is the voltage at VA? (1pt) When the SW1 is pressed, what current flows in the 1K resistor RA? (1pt) When SW1 is pressed, what power is dissipated in RA? (2pt) In the LED circuit, 1.3V is required at VB to forward-bias the LED and cause current to flow. Given there is a 1.3V drop across the LED, what resistance RB is required for 20mA to flow through the LED? (2pt) What power is dissipated in the LED? (1pt) In the circuit on the far right, if RC dissipates 25mW, what is VC? (2pt) Using the VC voltage you calculated, if RC is changed to 100Ohms, how much power would it dissipate? (2pt) Using the VC voltage you calculated and a 1K RC, if pressing SW2 causes the total circuit power to increase to 75mW, what value must RD be? (3pt) EE214 Problem Set 1 2. (20 points) Complete the truth tables below. Provide SOP equations for the bottom three tables. F <= Σ ( ) F <= Σ ( ) F <= Σ ( ) 3. (12 points) Write the number of transistors required for each logic gate below inside the gate symbol, and then write the logic gate name below the symbol. 4. (12 points) Complete truth tables for the circuits shown below A B F AND A B F OR A B F XOR A F INV A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ̅ ∙ ? + ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ∙ ? ∙? ̅ + ? ∙ ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 ? = ? ∙? ̅+? ̅ ∙ ? A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 A B C F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 A F B C A B C Y EE214 Problem Set 1 5. (18 points) Show the total transistor count and gate/input number for the circuits below. Then sketch equivalent circuits using NAND gates that use fewer transistors (do not minimize the circuits). 6. (12 points) Sketch circuits for the following logic equations F = A̅ ∙ B ∙ C + A ∙B̅ ∙C̅ +A̅ ∙ C F = A̅ ∙ B ∙C̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ + ̅A̅̅+̅̅̅B̅ F = (? +? ̅ ) ∙ ̅̅?̅̅̅̅̅+̅̅̅̅̅̅̅?̅̅̅∙̅̅?̅̅ G AB C D AB C D H G F F AB C EE214 Problem Set 1 7. (22 points) Sketch a circuit similar to the figure below that asserts logic 1 only when both switches are closed. Label the switches 1 and 2, and complete the truth table below. Then circle the correct term (high or low, and open or closed) to complete the following sentences describing the AND and OR relationships: AND Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], and SW2 is [open / closed]. OR Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], or SW2 is [open / closed]. Sketch a circuit similar to the figure below that asserts logic 0 whenever one or both switches are closed. Label the switches 1 and 2, and complete the truth table below. Circle the correct term (high or low, and open or closed) to complete the following sentences describing the AND and OR relationships: AND Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], and SW2 is [open / closed]. OR Relationship: The output F is [high / low] when SW1 is [open / closed], or SW2 is [open / closed]. 8. (4 points) Complete the following. A pFET turns [ ON / OFF ] with LLV and conducts [ LHV / LLV ] well (circle one in each bracket). An nFET turns [ ON / OFF ] with LLV and conducts [ LHV / LLV ] well (circle one in each bracket). Vdd GND F SW1 SW2 Vdd GND F SW1 SW2 SW1 SW2 F SW1 SW2 F EE214 Problem Set 1 9. (8 points) Sketch circuits and write Verilog assignment statements for the following equations. F = m(1, 2, 6) F = M(0, 7) 10. (21 points) Complete the truth tables below (enter “on” or “off” under each transistor entry, and “1” or “0” for output F), and enter the gate name and schematic shapes in the tables. You get 1/2 point for each correct column, and 1/2 point each for correct names and shapes. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 A B F Vdd Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 A B F Vdd A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape EE214 Problem Set 1 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 A B F Q5 Q6 Vdd Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 A B F Q5 Q6 Vdd (2 points) Enter the logic equation for the 3-input circuit above: A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Gate Name AND shape OR shape A B C Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 F 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 F = Q1 Q2 Q4 Q5 A B F Q6 Vdd C Q3 EE214 Problem Set 1 11. (20 points) In a logic function with n inputs, there are 2? unique combinations of inputs and 22? possible logic functions. The table below has four rows that show the four possible combinations of two inputs (22 = 4), and 16 output columns that show all possible two-input logic function (222 = 16). Six of these output columns are associated with common logic functions of two variables. Circle the six columns, and label them with the appropriate logic gate name. Draw the circuit symbols for the functions represented. INPUTS ALL POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A table like the one above for 3 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. A table like the one above for 4 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. A table like the one above for 5 inputs would need _________ rows and _________ columns. 12. (15 points) Find global minimum circuits for the following three logic signal outputs that are all functions of the same three inputs. Show all work. F1 =  m (0, 3, 4) F2 =  m (1, 6, 7) F3 =  m (0, 1, 3, 4)

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