Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

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Journal 1: Answer Critical Process 1: Media Autobiography questions at end of this article. Bring answers to share to class. Reading Journals/Film Questions. You will submit short (one-paragraph) entries on Blackboard for some assigned readings—see course calendar for due dates. Each entry should contain the reading’s title, a brief (2 sentence) summary of what it’s about, and a brief (one paragraph) evaluation of your personal reaction or your analysis of the reading (i.e. the strength of its argument). Use a quote from the reading to support your analysis. If more than one reading is due, summarize each reading, and then write your one paragraph reaction/evaluation for only ONE of the readings assigned. Film Questions. For some assigned films, I’ll post guided questions for you to answer on Blackboard in your journal

Journal 1: Answer Critical Process 1: Media Autobiography questions at end of this article. Bring answers to share to class. Reading Journals/Film Questions. You will submit short (one-paragraph) entries on Blackboard for some assigned readings—see course calendar for due dates. Each entry should contain the reading’s title, a brief (2 sentence) summary of what it’s about, and a brief (one paragraph) evaluation of your personal reaction or your analysis of the reading (i.e. the strength of its argument). Use a quote from the reading to support your analysis. If more than one reading is due, summarize each reading, and then write your one paragraph reaction/evaluation for only ONE of the readings assigned. Film Questions. For some assigned films, I’ll post guided questions for you to answer on Blackboard in your journal

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Part I. (20%) Multiple Choice Questions (only one answer) 1. What is the SS7 A-link? a. Signaling Link between SSP and STP b. Signaling Link between STP and STP c. Signaling Link between SCP and SCP d. Signaling Link between SSP and SSP 2. How is a TDM trunk identified on the SS7 network? It is identified by _____. a. IP Address b. ISDN B channel c. UDP port number d. Circuit Identificaiton Code (CIC) 3. What is the layer-3 protocol for ISUP? a. IP b. Q.931 c. MTP3 d. TCAP 4. Which of the following signaling is required to support Local Number Portability (LNP)? a. SIP b. Q.931 c. SS7 d. MGCP 5. Which of the following signlaing is NOT supported on the local telephone switch? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. SS7 d. Station Signaling 6. Which of the following protocol is used by Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) for remote database query? One of the AIN features is 1-800/1-900 calls. a. TCAP b. ISUP c. MGCP d. SIP 7. Which of the following is an NNI signaling? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. MGCP d. SS7 8. Which of the following message is used by Access Media Gateway (MG) to inform Media Gateway Controller (MGC) that a phone is off-hook? a. NTFY b. RQNT c. CRCX d. MDCX 9. Which of the following device supports codec (such as G.711)? a. Media Gateway Contoller b. Media Gateway (Access Gateway) c. Analog Phone d. Signaling Transfer Point (STP) 10. In MGCP, a connection is _______________ ? a. The same as a TCP connection b. The same as a phone call. c. An end-point and its associated RTP session. d. A TDM channel identified by CIC Part II Questions (10%). 1. Provide two reasons for separating Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and Media Gateway. Media gateways are often controlled by a separate Media Gateway Controller which provides the call control and signaling functionality. 2. Identify the signaling between the network devices. (enter N/A if not applicable) 1 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Controller 2 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway 3 Media Gateway Controller Class-5 (local) Switch 4 Media Gateway Controller SIP Proxy 5 Media Gateway Media Gateway Part III (20%) Call Flow Diagram and protocol stacks Media Gateway Controller (MGC) also has the function of SS7 Signaling Gateway. 1. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-22 (SIP) to Phone-33 (SIP). 2. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-41 (analog) to Phone-42(analog) over the VoIP Carrier Network. Note: each signaling message is an arrow with its own label. Do not use one arrow and one label to represent multiple messages.

Part I. (20%) Multiple Choice Questions (only one answer) 1. What is the SS7 A-link? a. Signaling Link between SSP and STP b. Signaling Link between STP and STP c. Signaling Link between SCP and SCP d. Signaling Link between SSP and SSP 2. How is a TDM trunk identified on the SS7 network? It is identified by _____. a. IP Address b. ISDN B channel c. UDP port number d. Circuit Identificaiton Code (CIC) 3. What is the layer-3 protocol for ISUP? a. IP b. Q.931 c. MTP3 d. TCAP 4. Which of the following signaling is required to support Local Number Portability (LNP)? a. SIP b. Q.931 c. SS7 d. MGCP 5. Which of the following signlaing is NOT supported on the local telephone switch? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. SS7 d. Station Signaling 6. Which of the following protocol is used by Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) for remote database query? One of the AIN features is 1-800/1-900 calls. a. TCAP b. ISUP c. MGCP d. SIP 7. Which of the following is an NNI signaling? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. MGCP d. SS7 8. Which of the following message is used by Access Media Gateway (MG) to inform Media Gateway Controller (MGC) that a phone is off-hook? a. NTFY b. RQNT c. CRCX d. MDCX 9. Which of the following device supports codec (such as G.711)? a. Media Gateway Contoller b. Media Gateway (Access Gateway) c. Analog Phone d. Signaling Transfer Point (STP) 10. In MGCP, a connection is _______________ ? a. The same as a TCP connection b. The same as a phone call. c. An end-point and its associated RTP session. d. A TDM channel identified by CIC Part II Questions (10%). 1. Provide two reasons for separating Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and Media Gateway. Media gateways are often controlled by a separate Media Gateway Controller which provides the call control and signaling functionality. 2. Identify the signaling between the network devices. (enter N/A if not applicable) 1 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Controller 2 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway 3 Media Gateway Controller Class-5 (local) Switch 4 Media Gateway Controller SIP Proxy 5 Media Gateway Media Gateway Part III (20%) Call Flow Diagram and protocol stacks Media Gateway Controller (MGC) also has the function of SS7 Signaling Gateway. 1. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-22 (SIP) to Phone-33 (SIP). 2. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-41 (analog) to Phone-42(analog) over the VoIP Carrier Network. Note: each signaling message is an arrow with its own label. Do not use one arrow and one label to represent multiple messages.

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1 CE 321 PRINCIPLES ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB WORKSHEET No. 1 Due: One (1) Week After Each Lab Section, respectively MICROBIOLOGY Environmental engineers employ microbiology in a variety of applications. Testing for coliform bacteria is used to assess whether pathogens may be present in a water or wastewater sample. Coliforms are a type of bacteria that live in the intestines of warm blooded mammals, such as humans and cattle. They are not pathogens, but if they are present in a sample, it is taken as an indication that fecal material from humans or cattle has contacted the water. If fecal material is present, pathogens may be present, too. In water treatment, coliform counts must average less than one colony per 100 milliliters of sample tested. In wastewater treatment, typical acceptable levels might be 200-colonies/100 mL. There are two standard ways to test for coliforms, the Most Probable Number test, MPN (also called the multiple tube fermentation technique, MTF) and the membrane filter test, MF. Several companies market testing systems that are somewhat simpler, but these cannot be used by treatment plants until they receive EPA approval. Two recently accepted methods are the Minimal Media Test (Colilert system), and the Presence-Absence coliform test (P-A test). Wastewater treatment plant operators study the microorganism composition of the activated sludge units in order to assess and predict the performance of the biological floc. A sample of mixed liquor from the aeration basin is examined under the microscope, and based on the relative predominance of a variety of organisms that might be present; the operator can tell if the BOD application rates and wasting rates are as they should be. For your worksheet, please submit the items requested below (10 pts. each): 1. Examine a sample of activated sludge under the microscope (To be done together in class). Use the Atlas, Standard Methods, or other references to identify at least 5 different organisms you observed. List them and sketch them neatly on unlined paper. Describe their motility and any other distinctive characteristics as you observed it. 2. Explain what types of organisms you might expect to find in sludge with a high mean cell residence time (MCRT), and explain why these would predominate over the other types. 3. How can the predominance of a certain kind of microorganism in activated sludge affect the settling characteristics of the sludge? Give several examples. 2 4. Explain why coliforms are used as “indicator organisms” for water and wastewater testing. Name two pathogenic bacteria, two pathogenic viruses, and one pathogenic protozoan sometimes found in water supplies. 5. There is also a test for fecal coliforms. Use your class notes and outside references to explain the distinctions between the tests for total and fecal coliforms. Explain why one would use the fecal coliform test instead of the test for total coliforms. 6. Using outside references, indicate typical coliform limits for surface waters used for swimming and fishing; potable water; and wastewater treatment plant effluent. 7). In the recent past, EPA instituted regulations designed to insure that Giardia are removed from the water. Using your text or other references, explain what kind of organism this is, and explain the way in which EPA has set standards to insure they are removed during water treatment. 8. What is meant by “population dynamics”? What two factors usually control the population dynamics of a mixed culture? 9. Use the MPN test data from the samples prepared for class prior to determine the number of coliforms present in the wastewater samples. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 4 1 5 5 2 0.1 5 3 1 0.01 5 1 0 0.001 2 1 —- 0.0001 1 —- —- FecalColiforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 2 1 5 4 0 0.1 5 2 1 0.01 1 0 0 0.001 0 0 —– 0.0001 2 —– —– 3 10. Use the membrane filter test data given in class to determine the number of total coliforms and fecal coliforms present in the sample. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms Dilution Colonies Dilution Colonies Raw Influent 0.1 mL/100 mL 58 1 mL/100 mL 47 Intermediate 1 mL/100 mL 13 10 mL/100 mL 28 Wetland Effluent 10 mL/100 mL 10 100 mL/100 mL 15

1 CE 321 PRINCIPLES ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB WORKSHEET No. 1 Due: One (1) Week After Each Lab Section, respectively MICROBIOLOGY Environmental engineers employ microbiology in a variety of applications. Testing for coliform bacteria is used to assess whether pathogens may be present in a water or wastewater sample. Coliforms are a type of bacteria that live in the intestines of warm blooded mammals, such as humans and cattle. They are not pathogens, but if they are present in a sample, it is taken as an indication that fecal material from humans or cattle has contacted the water. If fecal material is present, pathogens may be present, too. In water treatment, coliform counts must average less than one colony per 100 milliliters of sample tested. In wastewater treatment, typical acceptable levels might be 200-colonies/100 mL. There are two standard ways to test for coliforms, the Most Probable Number test, MPN (also called the multiple tube fermentation technique, MTF) and the membrane filter test, MF. Several companies market testing systems that are somewhat simpler, but these cannot be used by treatment plants until they receive EPA approval. Two recently accepted methods are the Minimal Media Test (Colilert system), and the Presence-Absence coliform test (P-A test). Wastewater treatment plant operators study the microorganism composition of the activated sludge units in order to assess and predict the performance of the biological floc. A sample of mixed liquor from the aeration basin is examined under the microscope, and based on the relative predominance of a variety of organisms that might be present; the operator can tell if the BOD application rates and wasting rates are as they should be. For your worksheet, please submit the items requested below (10 pts. each): 1. Examine a sample of activated sludge under the microscope (To be done together in class). Use the Atlas, Standard Methods, or other references to identify at least 5 different organisms you observed. List them and sketch them neatly on unlined paper. Describe their motility and any other distinctive characteristics as you observed it. 2. Explain what types of organisms you might expect to find in sludge with a high mean cell residence time (MCRT), and explain why these would predominate over the other types. 3. How can the predominance of a certain kind of microorganism in activated sludge affect the settling characteristics of the sludge? Give several examples. 2 4. Explain why coliforms are used as “indicator organisms” for water and wastewater testing. Name two pathogenic bacteria, two pathogenic viruses, and one pathogenic protozoan sometimes found in water supplies. 5. There is also a test for fecal coliforms. Use your class notes and outside references to explain the distinctions between the tests for total and fecal coliforms. Explain why one would use the fecal coliform test instead of the test for total coliforms. 6. Using outside references, indicate typical coliform limits for surface waters used for swimming and fishing; potable water; and wastewater treatment plant effluent. 7). In the recent past, EPA instituted regulations designed to insure that Giardia are removed from the water. Using your text or other references, explain what kind of organism this is, and explain the way in which EPA has set standards to insure they are removed during water treatment. 8. What is meant by “population dynamics”? What two factors usually control the population dynamics of a mixed culture? 9. Use the MPN test data from the samples prepared for class prior to determine the number of coliforms present in the wastewater samples. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 4 1 5 5 2 0.1 5 3 1 0.01 5 1 0 0.001 2 1 —- 0.0001 1 —- —- FecalColiforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 2 1 5 4 0 0.1 5 2 1 0.01 1 0 0 0.001 0 0 —– 0.0001 2 —– —– 3 10. Use the membrane filter test data given in class to determine the number of total coliforms and fecal coliforms present in the sample. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms Dilution Colonies Dilution Colonies Raw Influent 0.1 mL/100 mL 58 1 mL/100 mL 47 Intermediate 1 mL/100 mL 13 10 mL/100 mL 28 Wetland Effluent 10 mL/100 mL 10 100 mL/100 mL 15

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1 Hankerson Project Three: Culture and the African American Experience The Media Analysis This project will help you: ?develop your analytical skills. ?expand your understanding of media and how it operates. Background: For this project, we will examine select media representations of the African American culture. These media representations will further our understanding of how media portrayals–specifically African American media portrayals–operate. Ultimately, we will use this knowledge to engage with the overall task for this project which asks us to write a media analysis about a cultural media portrayal of interest. Task: As a frame for this project, we will draw from Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hopdz which explores Afrobella’s perceptions of the state of hip hop. Your task for this project will be to compose a media analysis about Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hop.dz Alternatively, you may wish to write a media analysis about another cultural media portrayal. In either case, you are asked to perform a thoughtful, close analysis of the media source. In specific, in either case, you are asked to: 1) interpret the underlying messages or implications that exist within themedia source, and 2) interpret the effectiveness of the media source.

1 Hankerson Project Three: Culture and the African American Experience The Media Analysis This project will help you: ?develop your analytical skills. ?expand your understanding of media and how it operates. Background: For this project, we will examine select media representations of the African American culture. These media representations will further our understanding of how media portrayals–specifically African American media portrayals–operate. Ultimately, we will use this knowledge to engage with the overall task for this project which asks us to write a media analysis about a cultural media portrayal of interest. Task: As a frame for this project, we will draw from Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hopdz which explores Afrobella’s perceptions of the state of hip hop. Your task for this project will be to compose a media analysis about Afrobella’s DzAn Open Letter to Hip Hop.dz Alternatively, you may wish to write a media analysis about another cultural media portrayal. In either case, you are asked to perform a thoughtful, close analysis of the media source. In specific, in either case, you are asked to: 1) interpret the underlying messages or implications that exist within themedia source, and 2) interpret the effectiveness of the media source.

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Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be … Read More...
Project 1: Particle Trajectory in Pleated Filters Due: 12:30 pm, Dec. 1, 2015, submission through blackboard Course: Numerical Methods Instructor: Dr. Hooman V. Tafreshi Most aerosol filters are made of pleated fibrous media. This is to accommodate as much filtration media as possible in a limited space available to an air filtration unit (e.g., the engine of a car). A variety of parameters contribute to the performance of a pleated filter. These parameters include, but are not limited to, geometry of the pleat (e.g., pleat height, width, and count), microscale properties of the fibrous media (e.g., fiber diameters, fiber orientation, and solid volume fraction), aerodynamic and thermal conditions of the flow (e.g., flow velocity, temperature, and operating pressure), and particle properties (e.g., diameter, density, and shape). Figure 1: Examples of pleated air filters [1‐2]. In this project you are asked to calculate the trajectory of aerosol particles as they travel inside a rectangular pleat channel. Due to the symmetry of the pleat geometry, you only need to simulate one half of the channel (see Figure 2). Figure 2: The simulation domain and boundary conditions (the figure’s aspect ratio is altered for illustration purposes). Trajectory of the aerosol particles can be calculated in a 2‐D domain by solving the Newton’s 2nd law written for the particles in the x‐ and y‐directions, v(h) inlet velocity fibrous media v(y) y tm l h x Ui u(l) u(x) 2 2 p 1 p 1 ( , ) d x dx u x y dt  dt    2 2 p 1 p 1 ( , ) d y dy v x y dt  dt    where 2 1/18 p p   d    is the particle relaxation time, 10 μm p d  is the particle diameter, 1000 kg/m3 p   is the particle density, and   1.85105 Pa.s is the air viscosity. Also, u(x, y) and v(x, y) represent the components of the air velocity in the x and y directions inside the pleat channel, respectively. The x and y positions of the particles are denoted by xp and yp, respectively. You may use the following expressions for u(x, y) and v(x, y) .     2 3 1 2 u x, y u x y h                  sin 2 v x,y v h π y h        where   i 1 u x U x l h          is the average air velocity inside the pleat channel in the x‐direction and Ui is the velocity at the pleat entrance (assume 1 m/s for this project). l = 0.0275 m and h =0.0011 m are the pleat length and height, respectively. Writing the conservation of mass for the air flowing into the channel, you can also obtain that   i v h U h l h         . These 2nd order ODEs can easily be solved using a 4th order Rung‐Kutta method. In order to obtain realistic particle trajectories, you also need to consider proper initial conditions for the velocity of the particles: x(t  0)  0 , ( 0) i p p y t   y , p ( 0) cos i i dx t U dt    , p ( 0) sin i i dy t U dt     . where i  is the angle with respect to the axial direction by which a particle enters the pleat channel (see Figure 3). The inlet angle can be obtained from the following equation: 2 75 0.78 +0.16 1.61St i i p p i y y e h h                    where   2 St 18 2 ρPdPUi μ h  is the particles Stokes number. Figure 3: An illustration of the required particle trajectory calculation inside a rectangular pleated filter. You are asked to calculate and plot the trajectories of particles released from the vertical positions of ?? ? ? 0.05?, ?? ? ? 0.25?, ?? ? ? 0.5?, ?? ? ? 0.75? , and ?? ? ? 0.95? in one single figure. To do so, you need to track the trajectories until they reach one of the channel walls (i.e., stop when xp  l or p y  h ). Use a time step of 0.00001 sec. For more information see Ref. [3]. For additional background information see Ref. [4] and references there. In submitting your project please stick to following guidelines: 1‐ In blackboard, submit all the Matlab files and report in one single zip file. For naming your zip file, adhere to the format as: Lastname_firstname_project1.zip For instance: Einstein_albert_project1.zip 2‐ The report should be in pdf format only with the name as Project1.pdf (NO word documents .docx or .doc will be graded). 3‐ Your zip file can contain as many Matlab files as you want to submit. Also please submit the main code which TA’s should run with the name as: Project1.m (You can name the function files as you desire). Summary of what you should submit: 1‐ Runge–Kutta 4th order implementation in MATLAB. 2‐ Plot 5 particle trajectories in one graph. 3‐ Report your output (the x‐y positions of the five particles at each time step) in the form of a table with 11 columns (one for time and two for the x and y of each particle). Make sure the units are second for time and meter for the x and y. 4‐ Write a short, but yet clean and professional report describing your work. Up to 25% of your grade will be based solely on the style and formatting of your report. Use proper heading for each section of your report. Be consistent in your font size. Use Times New Roman only. Make sure that figures have proper self‐explanatory captions and are cited in the body of the report. Make sure that your figures have legends as well as x and y labels with proper and consistent fonts. Don’t forget that any number presented in the report or on the figures has to have a proper unit. Equations and pages in your report should be numbered. Embed your figures in the text. Make sure they do not have unnecessary frames around them or are not plotted on a grey background (default setting of some software programs!). inlet angle Particle trajectory i p y i 0 p x  Important Note: It is possible to solve the above ODEs using built‐in solvers such as ode45 in MATLAB, and you are encouraged to consider that for validating your MATLAB program. However, the results that you submit for this project MUST be obtained from your own implementation of the 4th order Runge‐Kutta method. You will not receive full credit if your MATALB program does not work, even if your results are absolutely correct! References: 1. http://www.airexco.net/custom‐manufacturedbr12‐inch‐pleated‐filter‐c‐108_113_114/custommadebr12‐ inch‐pleated‐filter‐p‐786.html 2. http://www.ebay.com/itm/Air‐Compressor‐Air‐Filter‐Element‐CFE‐275‐Round‐Pleated‐Filter‐ /251081172328 3. A.M. Saleh and H.V. Tafreshi, A Simple Semi‐Analytical Model for Designing Pleated Air Filters under Loading, Separation and Purification Technology 137, 94 (2014) 4. A.M. Saleh, S. Fotovati, H.V. Tafreshi, and B. Pourdeyhimi, Modeling Service Life of Pleated Filters Exposed to Poly‐Dispersed Aerosols, Powder Technology 266, 79 (2014)

Project 1: Particle Trajectory in Pleated Filters Due: 12:30 pm, Dec. 1, 2015, submission through blackboard Course: Numerical Methods Instructor: Dr. Hooman V. Tafreshi Most aerosol filters are made of pleated fibrous media. This is to accommodate as much filtration media as possible in a limited space available to an air filtration unit (e.g., the engine of a car). A variety of parameters contribute to the performance of a pleated filter. These parameters include, but are not limited to, geometry of the pleat (e.g., pleat height, width, and count), microscale properties of the fibrous media (e.g., fiber diameters, fiber orientation, and solid volume fraction), aerodynamic and thermal conditions of the flow (e.g., flow velocity, temperature, and operating pressure), and particle properties (e.g., diameter, density, and shape). Figure 1: Examples of pleated air filters [1‐2]. In this project you are asked to calculate the trajectory of aerosol particles as they travel inside a rectangular pleat channel. Due to the symmetry of the pleat geometry, you only need to simulate one half of the channel (see Figure 2). Figure 2: The simulation domain and boundary conditions (the figure’s aspect ratio is altered for illustration purposes). Trajectory of the aerosol particles can be calculated in a 2‐D domain by solving the Newton’s 2nd law written for the particles in the x‐ and y‐directions, v(h) inlet velocity fibrous media v(y) y tm l h x Ui u(l) u(x) 2 2 p 1 p 1 ( , ) d x dx u x y dt  dt    2 2 p 1 p 1 ( , ) d y dy v x y dt  dt    where 2 1/18 p p   d    is the particle relaxation time, 10 μm p d  is the particle diameter, 1000 kg/m3 p   is the particle density, and   1.85105 Pa.s is the air viscosity. Also, u(x, y) and v(x, y) represent the components of the air velocity in the x and y directions inside the pleat channel, respectively. The x and y positions of the particles are denoted by xp and yp, respectively. You may use the following expressions for u(x, y) and v(x, y) .     2 3 1 2 u x, y u x y h                  sin 2 v x,y v h π y h        where   i 1 u x U x l h          is the average air velocity inside the pleat channel in the x‐direction and Ui is the velocity at the pleat entrance (assume 1 m/s for this project). l = 0.0275 m and h =0.0011 m are the pleat length and height, respectively. Writing the conservation of mass for the air flowing into the channel, you can also obtain that   i v h U h l h         . These 2nd order ODEs can easily be solved using a 4th order Rung‐Kutta method. In order to obtain realistic particle trajectories, you also need to consider proper initial conditions for the velocity of the particles: x(t  0)  0 , ( 0) i p p y t   y , p ( 0) cos i i dx t U dt    , p ( 0) sin i i dy t U dt     . where i  is the angle with respect to the axial direction by which a particle enters the pleat channel (see Figure 3). The inlet angle can be obtained from the following equation: 2 75 0.78 +0.16 1.61St i i p p i y y e h h                    where   2 St 18 2 ρPdPUi μ h  is the particles Stokes number. Figure 3: An illustration of the required particle trajectory calculation inside a rectangular pleated filter. You are asked to calculate and plot the trajectories of particles released from the vertical positions of ?? ? ? 0.05?, ?? ? ? 0.25?, ?? ? ? 0.5?, ?? ? ? 0.75? , and ?? ? ? 0.95? in one single figure. To do so, you need to track the trajectories until they reach one of the channel walls (i.e., stop when xp  l or p y  h ). Use a time step of 0.00001 sec. For more information see Ref. [3]. For additional background information see Ref. [4] and references there. In submitting your project please stick to following guidelines: 1‐ In blackboard, submit all the Matlab files and report in one single zip file. For naming your zip file, adhere to the format as: Lastname_firstname_project1.zip For instance: Einstein_albert_project1.zip 2‐ The report should be in pdf format only with the name as Project1.pdf (NO word documents .docx or .doc will be graded). 3‐ Your zip file can contain as many Matlab files as you want to submit. Also please submit the main code which TA’s should run with the name as: Project1.m (You can name the function files as you desire). Summary of what you should submit: 1‐ Runge–Kutta 4th order implementation in MATLAB. 2‐ Plot 5 particle trajectories in one graph. 3‐ Report your output (the x‐y positions of the five particles at each time step) in the form of a table with 11 columns (one for time and two for the x and y of each particle). Make sure the units are second for time and meter for the x and y. 4‐ Write a short, but yet clean and professional report describing your work. Up to 25% of your grade will be based solely on the style and formatting of your report. Use proper heading for each section of your report. Be consistent in your font size. Use Times New Roman only. Make sure that figures have proper self‐explanatory captions and are cited in the body of the report. Make sure that your figures have legends as well as x and y labels with proper and consistent fonts. Don’t forget that any number presented in the report or on the figures has to have a proper unit. Equations and pages in your report should be numbered. Embed your figures in the text. Make sure they do not have unnecessary frames around them or are not plotted on a grey background (default setting of some software programs!). inlet angle Particle trajectory i p y i 0 p x  Important Note: It is possible to solve the above ODEs using built‐in solvers such as ode45 in MATLAB, and you are encouraged to consider that for validating your MATLAB program. However, the results that you submit for this project MUST be obtained from your own implementation of the 4th order Runge‐Kutta method. You will not receive full credit if your MATALB program does not work, even if your results are absolutely correct! References: 1. http://www.airexco.net/custom‐manufacturedbr12‐inch‐pleated‐filter‐c‐108_113_114/custommadebr12‐ inch‐pleated‐filter‐p‐786.html 2. http://www.ebay.com/itm/Air‐Compressor‐Air‐Filter‐Element‐CFE‐275‐Round‐Pleated‐Filter‐ /251081172328 3. A.M. Saleh and H.V. Tafreshi, A Simple Semi‐Analytical Model for Designing Pleated Air Filters under Loading, Separation and Purification Technology 137, 94 (2014) 4. A.M. Saleh, S. Fotovati, H.V. Tafreshi, and B. Pourdeyhimi, Modeling Service Life of Pleated Filters Exposed to Poly‐Dispersed Aerosols, Powder Technology 266, 79 (2014)

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