The extinction of the dinosaurs has been associated with Select one: a virus leading to disease and massive loss of life. dinosaurs preying upon each other until they became extinct. a meteor impact at the end of the Cretaceous Era that caused major cooling. new chemicals and ions in the environment which caused dinosaurs to become sterile. mammals who were more adapted and more able to acquire similar resources.

The extinction of the dinosaurs has been associated with Select one: a virus leading to disease and massive loss of life. dinosaurs preying upon each other until they became extinct. a meteor impact at the end of the Cretaceous Era that caused major cooling. new chemicals and ions in the environment which caused dinosaurs to become sterile. mammals who were more adapted and more able to acquire similar resources.

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Collaborative report Situation D: Proposal for Kindle-like devices/electronic textbooks to be used for textbook/academic purposes (institutions of higher ed would be audience). Situation: As any college student knows, textbooks for classes are expensive and students are not likely to keep some textbooks related to classes outside of one’s major. Some students will return these books to the bookstore in an effort to recoup some of their money, while others will offer them directly to other students at a discounted price. Bookstores tend to make most of their textbook-related income from selling used textbooks, while publishers make money from new editions. Additionally, many textbook editions come with a Website companion to enhance instruction with those textbooks. Kindle is a portable device with which someone can access texts electronically by purchasing them, usually at a discounted price off the print-version. Kindle is the original product, but Apple has a similar device too. These devices tend to cost over $200. However, there is discussion about their use as an option for textbook purchases. Also, bookstores have implemented a rental system; however, not all textbooks are available for rental, much as not all textbooks have an electronic version yet. You work for Learned Books, a textbook publisher that is trying to think of ways to balance its desire for profitability with students’ desire to reign in book-related expenses. You understand that a company that can appeal to the market’s concerns, considering increased competition from online retail sources, will be able to stay in business. Your group is tasked with ascertaining how LB can do this. One idea is to develop a rental system, another involves joining forces with manufacturers of Kindle-like devices and offering discounted versions of texts to students electronically through e-readers or PCs that can easily access the Internet. Students could purchase the electronic version outright or purchase the electronic version but have access to it for a limited, 12 month period (rental basis). ***Research how are such devices and electronic versions being used for textbook purposes, considering various expenses for producing electronic versions of textbooks and readability concerns? Document Feasibility study/Proposal: Develop a document in which you articulate your assessment of these ideas, integrating at least one graphic and an executive summary. The document should be 2-3 pages long and include formal elements as needed.

Collaborative report Situation D: Proposal for Kindle-like devices/electronic textbooks to be used for textbook/academic purposes (institutions of higher ed would be audience). Situation: As any college student knows, textbooks for classes are expensive and students are not likely to keep some textbooks related to classes outside of one’s major. Some students will return these books to the bookstore in an effort to recoup some of their money, while others will offer them directly to other students at a discounted price. Bookstores tend to make most of their textbook-related income from selling used textbooks, while publishers make money from new editions. Additionally, many textbook editions come with a Website companion to enhance instruction with those textbooks. Kindle is a portable device with which someone can access texts electronically by purchasing them, usually at a discounted price off the print-version. Kindle is the original product, but Apple has a similar device too. These devices tend to cost over $200. However, there is discussion about their use as an option for textbook purchases. Also, bookstores have implemented a rental system; however, not all textbooks are available for rental, much as not all textbooks have an electronic version yet. You work for Learned Books, a textbook publisher that is trying to think of ways to balance its desire for profitability with students’ desire to reign in book-related expenses. You understand that a company that can appeal to the market’s concerns, considering increased competition from online retail sources, will be able to stay in business. Your group is tasked with ascertaining how LB can do this. One idea is to develop a rental system, another involves joining forces with manufacturers of Kindle-like devices and offering discounted versions of texts to students electronically through e-readers or PCs that can easily access the Internet. Students could purchase the electronic version outright or purchase the electronic version but have access to it for a limited, 12 month period (rental basis). ***Research how are such devices and electronic versions being used for textbook purposes, considering various expenses for producing electronic versions of textbooks and readability concerns? Document Feasibility study/Proposal: Develop a document in which you articulate your assessment of these ideas, integrating at least one graphic and an executive summary. The document should be 2-3 pages long and include formal elements as needed.

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Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

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MCE 260 Fall 2015 Homework 4, due September 22, 2015. PRESENT CLEARLY HOW YOU DEVELOPED THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS Each problem is worth up to 5 points. Points are given as follows: 5 points: Work was complete and presented clearly, the answer is correct 4 points: Work was complete, but not clearly presented or some errors in calculation 3 points: Some errors or omissions in methods or presentation 2 points: Major errors or omissions in methods or presentation 1 point: Problem was understood but incorrect approach was used DO SOMETHING WITH LINKAGES 1. (5 points) Fig 4-16b shows a Stephenson 6-bar linkage. Assume that the linkage is driven by a constant speed motor on the fixed pivot of link 7. Draw this linkage schematically (dimensions are not important). The link numbering and vector loops are already defined in Fig 4-16b. Add symbols for the angles θ2… θ8 and the lengths L2… L8 to the Figure. 2. (5 points) There are two vector loops (1-2-3-4, and 4-5-6-7-8). Write the vector loop equations as separate X and Y equations for each loop. 3. (5 points) Identify the unknowns that must be solved for doing position analysis. Make sure that the number of unknowns is the same as the number of equations. Hint: “links” 3 and 5 are both on the (rigid) coupler, so there is a simple relationship between the two angles. 4. (5 points) Write the vector loop equations for the inverted crank-slider (Fig. 4-13). Identify the two unknowns that must be solved when it is driven by the slider joint, which means that length b is a known input (as in the hydraulic excavator). Write expressions for the elements of the 2×2 Jacobian matrix. 5. (5 points) Modify the Matlab code fbpos1vec.m to solve the position analysis problem for this system. You may choose the dimensions and the input (probably best to make this similar to Fig 4-13). Show the lines of Matlab code that you changed (and no other lines) and show the values for the two unknowns that you solved. Page 1 of 1

MCE 260 Fall 2015 Homework 4, due September 22, 2015. PRESENT CLEARLY HOW YOU DEVELOPED THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS Each problem is worth up to 5 points. Points are given as follows: 5 points: Work was complete and presented clearly, the answer is correct 4 points: Work was complete, but not clearly presented or some errors in calculation 3 points: Some errors or omissions in methods or presentation 2 points: Major errors or omissions in methods or presentation 1 point: Problem was understood but incorrect approach was used DO SOMETHING WITH LINKAGES 1. (5 points) Fig 4-16b shows a Stephenson 6-bar linkage. Assume that the linkage is driven by a constant speed motor on the fixed pivot of link 7. Draw this linkage schematically (dimensions are not important). The link numbering and vector loops are already defined in Fig 4-16b. Add symbols for the angles θ2… θ8 and the lengths L2… L8 to the Figure. 2. (5 points) There are two vector loops (1-2-3-4, and 4-5-6-7-8). Write the vector loop equations as separate X and Y equations for each loop. 3. (5 points) Identify the unknowns that must be solved for doing position analysis. Make sure that the number of unknowns is the same as the number of equations. Hint: “links” 3 and 5 are both on the (rigid) coupler, so there is a simple relationship between the two angles. 4. (5 points) Write the vector loop equations for the inverted crank-slider (Fig. 4-13). Identify the two unknowns that must be solved when it is driven by the slider joint, which means that length b is a known input (as in the hydraulic excavator). Write expressions for the elements of the 2×2 Jacobian matrix. 5. (5 points) Modify the Matlab code fbpos1vec.m to solve the position analysis problem for this system. You may choose the dimensions and the input (probably best to make this similar to Fig 4-13). Show the lines of Matlab code that you changed (and no other lines) and show the values for the two unknowns that you solved. Page 1 of 1

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Transportation 1. What would be some major benefits to a city investing in mass transit? • Reduces congestion and fuel usage o 2011 – U.S. public transportation use saved 865 million hours in travel time and 450 million gallons of fuel in 498 urban areas o Decrease the need for road enhancements o Can be quicker to get to work when roads are congested o Incentivizes exercise o Mass transit can have less land use requirements • Provides economic opportunities o revitalization of cities o Provides jobs in transportation o City makes money off of transit revenue o More appealing to tourists • Air quality o Cuts carbon emissions by 37 million metric tons annually o Air quality improvement for the city (less smog) • Safety o Reduce the number of accidents 2. What would be some major benefits to the users of mass transit? • Traffic o Reduces frustration of driving in traffic o Reduces the need for gas in traffic o Reliable and predictable time of arrival o More options to travel o No waiting in DMV lines • Economics o Public transit vs. owning, driving, and parking a car = $803/month average savings (~$10,000 a year) o Connects people who don’t have a car to jobs, healthcare, home o Provides jobs in transportation o No longer have to pay car insurance • Social o Can interact/meet new people every day o Connects communities o Can do other things, like read, on the train or bus o Reduce in stress o • Safety o Reduce risk of accidents

Transportation 1. What would be some major benefits to a city investing in mass transit? • Reduces congestion and fuel usage o 2011 – U.S. public transportation use saved 865 million hours in travel time and 450 million gallons of fuel in 498 urban areas o Decrease the need for road enhancements o Can be quicker to get to work when roads are congested o Incentivizes exercise o Mass transit can have less land use requirements • Provides economic opportunities o revitalization of cities o Provides jobs in transportation o City makes money off of transit revenue o More appealing to tourists • Air quality o Cuts carbon emissions by 37 million metric tons annually o Air quality improvement for the city (less smog) • Safety o Reduce the number of accidents 2. What would be some major benefits to the users of mass transit? • Traffic o Reduces frustration of driving in traffic o Reduces the need for gas in traffic o Reliable and predictable time of arrival o More options to travel o No waiting in DMV lines • Economics o Public transit vs. owning, driving, and parking a car = $803/month average savings (~$10,000 a year) o Connects people who don’t have a car to jobs, healthcare, home o Provides jobs in transportation o No longer have to pay car insurance • Social o Can interact/meet new people every day o Connects communities o Can do other things, like read, on the train or bus o Reduce in stress o • Safety o Reduce risk of accidents

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Chapter 14 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Harmonic Oscillator Equations Learning Goal: To derive the formulas for the major characteristics of motion as functions of time for a horizontal spring oscillator and to practice using the obtained formulas by answering some basic questions. A block of mass is attached to a spring whose spring constant is . The other end of the spring is fixed so that when the spring is unstretched, the mass is located at . . Assume that the +x direction is to the right. The mass is now pulled to the right a distance beyond the equilibrium position and released, at time , with zero initial velocity. Assume that the vertical forces acting on the block balance each other and that the tension of the spring is, in effect, the only force affecting the motion of the block. Therefore, the system will undergo simple harmonic motion. For such a system, the equation of motion is , and its solution, which provides the equation for , is . Part A At what time does the block come back to its original equilibrium position ( ) for the first time? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables: , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m k x = 0 A t = 0 a(t) = − x(t) km x(t) x(t) = Acos( t) km −−  t1 x = 0 A k m

Chapter 14 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Harmonic Oscillator Equations Learning Goal: To derive the formulas for the major characteristics of motion as functions of time for a horizontal spring oscillator and to practice using the obtained formulas by answering some basic questions. A block of mass is attached to a spring whose spring constant is . The other end of the spring is fixed so that when the spring is unstretched, the mass is located at . . Assume that the +x direction is to the right. The mass is now pulled to the right a distance beyond the equilibrium position and released, at time , with zero initial velocity. Assume that the vertical forces acting on the block balance each other and that the tension of the spring is, in effect, the only force affecting the motion of the block. Therefore, the system will undergo simple harmonic motion. For such a system, the equation of motion is , and its solution, which provides the equation for , is . Part A At what time does the block come back to its original equilibrium position ( ) for the first time? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables: , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m k x = 0 A t = 0 a(t) = − x(t) km x(t) x(t) = Acos( t) km −−  t1 x = 0 A k m

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Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.

Learning Objectives This part begins with what are probably the basic questions for a designer of a computing sytem’s human interface: • How should the functionality of the system be described and presented to the user? • How can the design of the interface help the user to understand and successfully use the system? Learning Goals At the conclusion of this module you will be able to: • define the user’s movement among the displays that make up the system; • the addition of visual and spatial cues to the information organization; and • methods of structuring and presenting the interface. Introduction This module deals with the development and utilization of a system. We all have systems for doing things. For instance, we may have a system for handling routine situations around the house that makes sense only to us. Or, we may be oriented toward systems that have a more widespread understanding such as personal finance or how to fill out our IRS forms. When humans use a system, whether natural or man-made, they do so based on their understanding of that system. A totally accurate understanding of a system is not a necessary condition for effective use of that system. Key Terms Systems, User Model, Model, Metaphor, Concept Modeling The Development of Human Systems I. The organization of knowledge about a phenomenon or system constitutes the human’s conceptual model of that system. Information gained from experience with a system contributes to the model, and the model in turn provides a reference or guide for future experience with the system. A. (Reinstein and Hersh, 1984) – a set of concepts a person gradually acquires to explain the behavior of a system. …. That enables that person to understand and interact with the system. 1. For the user, the important thing about a model is its ability to predict: when confronted with unfamiliar or incompletely understood situations, the user relies on their model, their conceptual understanding of the system, to make educated guesses about how to proceed. If the user’s model accurately reflects the effects of the system, then he will be more successful in learning and using the system, and likely will perceive the system as easy to use. 2. Because the model can server this important role in design of helping to create an understandable and predictable system, the creation of the user’s conceptual model should be the first task of system development. One of the more important examples of the use of conceptual model, the XEROX Star office automation system (whose design greatly influenced Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh systems), started with thirty man-years of design work on the user interface before either the hardware or the system software was designed (Smith, Irby, Kimball, Verplank and Harselm, 1982). 3. The conceptual model does not have to be an accurate representation of how the system actually functions. Indeed, it can be quite different from reality, and in most if not all circumstances for systems as complex as computers, should be. 4. The model may be a myth or metaphor, that explains the system: it “suggests that the computer is like something with which the user is already familiar” (Rubinstein and Hersh, 1984, p. 43), or provides a simple explanation of the system which can be used to predict the system’s behavior. 5. ….the conceptual models people form are based on their interactions with an environment … “people who have different roles within an environment … will form different conceptual systems of those environments. 6. People whose essential interaction with an environment is to create it will almost inevitably have an understanding and conceptualization of it which is different from those whose major interaction with it is to use it” Action Assignment Based on the readings for this module, please identify a personal “system” with which you act and perform within. This should be from personal experience and one that assists in providing a model for organization, understanding and problem solving.