Design a regulated power supply able to supply a maximum load current of 25 mA. Your design specifications are: DC Output: 12 V Load Variation: 0.5 – 2 kilo Ohms Ripple factor < 0.1% for 1 kilo ohm load Load Regulation: Better than 1mV/mA Line Regulation: Better than 2mV/V In your design use diodes 1N4001 and Zener 1N4742. In your design you must mention the values of the resistors, capacitors, transformer turns ratio. Typed report must contain the following in the same order: • Final design with all component values • SPICE simulation results supporting the validity of your design satisfying the specifications. • Discuss your approach to satisfy the specifications. Explain which specifications you met and which you did not meet. Provide discussion and conclusions and comments.
Operational amplifiers are often used to amplify a sensor output. This problem will walk you through the design of a simple temperature measuring device based on a platinum wire sensor. Goal: Build a circuit that will provide a calibrated output between .32V and 2.12V for temperatures sensed between 0°C and 100°C. (The final circuit can be seen at the end of this homework but we will work out each stage in turn.) The platinum wire sensor has a resistance of 100Ω at 0°C and 138.5Ω at 100°C, or a change of 0.385Ω/°C. (The arrow through the resistor in the circuit indicates it is a variable resistor.) A 0.5mA source is used to excite the platinum wire resistor to obtain a voltage. The first stage of our circuit will be to buffer the output of the sensor so we do not load the sensor circuit by drawing off any of the .5mA current to the op amp. A. (10 points) What is V1 when the temperature is 0°C, 1°C, 20°C and 100°C? (Use at least four decimal points.) B. (10 points)The output voltage of the resistor changes by I*ΔRT where I =0.5mA and ΔRT = 0.385Ω/°C. It is too small, so we need amplify this so the V2 output in the second stage of this circuit will be 5mV per degree using a non-inverting amplifier. So we want 5mV = (I*ΔRT * gain) per degree centigrade. What is the required gain for this circuit? Choose values of R1 and R2 between 1k and 100kΩ to achieve this. Choose Rin to be 1K-10kΩ. C. (10 points) What is V2 for a temperature of 0°C and for 1°C. What is the difference between the two voltages? (Hint: The difference should be exactly 5mV! The resistance of the platinum wire will be 100.385Ω @ 1°C.) D. (10 extra credit points) We would like for the output voltage, V2, to be 0V when the temperature is 0°C. This can be done by adding a third stage with an offset voltage in the circuit below. Find Voffset so that VC = 0V when the temperature is 0°C. Let R3 =R4 = R5 and pick appropriate values of the resistors between 1k and 10kΩ. (Hint: V2= the voltage when the temperature is 0°C you found in part C. Find Voffset so that Vc =0V. Superposition may a good technique to use here. You can analyze the circuit when V2=0 and the offset is activated and then you can analyze the circuit when V2 = the value from part C and the offset voltage is zero.) What is Voffset? What values did you chose for the resistors? What is VC when the temperature is is 0°C, 1°C, 20°C and 100°C? E. The voltage VC should now be 0V when the temperature is 0°C and increase by 10mV for every degree centigrade. We need to multiply this by 1.8, the factor to convert a degree Centigrade to a degree Fahrenheit. The output of this stage, V4, should range from 0V to 1.80V and then we will add an offset to change the VF output range to 0.32V to 2.12V in the last stage. The following circuit can be used. Note that this circuit uses inverting amplifiers instead of non-inverting amplifiers. (10 extra credit points) Find the correct resistor values for R7, R8 so that V4 will range between 0V to -1.80V when the temperature is sensed between 0°C and 100°C. (10 extra credit points) Find Voffset2 and then determine VF at 0°C, 1°C, 20°C and 100°C so the VF will range from 0.32V to 2.12V. (Hint: When VC = 0V at 0°C, the V4 output of this stage will also be 0V. Determine the offset voltage so VF = 0.32V. Choose R9 = R10 = R11 = 1kΩ, so at 0°C, VF = 0.32V = VR10 with the current going from the output back through R10 to zero volts, then down through R11 and the Voffset2 source. Since VR10=VR11=0.32V, determine Voffset2. When the temperature is 100°C the output should be 2.12V.)
Computer Architecture Project 1 Building Assembler Dr. Chris Martinez Spring 2017 Computer architecture is made up of two main components the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) and the RTL model for the CPU. In this class, we will have two software projects that will help in your understanding of the ISA and RTL model for the CPU. The projects can be done in any software language that you chose to use. The first project is the creation of an assembler. The assembler will be use for you to write assembly language programs that will be executed on the CPU you will design in project #2. The CPU we will be using is based on the DLX design. What is an assembler? All computer software goes through a set of applications to create an executable file that can be used by the end user. The first program a programmer will used is a high level language program (C, C++, etc.). The programmer writes in a very high level abstract environment writing code such as: For(x=0; x< 10; x++) A[x] = x; The high level language allows the programmer to write his program without knowing how the ISA and hardware architecture functions. The language hides all the hardware from the programmer. At some point, the source code needs to be transfer to a language that takes into account the ISA and hardware architecture. The complier is the next step in the development process. The complier will take in high-level source code and translate the program into assembly language. Assembly language is the ISA for a computer. Assembly is the instructions that the computer can perform. The compiler will do the following: C language: c = a + b; Assembly: load r1, a Load r2,b Add r3,r1,r2 Store r3,c The last part of the development process is taking the assembly code created by the complier and transferring into machine code that the computer will execute. A computer is not able to run written language such as ADD r1,r2,r3. The computer runs a program by reading data stored in memory. The memory does not the store the command ADD r1,r2,r3 but store machine code. Machine code is the binary representation of an assembly language instruction. The DLX Machine code All the information for the DLX machine code and assembly instructions can be found in the handouts given in class. Each of the DLX instruction is 32-bits in length. Each part of the instruction is assigned a set of bits in the instruction. DLX break down the instructions into three different types R,I, and J. R-type instruction An example of the R-type instruction is ADD rd, rs1, rs2 The instruction is 32-bits in length: Bits 31-26 is the opcode. The opcode tell the CPU what instruction it is doing Bits 25-21 is the rs1 Bits 20-16 is the rs2 Bits 15-11 is the rd Bits 10-0 is the funct. Funct tells what type of ALU operation is being conducted. I-type instruction Ex ADDI rs1,rs2,immm Bits 31-26 is the opcode Bits 25-21 is rs1 Bits 20-16 is rs2 Bits 15-0 is immediate. The immediate value is the constant value to use in the instruction J-type instruction Ex J address Bits 31-26 is the opcode Bits 25-0 is the address to jump to What is my assignment? Getting Started (Items you have to review or learn to do for the project) In order to get started on creating your assembler you must be able to have the program understand basic syntax of a text file containing a program. In this first part of the program you will deal with the basic functions of string processing and reading files. The following is a list of items to complete to help you do the project. 1) You will need to be able to read in arguments pass from the command line. Ex: project1.exe inputfile.txt outputfile1.txt 2) You will need to be able to parse a string. Ex: You will need to use the strtok() function in the string.h file. 3) You will need to convert all letters to lowercase letters. 4) You will need to compare a string to a list of know words. (add, load, store, r0, r1, r2) 5) You will need to have a number in text 123 be converted to a number (integer) in the C program. 6) You will also need to be able to read and write files. Project #1 Your assignment is to make a simple assembler for the DLX processor. We will simplify the assembler by only using the core instructions, we will not do the floating point instructions. The registers will be named as r0, r1, r2, … r29, r30, r31. We will also not allow any advance naming for saving constant or memory locations the assembly source code we write will hard code any constant and memory location to read and write to. The only advance item we will do is use a label for branching and jumping in code. Items to turn in: a report that tells how you created your program, source code, test files and a flow chart. Tips It is common to run an assembler in a two pass structure. The first pass goes through the source files and finds all the labels and addresses for each instruction. You can start your program by assuming the first line of code is at memory location 0. You will make a table of label and address. On the second pass you will then convert the assembly instruction into machine code and fill in any labels using your table.
Find Vo in the circuit shown given that V1 = 4V, V2 = 6V, V3 = 8V, V4 = 3V, R1 = 16kW, R2 = 128kW, R3 = 12kW, R4 = 33kW, R5 = 36kW, and R6 = 38kW. The voltage at the inverting terminal of the op amp, Vx, = V The current I2 = mA Vo = V The load current, IL = mA The output current, Io = mA
Consider a cylindrical specimen of a steel alloy (Figure 6.22) 8.5 mm (0.33 in.) in diameter and 80 mm (3.15 in.) long that is pulled in tension. Determine its elongation when a load of 65,250 N (14,500 lbf) is applied.
(Nilsson & Riedel, p. 391, 10.34.) A group of small appliances on a 60Hz system requires 20kVA at 0.85 lagging pf when operated at 125 VRMS. The impedance of the line supplying the appliances is 0.01 +j0.08 Ω. The voltage at the load end of the line is 125VRMS. a) What is the RMS magnitude of the voltage at the Source? b) What is the average power loss in the line, PLINE? c) What size of capacitor in μF across the load end of the feeder is needed to change the load pf to 1. d) After the capacitor is installed, what is VRMS at the source, if the load voltage is maintained at 125VRMS? e) What is the average power loss in the line, PLINE with the capacitor installed
Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 Assignment 4 – Noise and Correlation 1. If a signal is measured as 2.5 V and the noise is 28 mV (28 × 10−3 V), what is the SNR in dB? 2. A single sinusoidal signal is found with some noise. If the RMS value of the noise is 0.5 V and the SNR is 10 dB, what is the RMS amplitude of the sinusoid? 3. The file signal_noise.mat contains a variable x that consists of a 1.0-V peak sinusoidal signal buried in noise. What is the SNR for this signal and noise? Assume that the noise RMS is much greater than the signal RMS. Note: “signal_noise.mat” and other files used in these assignments can be downloaded from the content area of Brightspace, within the “Data Files for Exercises” folder. These files can be opened in Matlab by copying into the active folder and double-clicking on the file or using the Matlab load command using the format: load(‘signal_noise.mat’). To discover the variables within the files use the Matlab who command. 4. An 8-bit ADC converter that has an input range of ±5 V is used to convert a signal that ranges between ±2 V. What is the SNR of the input if the input noise equals the quantization noise of the converter? Hint: Refer to Equation below to find the quantization noise: 5. The file filter1.mat contains the spectrum of a fourth-order lowpass filter as variable x in dB. The file also contains the corresponding frequencies of x in variable freq. Plot the spectrum of this filter both as dB versus log frequency and as linear amplitude versus linear frequency. The frequency axis should range between 10 and 400 Hz in both plots. Hint: Use Equation below to convert: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 6. Generate one cycle of the square wave similar to the one shown below in a 500-point MATLAB array. Determine the RMS value of this waveform. [Hint: When you take the square of the data array, be sure to use a period before the up arrow so that MATLAB does the squaring point-by-point (i.e., x.^2).]. 7. A resistor produces 10 μV noise (i.e., 10 × 10−6 V noise) when the room temperature is 310 K and the bandwidth is 1 kHz (i.e., 1000 Hz). What current noise would be produced by this resistor? 8. A 3-ma current flows through both a diode (i.e., a semiconductor) and a 20,000-Ω (i.e., 20-kΩ) resistor. What is the net current noise, in? Assume a bandwidth of 1 kHz (i.e., 1 × 103 Hz). Which of the two components is responsible for producing the most noise? 9. Determine if the two signals, x and y, in file correl1.mat are correlated by checking the angle between them. 10. Modify the approach used in Practice Problem 3 to find the angle between short signals: Do not attempt to plot these vectors as it would require a 6-dimensional plot!
6. (20 pts) (Nilsson & Riedel, p. 391, 10.34.) A group of small appliances on a 60Hz system requires 20kVA at 0.85 lagging pf when operated at 125 VRMS. The impedance of the line supplying the appliances is 0.01 +j0.08 Ω. The voltage at the load end of the line is 125VRMS. a) What is the RMS magnitude of the voltage at the Source? b) What is the average power loss in the line, PLINE? c) What size of capacitor in μF across the load end of the feeder is needed to change the load pf to 1. d) After the capacitor is installed, what is VRMS at the source, if the load voltage is maintained at 125VRMS? e) What is the average power loss in the line, PLINE with the capacitor installed?
University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering CE 571 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures HW01-1 Project 1 Due: Thursday, September 10, 2015 Dear colleagues, TYZ International is an engineering firm based in Milwaukee, WI serving clients around the globe. TYZ International plans to relocate its headquarter to Menomonee Falls, WI. The multi-story structure covers approximately 64,000 square-feet, providing a “state-of-the-art” facility for the growing company. We are seeking design firms that can carry out the design of the reinforced concrete structure. As a pre-screening process, engineering firms who are interested in the job are asked to solve the following related problems. Our final decision will be made after ten rounds of evaluation in December. In the first round, we would like you to demonstrate your knowledge on the basics of reinforced concrete design and the structural analyses. Specifically, we would like you to determine the maximum moment and shear in a simple beam. You may need to use the concept of influence lines because part of the loads are live loads, for which the location can vary. In addition, we need to know your capability of analyzing complex structures such as a statically indeterminate structure. You may use any computer software or hand calculation. Finally, we would like you to calculate section properties of a reinforced concrete section, just before the beam cracks and after the beam cracks. Please show all your calculations and present your findings in written forms. Engineering firms may also team up to enter the competition. At this moment, we would like you to form a engineering team, and show us the team structure, which should include at least one chief engineer, who is in charge of organizing the effort and communication; a couple of design engineers, who will perform the structural design; and one review engineer, who will check the design and document the verification process. Engineering firms should submit their work independently. We welcome your questions in the process through email (email@example.com) or phone (414-248-8999). The design document should be submitted to Room E170 of EMS building no later than September 10, 2015. Late submittals will be disqualified. Please present your work in a professional letter with your work in the appendix. Thank you for your attention, and good luck with your work. Dr. Zhao, Vice president, TYZ International. University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering CE 571 Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures HW01-2 1. Determine the maximum positive moment and shear that can be developed at point D in the beam shown below due to a concentrated moving load of 4000 lb, a uniform moving load of 300lb/ft, and a beam weight of 200lb/ft. 2. Draw the shear and bending moment diagram. You are encouraged to use a computer program. 3. Consider a simple rectangular beam (b x h) reinforced with steel reinforcement of As. Assume b = 12 in., h = 20 in., As = 3.0 in2 and fc ’ =4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. a) Determine the centroid and moment of inertia, Ixx for an ideal beam (no cracks). b) Determine the moment of inertia, Ixx, of beam if the beam is cracked and tensile forces are in the steel only. 4. Report your term project group. Please specify a chief engineer, a couple of design engineers, and a review engineer.