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PHY-102: Energy and Circular Motion Exercises Complete the following exercises. 1. A rifle with a longer barrel can fire bullets with a larger velocity than a rifle with a shorter barrel. a. Explain this using the impulse-momentum theorem. b. Explain this using the work-energy theorem 2. Use physics terms to explain the benefits of crumple zones in modern cars. 3. When a gun is fired at the shooting range, the gun recoils (moves backward). Explain this using the law of conservation of momentum. 4. Rank the following in terms of increasing inertia: A. A 10,000 kg train car at rest B. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s C. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s D. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s 5. Rank the following in terms of increasing momentum: A. A 10,000 kg train car at rest B. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s C. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s D. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s 6. Rank the following in terms of increasing kinetic energy: A. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s B. A 10,000 kg train car at rest C. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s D. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s 7. Ben (55 kg) is standing on very slippery ice when Junior (25 kg) bumps into him. Junior was moving at a speed of 8 m/s before the collision and Ben and Junior embrace after the collision. Find the speed of Ben and Junior as they move across the ice after the collision. Give the answer in m/s. Describe the work you did to get the answer. 8. Identical marbles are released from the same height on each of the following four frictionless ramps. Compare the speed of the marbles at the end of each ramp. Explain your reasoning. 9. A force of only 150 N can lift a 600 N sack of flour to a height of 0.50 m when using a lever as shown in the diagram below. a. Find the work done on the sack of flour (in J). b. Find the distance you must push with the 150 N force on the left side (in m). c. Briefly explain the benefit of using a lever to lift a heavy object. 10. Rank the following in terms of increasing power. A. Doing 100 J of work in 10 seconds. B. Doing 100 J of work in 5 seconds. C. Doing 200 J of work in 5 seconds. D. Doing 400 J of work in 30 seconds. 11. A student lifts a 25 kg mass a vertical distance of 1.6 m in a time of 2.0 seconds. a. Find the force needed to lift the mass (in N). b. Find the work done by the student (in J). c. Find the power exerted by the student (in W). 12. A satellite is put into an orbit at a distance from the center of the Earth equal to twice the distance from the center of the Earth to the surface. If the satellite had a weight at the surface of 4000 N, what is the force of gravity (weight) of the satellite when it is in its orbit? Give your answer in newtons, N. 13. Consider a satellite in a circular orbit around the Earth. a. Why is it important to give a satellite a horizontal speed when placing it in orbit? b. What will happen if the horizontal speed is too small? c. What will happen if the horizontal speed is too large? 14. If you drop an object from a distance of 1 meter above the ground, where would it fall to the ground in the shortest time: Atop Mt. Everest or in New York? 15. Why do the astronauts aboard the space station appear to be weightless? 16. Why do the passengers on a high-flying airplane not appear weightless, similar to the astronauts on the space station? 17. A ranger needs to capture a monkey hanging on a tree branch. The ranger aims his dart gun directly at the monkey and fires the tranquilizer dart. However, the monkey lets go of the branch at exactly the same time as the ranger fires the dart. Will the monkey get hit or will it avoid the dart? The remaining questions are multiple-choice questions: 18. Compared to its weight on Earth, a 5 kg object on the moon will weigh A. the same amount. B. less. C. more. 19. Compared to its mass on Earth, a 5 kg object on the moon will have A. the same mass. B. less mass. C. more mass. 20. The reason padded dashboards are used in cars is that they A. look nice and feel good. B. decrease the impulse in a collision. C. increase the force of impact in a collision. D. decrease the momentum of a collision. E. increase the time of impact in a collision. 21. Suppose you are standing on a frozen lake where there is no friction between your feet and the ice. What can you do to get off the lake? A. Bend over touching the ice in front of you and then bring you feet to your hands. B. Walk very slowly on tiptoe. C. Get on your hands and knees and crawl off the ice. D. Throw something in the direction opposite to the way you want to go. 22. A car travels in a circle with constant speed. Which of the following is true? A. The net force on the car is zero because the car is not accelerating. B. The net force on the car is directed forward, in the direction of travel. C. The net force on the car is directed inward, toward the center of the curve. D. The net force on the car is directed outward, away from the center of the curve. 23. A job is done slowly, and an identical job is done quickly. Which of the following is true? a. They require the same amount of force, but different amounts of work. b. They require the same amount of work, but different amounts of power. c. They require the same amounts of power, but different amounts of work. d. They require the same amounts of work, but different amounts of energy. 24. How many joules of work are done on a box when a force of 60 N pushes it 5 m in 3 seconds? a. 300 J b. 12 J c. 100 J d. 36 J e. 4 J 25. A 1 kg cart moving with a speed of 3 m/s collides with a 2 kg cart at rest. If the carts stick together after the collision, with what speed will they move after the collision? a. 3 m/s b. 1.5 m/s c. 1 m/s d. 2 m/s

## PHY-102: Energy and Circular Motion Exercises Complete the following exercises. 1. A rifle with a longer barrel can fire bullets with a larger velocity than a rifle with a shorter barrel. a. Explain this using the impulse-momentum theorem. b. Explain this using the work-energy theorem 2. Use physics terms to explain the benefits of crumple zones in modern cars. 3. When a gun is fired at the shooting range, the gun recoils (moves backward). Explain this using the law of conservation of momentum. 4. Rank the following in terms of increasing inertia: A. A 10,000 kg train car at rest B. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s C. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s D. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s 5. Rank the following in terms of increasing momentum: A. A 10,000 kg train car at rest B. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s C. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s D. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s 6. Rank the following in terms of increasing kinetic energy: A. A 1200 kg car going 15 m/s B. A 10,000 kg train car at rest C. A 15 kg meteor going at a speed of 1000 m/s D. A 100 kg person running at 5 m/s 7. Ben (55 kg) is standing on very slippery ice when Junior (25 kg) bumps into him. Junior was moving at a speed of 8 m/s before the collision and Ben and Junior embrace after the collision. Find the speed of Ben and Junior as they move across the ice after the collision. Give the answer in m/s. Describe the work you did to get the answer. 8. Identical marbles are released from the same height on each of the following four frictionless ramps. Compare the speed of the marbles at the end of each ramp. Explain your reasoning. 9. A force of only 150 N can lift a 600 N sack of flour to a height of 0.50 m when using a lever as shown in the diagram below. a. Find the work done on the sack of flour (in J). b. Find the distance you must push with the 150 N force on the left side (in m). c. Briefly explain the benefit of using a lever to lift a heavy object. 10. Rank the following in terms of increasing power. A. Doing 100 J of work in 10 seconds. B. Doing 100 J of work in 5 seconds. C. Doing 200 J of work in 5 seconds. D. Doing 400 J of work in 30 seconds. 11. A student lifts a 25 kg mass a vertical distance of 1.6 m in a time of 2.0 seconds. a. Find the force needed to lift the mass (in N). b. Find the work done by the student (in J). c. Find the power exerted by the student (in W). 12. A satellite is put into an orbit at a distance from the center of the Earth equal to twice the distance from the center of the Earth to the surface. If the satellite had a weight at the surface of 4000 N, what is the force of gravity (weight) of the satellite when it is in its orbit? Give your answer in newtons, N. 13. Consider a satellite in a circular orbit around the Earth. a. Why is it important to give a satellite a horizontal speed when placing it in orbit? b. What will happen if the horizontal speed is too small? c. What will happen if the horizontal speed is too large? 14. If you drop an object from a distance of 1 meter above the ground, where would it fall to the ground in the shortest time: Atop Mt. Everest or in New York? 15. Why do the astronauts aboard the space station appear to be weightless? 16. Why do the passengers on a high-flying airplane not appear weightless, similar to the astronauts on the space station? 17. A ranger needs to capture a monkey hanging on a tree branch. The ranger aims his dart gun directly at the monkey and fires the tranquilizer dart. However, the monkey lets go of the branch at exactly the same time as the ranger fires the dart. Will the monkey get hit or will it avoid the dart? The remaining questions are multiple-choice questions: 18. Compared to its weight on Earth, a 5 kg object on the moon will weigh A. the same amount. B. less. C. more. 19. Compared to its mass on Earth, a 5 kg object on the moon will have A. the same mass. B. less mass. C. more mass. 20. The reason padded dashboards are used in cars is that they A. look nice and feel good. B. decrease the impulse in a collision. C. increase the force of impact in a collision. D. decrease the momentum of a collision. E. increase the time of impact in a collision. 21. Suppose you are standing on a frozen lake where there is no friction between your feet and the ice. What can you do to get off the lake? A. Bend over touching the ice in front of you and then bring you feet to your hands. B. Walk very slowly on tiptoe. C. Get on your hands and knees and crawl off the ice. D. Throw something in the direction opposite to the way you want to go. 22. A car travels in a circle with constant speed. Which of the following is true? A. The net force on the car is zero because the car is not accelerating. B. The net force on the car is directed forward, in the direction of travel. C. The net force on the car is directed inward, toward the center of the curve. D. The net force on the car is directed outward, away from the center of the curve. 23. A job is done slowly, and an identical job is done quickly. Which of the following is true? a. They require the same amount of force, but different amounts of work. b. They require the same amount of work, but different amounts of power. c. They require the same amounts of power, but different amounts of work. d. They require the same amounts of work, but different amounts of energy. 24. How many joules of work are done on a box when a force of 60 N pushes it 5 m in 3 seconds? a. 300 J b. 12 J c. 100 J d. 36 J e. 4 J 25. A 1 kg cart moving with a speed of 3 m/s collides with a 2 kg cart at rest. If the carts stick together after the collision, with what speed will they move after the collision? a. 3 m/s b. 1.5 m/s c. 1 m/s d. 2 m/s

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MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

## MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW Chap. 7 Homework Set 1. Consider the beam shown in the image below. Let F1 = 2 kN and F2 = 3 kN. Assume that points A, B and C represent pin connections and a wire rope connects points B and C. Consider the dimensions L1, L2, L3 and L4 to be 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, and 10 m, respectively. The beam is made from HSS 152 X 51 X 6.4 (Appendix A-9) and the longer side of the rectangle is vertical. What is the maximum normal stress (units: MPa) experienced by the beam? 2. Consider the beam and loading shown below. The beam has a total length of 12 ft. and a uniformly distributed load, w, of 125 lb./ft. The cross section of the beam is comprised of a standard steel channel (C6 X 13) which has a ½ in. plate of steel attached to its bottom. Determine the maximum normal stress in tension and compression that is experienced by this beam due to the described loading. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 3. Consider the cantilever beam shown in the image below. The beam is experiencing a linearly varying distributed load with w1 = 50 lb./ft. and w2 = 10 lb./ft. The beam is to be made from ASTM A36 structural steel and is to be 8 ft. in length. Select the smallest standard schedule 40 steel pipe size (Appendix A-12) which will ensure a factor of safety of at least 3. 4. The beam shown below has been fabricated by combining two wooden boards into a T-section. The dimensions for these sizes can be found in Appendix A-4. The beam is 9 ft. in length overall and dimension L1 = 3 ft. Assume the beam is made from a wood which has an allowable bending stress of 1500 psi (in both tension and compression). What is the largest value of the force which can be applied? MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 5. The image below shows a hydraulic cylinder which is being utilized in a simple press-fit operation. As can be seen the cylinder is being suspended over the work piece using a cantilever beam. Note from the right view that there is a beam on either side of the cylinder. You may assume that each will be equally loaded by the cylinder. The beams are to be cut from AISI 1040 HR steel plate which has a thickness of 0.750 in. The proposed design includes the following dimensions (units: inch): H = 2.00, h = 1.00, r = 0.08, L1 = 8, and L2 = 18. Evaluate the design by calculating the resulting factor of safety with respect to the yield strength of the material at the location of the step if the total force generated by the cylinder is 1,000 lb. Also state whether or not yielding is predicted to occur. You may assume that bending in the thickness direction of the beams is negligible. 6. Consider the cantilever beam shown below. The beam has a length of 4 ft. and is made from a material whose design stress, σd, is equal to 10,000 psi. It is to carry a load of 200 lb. applied at its free end. The beam is to be designed as a beam of constant strength where the maximum normal stress experienced at each cross section is equal to the design normal stress. To achieve this the height will be held constant at 1.5 in. while the base will vary as a function of the position along the length of the beam. Determine the equation which describes the required length of the base as a function of the position along the length of the beam. For consistency, let the origin be located at point A and the positive x axis be directed toward the right. MECET 423: Mechanics of Materials Chap. 7 HW 7. Consider the overhanging beam shown in the image below. Assume that L = 5 ft. and L1 = 3 ft. The beam’s cross section is shown below. The centerline marks the horizontal centroidal axis. The moment of inertia about this axis is approx. 0.208 in4. Due to the geometry of the cross section and the material, the beam has different maximum allowable normal stresses in tension and compression. The design normal stress in tension is 24,000 psi while the design normal stress in compression is 18,000 psi. Using this data determine the maximum force, F, which can be applied to the beam.

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COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

## COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

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