CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

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Question 1 When using NTFS as a file system, what can be used to control the amount of hard disk space each user on the machine can have as a maximum? Answer Logical drives Extended partitions Disk quotas Security Center Question 2 Pin 1 of the floppy cable connects to pin 34 of the controller. Answer True False Question 3 What is the primary cause of hard drive failures? Answer Heat Dust Dirty laser lens Moving parts Question 4 The DBR contains the system files. Answer True False Question 5 A spanned volume requires a minimum of three hard drives. Answer True False Question 6 Which situation would not be appropriate for the use of SSDs? Answer A military operation where fast access to data is critical A medical imaging office that needs high-capacity storage A manufacturing plant with heat-sensitive equipment A research facility where noise must be kept to a minimum Question 7 Why are SSDs more susceptible than mechanical hard drives to electrostatic discharge? Answer The internal battery of the SSD provides additional current. SSDs are memory. The voltage level of the SSD is lower than a mechanical hard drive. The SSD is a more fragile component. Question 8 A motherboard has two PATA IDE connectors, A and B. A is nearer the edge than B. The IDE cable from A connects to a 500GB hard drive and then to a 200GB hard drive. The IDE cable from B connects to an R/W optical drive and then to a Blu-ray optical drive. Assuming the setup is optimal, which of the following describes the 500GB hard drive? Answer Primary slave Secondary slave Primary master Secondary master Question 9 The primary IDE motherboard connection normally uses I/O address 1F0 -1F7h and IRQ 15. Answer True False Question 10 A cable with a twist is used when installing two floppy drives. Answer True False Question 11 What does partitioning the hard drive mean? Answer Dividing the hard drive up into three different sections: one for each type of file system Preparing the drive to be mounted Giving the hard drive a drive letter and/or allowing the hard drive to be seen as more than one drive Preparing the drive for an operating system Question 12 The Network Engineering Technology departmental secretary is getting a new computer funded by a grant. The old computer is being moved by the PC technicians to give to the new program facilitator in another department. Which one of the following is most likely to be used before the program facilitator uses the computer? Answer Check Now Tool Backup Tool Disk Management Tool BitLocker Question 13 What is CHKDSK? Answer A command used to scan the disk for viruses during off hours A program used to defragment the hard drive A program used to locate and identify lost clusters A command used to verify the validity of the drive surface before installing a file system or an operating system Question 14 When a disk has been prepared to store data, it has been Answer Cleaned Tracked Enabled Formatted Question 15 Where would you go to enable a SATA port? Answer CMOS BIOS Disk Management Tool Task Manager Question 16 The Windows boot partition is the partition that must contain the majority of the operating system. Answer True False Question 17 Two considerations when adding or installing a floppy drive are an available drive bay and an available power connector. Answer True False Question 18 What is the difference between a SATA 2 and a SATA 3 hard drive? Answer The SATA 3 has a different power connector. The SATA 3 device transmits more simultaneous bits than SATA 2. The SATA 3 device transmits data faster. SATA 3 will always be a larger capacity drive. The SATA 3 device will be physically smaller. Question 19 What command would be used in Windows 7 to repair a partition table? Answer FDISK FORMAT FIXBOOT bootrec /FixMbr FIXMBR Question 20 What file system is optimized for optical media? Answer exFAT FAT32 CDFS NTFS Question 21 One of the most effective ways of increasing computer performance is to increase the size of virtual memory. Answer True False Question 22 Older PATA IDE cables and the Ultra ATA/66 cable differ by Answer Where the twist occurs The number of conductors The number of pins The number of devices they can connect to Question 23 Which of the following is NOT important in assigning SCSI IDs? Answer The hard drive that the system boots to may have a preset ID. ID priority must match the order of appearance on the SCSI chain. All devices must have unique IDs. Slower devices should have higher priority IDs. Question 24 The ATA standard is associated with the SCSI interface. Answer True False Question 25 A striped volume requires a minimum of two hard drives. Answer True False

Question 1 When using NTFS as a file system, what can be used to control the amount of hard disk space each user on the machine can have as a maximum? Answer Logical drives Extended partitions Disk quotas Security Center Question 2 Pin 1 of the floppy cable connects to pin 34 of the controller. Answer True False Question 3 What is the primary cause of hard drive failures? Answer Heat Dust Dirty laser lens Moving parts Question 4 The DBR contains the system files. Answer True False Question 5 A spanned volume requires a minimum of three hard drives. Answer True False Question 6 Which situation would not be appropriate for the use of SSDs? Answer A military operation where fast access to data is critical A medical imaging office that needs high-capacity storage A manufacturing plant with heat-sensitive equipment A research facility where noise must be kept to a minimum Question 7 Why are SSDs more susceptible than mechanical hard drives to electrostatic discharge? Answer The internal battery of the SSD provides additional current. SSDs are memory. The voltage level of the SSD is lower than a mechanical hard drive. The SSD is a more fragile component. Question 8 A motherboard has two PATA IDE connectors, A and B. A is nearer the edge than B. The IDE cable from A connects to a 500GB hard drive and then to a 200GB hard drive. The IDE cable from B connects to an R/W optical drive and then to a Blu-ray optical drive. Assuming the setup is optimal, which of the following describes the 500GB hard drive? Answer Primary slave Secondary slave Primary master Secondary master Question 9 The primary IDE motherboard connection normally uses I/O address 1F0 -1F7h and IRQ 15. Answer True False Question 10 A cable with a twist is used when installing two floppy drives. Answer True False Question 11 What does partitioning the hard drive mean? Answer Dividing the hard drive up into three different sections: one for each type of file system Preparing the drive to be mounted Giving the hard drive a drive letter and/or allowing the hard drive to be seen as more than one drive Preparing the drive for an operating system Question 12 The Network Engineering Technology departmental secretary is getting a new computer funded by a grant. The old computer is being moved by the PC technicians to give to the new program facilitator in another department. Which one of the following is most likely to be used before the program facilitator uses the computer? Answer Check Now Tool Backup Tool Disk Management Tool BitLocker Question 13 What is CHKDSK? Answer A command used to scan the disk for viruses during off hours A program used to defragment the hard drive A program used to locate and identify lost clusters A command used to verify the validity of the drive surface before installing a file system or an operating system Question 14 When a disk has been prepared to store data, it has been Answer Cleaned Tracked Enabled Formatted Question 15 Where would you go to enable a SATA port? Answer CMOS BIOS Disk Management Tool Task Manager Question 16 The Windows boot partition is the partition that must contain the majority of the operating system. Answer True False Question 17 Two considerations when adding or installing a floppy drive are an available drive bay and an available power connector. Answer True False Question 18 What is the difference between a SATA 2 and a SATA 3 hard drive? Answer The SATA 3 has a different power connector. The SATA 3 device transmits more simultaneous bits than SATA 2. The SATA 3 device transmits data faster. SATA 3 will always be a larger capacity drive. The SATA 3 device will be physically smaller. Question 19 What command would be used in Windows 7 to repair a partition table? Answer FDISK FORMAT FIXBOOT bootrec /FixMbr FIXMBR Question 20 What file system is optimized for optical media? Answer exFAT FAT32 CDFS NTFS Question 21 One of the most effective ways of increasing computer performance is to increase the size of virtual memory. Answer True False Question 22 Older PATA IDE cables and the Ultra ATA/66 cable differ by Answer Where the twist occurs The number of conductors The number of pins The number of devices they can connect to Question 23 Which of the following is NOT important in assigning SCSI IDs? Answer The hard drive that the system boots to may have a preset ID. ID priority must match the order of appearance on the SCSI chain. All devices must have unique IDs. Slower devices should have higher priority IDs. Question 24 The ATA standard is associated with the SCSI interface. Answer True False Question 25 A striped volume requires a minimum of two hard drives. Answer True False

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Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

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What does the author mean when he says the me is the epistemological self? The me can be manipulated and changed. The me is logical and rational. The me is an object that can be described. The me is a subjective entity.

What does the author mean when he says the me is the epistemological self? The me can be manipulated and changed. The me is logical and rational. The me is an object that can be described. The me is a subjective entity.

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1- At your university, students can take more than one class, and each class can have more than one student. This is an example of what kind of relationship? one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many some-to-many 2- A _____ is a logical grouping of related records. byte field record file database 3- When customers access a website and make purchases, they generate _____. tracking cookies information clickstream data web data hyperlink data 4- You have moved to a different apartment, but your electricity bill continues to be sent to your old address. The post office in your town has which problem with its data management? Data redundancy Data inconsistency Data isolation Data security Data dependence 5- Data ___________ ensures applications cannot access data associated with other applications. Hermitting inconsistency isolation redundancy 6- True or false: The primary key is a field that uniquely and completely identifies a record. True False 7- A _____ represents a single character, such as a letter, number, or symbol. byte field record file database 8- A _____ is a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number. byte field record file database 9- A _____ is a logical grouping of related fields. byte field record file database 10 – _____ are fields in a record that have some identifying information but typically do not identify the record with complete accuracy. Primary keys Secondary keys Duplicate keys Attribute keys Record keys

1- At your university, students can take more than one class, and each class can have more than one student. This is an example of what kind of relationship? one-to-one one-to-many many-to-one many-to-many some-to-many 2- A _____ is a logical grouping of related records. byte field record file database 3- When customers access a website and make purchases, they generate _____. tracking cookies information clickstream data web data hyperlink data 4- You have moved to a different apartment, but your electricity bill continues to be sent to your old address. The post office in your town has which problem with its data management? Data redundancy Data inconsistency Data isolation Data security Data dependence 5- Data ___________ ensures applications cannot access data associated with other applications. Hermitting inconsistency isolation redundancy 6- True or false: The primary key is a field that uniquely and completely identifies a record. True False 7- A _____ represents a single character, such as a letter, number, or symbol. byte field record file database 8- A _____ is a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number. byte field record file database 9- A _____ is a logical grouping of related fields. byte field record file database 10 – _____ are fields in a record that have some identifying information but typically do not identify the record with complete accuracy. Primary keys Secondary keys Duplicate keys Attribute keys Record keys

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EE118 FALL 2012 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Electrical Engineering TEST 2 — Digital Design I October 24, 2012 10:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. — Closed Book & Closed Notes — — No Crib Sheet Allowed — STUDENT NAME: (Last) Claussen , (First) Matthew STUDENT ID NUMBER (LAST 4 DIGITS): No interpretation of test problems will be given during the test. If you are not sure of what is intended, make appropriate assumptions and continue. Do not unstaple !!! Problems 1-14(4 points each) TOTAL Problems 15 – 17 (15 pts each) 1203 2 For the next 14 problems, circle the correct answer. No partial credit will be given. PROBLEM 1 (4 points) Which statement is not true? A. Any combinational circuit may be designed using multiplexers only. B. Any combinational circuit may be designed using decoders only. C. All Sequential circuits are based on cross-coupled NAND or NOR gates. D. A hazard in a digital system is an undesirable effect caused by either a deficiency in the system or external influences. E. None of the above PROBLEM 2 (4 points) For a 2-bit comparator comparing 2-bit numbers A = (a1 a0) and B = (b1 b0), what is the proper function for the f(A>B) output through logical reasoning? A. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1 + a1’b1’ ) a0 b0’ B. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1’+ a1’b1 ) a0 b0 C. a1 a0’ + (a1 a0 + b1’b0’ ) b1 b0’ D. a1 a0 + (a1 a0’+ b1’b0 ) b1 b0 PROBLEM 3 (4 points) What is the priority scheme of this encoder? Inputs Outputs I3 I2 I1 I0 O1 O 0 d d 1 d 0 1 d d 0 1 0 0 d 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 A. I3 > I2 > I1 >I0 B. I0 > I1 > I2 >I3 C. I1 > I0 > I2 >I3 D. I2 > I1 > I3 >I0 3 PROBLEM 4 (4 points) Which is the correct binary representation of the decimal number 46.625? A. 101101.001 B. 101000.01 C. 111001.001 D. 101110.101 PROBLEM 5 (4 points) Which is the decimal equivalent number of the sum of the two 8-bit 2’s complement numbers FB16 and 3748? A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 PROBLEM 6 (4 points) For the MUX-based circuit shown below, f(X,Y,Z) = ? X Y Z f A. X’Y’ + Y’Z’ B. X’Y’Z’ + YZ’ C. XYZ’ + Y’Z D. X’Y’Z’ + YZ 1 0 MUX 4 PROBLEM 7 (4 points) Which is the correct output F of this circuit? E C B D F A A. (A’E+AB)(C’D) B. (AE+A’B)(C’+D) C. (A’E+AB)(C’D’+CD’+CD) D. (A’E+AB)(CD’)’ PROBLEM 8 (5 points) In order to correctly perform 2910  14510, how many bits are required to represent the numbers? A 8 B 9 C 10 D 11 PROBLEM 9 (4 points) Which is the negative 2’s complement equivalent of the 8-bit number 01001101? A. 11001101 B. 10111100 C. 10110000 D. 10110011 0 2-1 1 MUX 0 0 1 1 2-4 decoder 2 EN 3 5 PROBLEM 10 (4 points) Which is the correct statement describing the behavior of the following Verilog code? module whatisthis(hmm, X, Y); output [3:0] hmm; input [3:0] X, Y; assign hmm = (X < Y) ? X : Y; endmodule A. If X>Y, hmm becomes 1111. B. hmm assumes min(X,Y). C. If X<Y, hmm becomes 1111. D. hmm assumes max(X,Y). PROBLEM 11 (4 points) Which Boolean expression corresponds to the function g(W,X,Y,Z) implemented by the following “non-priority” encoder-based circuit? Assume that one and only one input is high at any time. f W X g Y Z A. Y + Z B. W + Y C. X + Y D. X + Z PROBLEM 12 (4 points) Which Boolean expression corresponds to the output of the following logic diagram? (/B = B’) A. Z = ( A(B’ + C)’ )’ + ( (B’ + C)’ + D )’ B. Z= A(B C’) + (B C’ + D) C. Z = (A(B’ + C)(B’ + C + D) )’ D. Z = A(B’ + C)’ + (B’ + C + D)’ 0 0 1 1 2 3 Encoder 6 PROBLEM 13 (4 points) Which is the correct gate-level circuit in minimal SOP form for the following circuit? A F = Y’X’ + W’ZY’X B F = YX’ + W’Z’Y’X C F = YX’ + W’ZY’X D F = Y’X + W’ZY’X’ PROBLEM 14 (4 points) For the following flow map of a certain cross-coupled gate circuit, the circuit is currently in the underlined state. If the inputs YZ change to 11, the circuit becomes meta-stable. Between which two states (WX) does the circuit oscillate ? A 00  11 B 01  10 C 11  10 D 10  00 YZ WX 00 01 11 10 00 00 11 00 10 01 10 10 10 01 11 00 00 11 01 10 10 01 01 10 G1 Y0 G2A Y1 G2B Y2 Y3 A Y4 B Y5 C Y6 Y7 G1 Y0 G2A Y1 G2B Y2 Y3 A Y4 B Y5 C Y6 Y7 OR W X Y Z X Y Z F + 5 V 7 For each of the next 3 problems, show all your work. Partial credits will be given. PROBLEM 15 (15 points) 1) Which logic variable causes the hazard for the circuit given by the K-map below? 2) Using the timing diagram, clearly show how the hazard occurs. 3) Find the best hazard-free logic function. YZ WX 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 1 1 01 0 0 0 0 11 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 1 1 8 PROBLEM 16(15 points) Analyze the following cross-coupled NAND gates by showing: (a) flow map with stable states circled and with meta-stability condition shown by arrows, (b) state table, and (c) completed timing diagram below. Note that d is the propagation delay of each gate. XY G1(t)G2(t) 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 Inputs  XY=00 XY=01 XY=11 XY=10 Present States  X Y G1(t) G2(t) 0 d 2d 3d 4d 5d 6d 7d 8d 9d X Y G1 G2 9 PROBLEM 17 (15 points) Using Quine-McCluskey algorithm, find the minimal SOP for the following minterm list. f(A, B, C) = (1,2,3,4,6,7) w(j) j Match I Match II 0 1 2 3 PI Covering Table

EE118 FALL 2012 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Electrical Engineering TEST 2 — Digital Design I October 24, 2012 10:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. — Closed Book & Closed Notes — — No Crib Sheet Allowed — STUDENT NAME: (Last) Claussen , (First) Matthew STUDENT ID NUMBER (LAST 4 DIGITS): No interpretation of test problems will be given during the test. If you are not sure of what is intended, make appropriate assumptions and continue. Do not unstaple !!! Problems 1-14(4 points each) TOTAL Problems 15 – 17 (15 pts each) 1203 2 For the next 14 problems, circle the correct answer. No partial credit will be given. PROBLEM 1 (4 points) Which statement is not true? A. Any combinational circuit may be designed using multiplexers only. B. Any combinational circuit may be designed using decoders only. C. All Sequential circuits are based on cross-coupled NAND or NOR gates. D. A hazard in a digital system is an undesirable effect caused by either a deficiency in the system or external influences. E. None of the above PROBLEM 2 (4 points) For a 2-bit comparator comparing 2-bit numbers A = (a1 a0) and B = (b1 b0), what is the proper function for the f(A>B) output through logical reasoning? A. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1 + a1’b1’ ) a0 b0’ B. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1’+ a1’b1 ) a0 b0 C. a1 a0’ + (a1 a0 + b1’b0’ ) b1 b0’ D. a1 a0 + (a1 a0’+ b1’b0 ) b1 b0 PROBLEM 3 (4 points) What is the priority scheme of this encoder? Inputs Outputs I3 I2 I1 I0 O1 O 0 d d 1 d 0 1 d d 0 1 0 0 d 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 A. I3 > I2 > I1 >I0 B. I0 > I1 > I2 >I3 C. I1 > I0 > I2 >I3 D. I2 > I1 > I3 >I0 3 PROBLEM 4 (4 points) Which is the correct binary representation of the decimal number 46.625? A. 101101.001 B. 101000.01 C. 111001.001 D. 101110.101 PROBLEM 5 (4 points) Which is the decimal equivalent number of the sum of the two 8-bit 2’s complement numbers FB16 and 3748? A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 PROBLEM 6 (4 points) For the MUX-based circuit shown below, f(X,Y,Z) = ? X Y Z f A. X’Y’ + Y’Z’ B. X’Y’Z’ + YZ’ C. XYZ’ + Y’Z D. X’Y’Z’ + YZ 1 0 MUX 4 PROBLEM 7 (4 points) Which is the correct output F of this circuit? E C B D F A A. (A’E+AB)(C’D) B. (AE+A’B)(C’+D) C. (A’E+AB)(C’D’+CD’+CD) D. (A’E+AB)(CD’)’ PROBLEM 8 (5 points) In order to correctly perform 2910  14510, how many bits are required to represent the numbers? A 8 B 9 C 10 D 11 PROBLEM 9 (4 points) Which is the negative 2’s complement equivalent of the 8-bit number 01001101? A. 11001101 B. 10111100 C. 10110000 D. 10110011 0 2-1 1 MUX 0 0 1 1 2-4 decoder 2 EN 3 5 PROBLEM 10 (4 points) Which is the correct statement describing the behavior of the following Verilog code? module whatisthis(hmm, X, Y); output [3:0] hmm; input [3:0] X, Y; assign hmm = (X < Y) ? X : Y; endmodule A. If X>Y, hmm becomes 1111. B. hmm assumes min(X,Y). C. If X

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Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
1 IN2009: Language Processors Coursework Part 3: The Interpreter Introduction This is the 3rd and final part of the coursework. In the second part of the coursework you created a parser for the Moopl grammar which, given a syntactically correct Moopl program as input, builds an AST representation of the program. In Part 3 you will develop an interpreter which executes Moopl programs by visiting their AST representations. For this part of the coursework we provide functional code (with limitations, see below) for parsing, building a symbol table, type checking and variable allocation. Marks This part of the coursework is worth 12 of the 30 coursework marks for the Language Processors module. This part of the coursework is marked out of 12. Submission deadline This part of the coursework should be handed in before 5pm on Sunday 9th April 2017. In line with school policy, late submissions will be awarded no marks. Return & Feedback Marks and feedback will be available as soon as possible, certainly on or before Wed 3rd May 2017. Plagiarism If you copy the work of others (either that of fellow students or of a third party), with or without their permission, you will score no marks and further disciplinary action will be taken against you. Group working You will be working in the same groups as for the previous parts of the coursework except where group changes have already been approved. Submission: Submit a zip archive (not a rar file) of all your source code (the src folder of your project). We do not want the other parts of your NetBeans project, only the source code. Note 1: Submissions which do not compile will get zero marks. Note 2: You must not change the names or types of any of the existing packages, classes or public methods. 2 Getting started Download either moopl-interp.zip or moopl-interp.tgz from Moodle and extract all files. Key contents to be aware of: • A fully implemented Moopl parser (also implements a parser for the interpreter command language; see below). • A partially implemented Moopl type checker. • Test harnesses for the type checker and interpreter. • A directory of a few example Moopl programs (see Testing below). • Folder interp containing prototype interpreter code. The type-checker is only partially implemented but a more complete implementation will be provided following Session 6. That version is still not fully complete because it doesn’t support inheritance. Part d) below asks you to remove this restriction. The VarAllocator visitor in the interp package uses a simple implementation which only works for methods in which all parameter and local variable names are different. Part e) below asks you to remove this restriction. The three parts below should be attempted in sequence. When you have completed one part you should make a back-up copy of the work and keep it safe, in case you break it in your attempt at the next part. Be sure to test old functionality as well as new (regression testing). We will not assess multiple versions so, if your attempt at part d) or e) breaks previously working code, you may gain a better mark by submitting the earlier version for assessment. c) [8 marks] The Basic Interpreter: complete the implementation of the Interpreter visitor in the interp package. d) [2 marks] Inheritance: extend the type-checker, variable allocator and interpreter to support inheritance. e) [2 marks] Variable Allocation: extend the variable allocator to fully support blockstructure and lexical scoping, removing the requirement that all parameter and local variable names are different. Aim to minimise the number of local variable slots allocated in a stack frame. Note: variable and parameter names declared at the same scope level are still required to be different from each other (a method cannot have two different parameters called x, for example) and this is enforced by the existing typechecking code. But variables declared in different blocks (even when nested) can have the same name. Exceptions Your interpreter will only ever be run on Moopl code which is type-correct (and free from uninitialised local variables). But it is still possible that the Moopl code contains logical errors which may cause runtime errors (such as null-reference or array-bound errors). Your interpreter should throw a MooplRunTimeException with an appropriate error message in these cases. The only kind of exception your interpreter should ever throw is a MooplRunTimeException. 3 Testing The examples folder does not contain a comprehensive test-suite. You need to invent and run your own tests. The document Moopl compared with Java gives a concise summary of how Moopl programs are supposed to behave. You can (and should) also compare the behaviour of your interpreter with that of the online tool: https://smcse.city.ac.uk/student/sj353/langproc/Moopl.html (Note: the online tool checks for uninitialised local variables. Your implementation is not expected to do this.) To test your work, run the top-level Interpret harness, providing the name of a Moopl source file as a command-line argument. When run on a type-correct Moopl source file, Interpret will pretty-print the Moopl program then display a command prompt (>) at which you can enter one of the following commands: :quit This will quit the interpreter. :call main() This will call the top-level proc main, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program. (Any top-level proc can be called this way). :eval Exp ; This will evaluate expression Exp, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program, and print the result. Note the required terminating semi-colon. Testing your Expression visitors To unit-test your Exp visit methods, run the top-level Interpret harness on a complete Moopl program (though it can be trivial) and use the :eval command. For example, to test your visit methods for the Boolean-literals (ExpTrue and ExpFalse), you would enter the commands > :eval true ; > :eval false ; which should output 1 and 0, respectively. For the most basic cases, the Moopl program is essentially irrelevant (a single top-level proc with empty body may be sufficient). For other cases you will need to write programs containing class definitions (in order, for example, to test object creation and method call). Testing your Statement visitors To unit-test your Stm visit methods, write very simple Moopl programs, each with a top-level proc main() containing just a few lines of code. Run the top-level Interpret harness on these simple programs and enter the command > :call main() You will find a few examples to get you started in the folder examples/unittests. As for the Exp tests, simple cases can be tested using Moopl programs with just a main proc but for the more complex tests you will need to write Moopl programs containing class definitions. 4 Grading criteria Solutions will be graded according to their functional correctness, and the elegance of their implementation. Below are criteria that guide the award of marks. 70 – 100 [1st class] Work that meets all the requirements in full, constructed and presented to a professional standard. Showing evidence of independent reading, thinking and analysis. 60 – 69 [2:1] Work that makes a good attempt to address the requirements, realising all to some extent and most well. Well-structured and well presented. 50 – 59 [2:2] Work that attempts to address requirements realising all to some extent and some well but perhaps also including irrelevant or underdeveloped material. Structure and presentation may not always be clear. 40 – 49 [3rd class] Work that attempts to address the requirements but only realises them to some extent and may not include important elements or be completely accurate. Structure and presentation may lack clarity. 0 – 39 [fail] Unsatisfactory work that does not adequately address the requirements. Structure and presentation may be confused or incoherent.

1 IN2009: Language Processors Coursework Part 3: The Interpreter Introduction This is the 3rd and final part of the coursework. In the second part of the coursework you created a parser for the Moopl grammar which, given a syntactically correct Moopl program as input, builds an AST representation of the program. In Part 3 you will develop an interpreter which executes Moopl programs by visiting their AST representations. For this part of the coursework we provide functional code (with limitations, see below) for parsing, building a symbol table, type checking and variable allocation. Marks This part of the coursework is worth 12 of the 30 coursework marks for the Language Processors module. This part of the coursework is marked out of 12. Submission deadline This part of the coursework should be handed in before 5pm on Sunday 9th April 2017. In line with school policy, late submissions will be awarded no marks. Return & Feedback Marks and feedback will be available as soon as possible, certainly on or before Wed 3rd May 2017. Plagiarism If you copy the work of others (either that of fellow students or of a third party), with or without their permission, you will score no marks and further disciplinary action will be taken against you. Group working You will be working in the same groups as for the previous parts of the coursework except where group changes have already been approved. Submission: Submit a zip archive (not a rar file) of all your source code (the src folder of your project). We do not want the other parts of your NetBeans project, only the source code. Note 1: Submissions which do not compile will get zero marks. Note 2: You must not change the names or types of any of the existing packages, classes or public methods. 2 Getting started Download either moopl-interp.zip or moopl-interp.tgz from Moodle and extract all files. Key contents to be aware of: • A fully implemented Moopl parser (also implements a parser for the interpreter command language; see below). • A partially implemented Moopl type checker. • Test harnesses for the type checker and interpreter. • A directory of a few example Moopl programs (see Testing below). • Folder interp containing prototype interpreter code. The type-checker is only partially implemented but a more complete implementation will be provided following Session 6. That version is still not fully complete because it doesn’t support inheritance. Part d) below asks you to remove this restriction. The VarAllocator visitor in the interp package uses a simple implementation which only works for methods in which all parameter and local variable names are different. Part e) below asks you to remove this restriction. The three parts below should be attempted in sequence. When you have completed one part you should make a back-up copy of the work and keep it safe, in case you break it in your attempt at the next part. Be sure to test old functionality as well as new (regression testing). We will not assess multiple versions so, if your attempt at part d) or e) breaks previously working code, you may gain a better mark by submitting the earlier version for assessment. c) [8 marks] The Basic Interpreter: complete the implementation of the Interpreter visitor in the interp package. d) [2 marks] Inheritance: extend the type-checker, variable allocator and interpreter to support inheritance. e) [2 marks] Variable Allocation: extend the variable allocator to fully support blockstructure and lexical scoping, removing the requirement that all parameter and local variable names are different. Aim to minimise the number of local variable slots allocated in a stack frame. Note: variable and parameter names declared at the same scope level are still required to be different from each other (a method cannot have two different parameters called x, for example) and this is enforced by the existing typechecking code. But variables declared in different blocks (even when nested) can have the same name. Exceptions Your interpreter will only ever be run on Moopl code which is type-correct (and free from uninitialised local variables). But it is still possible that the Moopl code contains logical errors which may cause runtime errors (such as null-reference or array-bound errors). Your interpreter should throw a MooplRunTimeException with an appropriate error message in these cases. The only kind of exception your interpreter should ever throw is a MooplRunTimeException. 3 Testing The examples folder does not contain a comprehensive test-suite. You need to invent and run your own tests. The document Moopl compared with Java gives a concise summary of how Moopl programs are supposed to behave. You can (and should) also compare the behaviour of your interpreter with that of the online tool: https://smcse.city.ac.uk/student/sj353/langproc/Moopl.html (Note: the online tool checks for uninitialised local variables. Your implementation is not expected to do this.) To test your work, run the top-level Interpret harness, providing the name of a Moopl source file as a command-line argument. When run on a type-correct Moopl source file, Interpret will pretty-print the Moopl program then display a command prompt (>) at which you can enter one of the following commands: :quit This will quit the interpreter. :call main() This will call the top-level proc main, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program. (Any top-level proc can be called this way). :eval Exp ; This will evaluate expression Exp, interpreted in the context defined by the Moopl program, and print the result. Note the required terminating semi-colon. Testing your Expression visitors To unit-test your Exp visit methods, run the top-level Interpret harness on a complete Moopl program (though it can be trivial) and use the :eval command. For example, to test your visit methods for the Boolean-literals (ExpTrue and ExpFalse), you would enter the commands > :eval true ; > :eval false ; which should output 1 and 0, respectively. For the most basic cases, the Moopl program is essentially irrelevant (a single top-level proc with empty body may be sufficient). For other cases you will need to write programs containing class definitions (in order, for example, to test object creation and method call). Testing your Statement visitors To unit-test your Stm visit methods, write very simple Moopl programs, each with a top-level proc main() containing just a few lines of code. Run the top-level Interpret harness on these simple programs and enter the command > :call main() You will find a few examples to get you started in the folder examples/unittests. As for the Exp tests, simple cases can be tested using Moopl programs with just a main proc but for the more complex tests you will need to write Moopl programs containing class definitions. 4 Grading criteria Solutions will be graded according to their functional correctness, and the elegance of their implementation. Below are criteria that guide the award of marks. 70 – 100 [1st class] Work that meets all the requirements in full, constructed and presented to a professional standard. Showing evidence of independent reading, thinking and analysis. 60 – 69 [2:1] Work that makes a good attempt to address the requirements, realising all to some extent and most well. Well-structured and well presented. 50 – 59 [2:2] Work that attempts to address requirements realising all to some extent and some well but perhaps also including irrelevant or underdeveloped material. Structure and presentation may not always be clear. 40 – 49 [3rd class] Work that attempts to address the requirements but only realises them to some extent and may not include important elements or be completely accurate. Structure and presentation may lack clarity. 0 – 39 [fail] Unsatisfactory work that does not adequately address the requirements. Structure and presentation may be confused or incoherent.

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