BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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In Chapter 3 it is mentioned “…the software can dynamically assert truth statements in the form of queries against previously unknown schema types.” Locate this text in the chapter and answer the following questions: a) What do the authors refer to with the above statement? b) How would one form SQL queries on the fly (i.e., without “hard-coding” them) on previously unknown schemas?

In Chapter 3 it is mentioned “…the software can dynamically assert truth statements in the form of queries against previously unknown schema types.” Locate this text in the chapter and answer the following questions: a) What do the authors refer to with the above statement? b) How would one form SQL queries on the fly (i.e., without “hard-coding” them) on previously unknown schemas?

The author says “Dynamic Query Generation—by providing rich conceptual models … Read More...
Stage1.2 Telescope Activity (due at Stage 1) Brief Overview of Activity: Research a major astronomical observatory. Required Items: the internet, your textbook, pencil & paper. ________________________________________ Procedure: Research one of the observatories mentioned in our textbook and answer the questions below. What is the name and location of the Observatory?What type of telescope is used?What is the size of its mirror or radio dish?What specific wavelengths of light can be studied by this device?Why would these wavelengths of light be useful to astronomers?

Stage1.2 Telescope Activity (due at Stage 1) Brief Overview of Activity: Research a major astronomical observatory. Required Items: the internet, your textbook, pencil & paper. ________________________________________ Procedure: Research one of the observatories mentioned in our textbook and answer the questions below. What is the name and location of the Observatory?What type of telescope is used?What is the size of its mirror or radio dish?What specific wavelengths of light can be studied by this device?Why would these wavelengths of light be useful to astronomers?

Stage1.2 Telescope Activity (due at Stage 1) Brief Overview of … Read More...
Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

No expert has answered this question yet. You can browse … Read More...
The book Gatsby by Fitzgerald chapter 1 only questions 1. Who is the narrator, and how is he related to the principal characters? Why is this effective as a narrative strategy? 2. Describe Daisy’s strategy of exaggerating everything she says. What effect on her characterization does this habit have? List some of her character traits gleaned from your reading of Chapter 1. 3. What is the significance of the book Tom is reading? What character traits are revealed to the reader through his comments abut the book? 4. What matters most to Daisy about her child? What does this tell you? 5. Name 3 colors that are mentioned in chapter 1. Do they have significance to yo as a reader at this point? 6. Why does Gatsby reach out to the water?

The book Gatsby by Fitzgerald chapter 1 only questions 1. Who is the narrator, and how is he related to the principal characters? Why is this effective as a narrative strategy? 2. Describe Daisy’s strategy of exaggerating everything she says. What effect on her characterization does this habit have? List some of her character traits gleaned from your reading of Chapter 1. 3. What is the significance of the book Tom is reading? What character traits are revealed to the reader through his comments abut the book? 4. What matters most to Daisy about her child? What does this tell you? 5. Name 3 colors that are mentioned in chapter 1. Do they have significance to yo as a reader at this point? 6. Why does Gatsby reach out to the water?

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1181 Assignment #8 Parallel Arrays For this application, you will use parallel arrays to compare grades of a list of students. 1. Rename the form to frmGrades and give the form an appropriate title. 2. Add the following variables as global (class level) variables. String namesString = “Aaron Ben Carmelina Dorthey Erinn Karin ” + “Lester Mitsue Nichol Ria Sherie Zachary”; String assignmentsString = “44 92 100 100 100 97 100 95 100 0 100 100|” + “95 95 97 90 100 95 100 100 100 100 100 75|” + “98 100 65 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 75|” + “85 100 0 50 100 95 90 0 80 100 100 100”; 3. Create three global (class level) arrays. a. One will hold all of the names of your students. b. One will be a 2D array to hold each of the grades for each assignment. c. One will hold the calculated grade for each student for all of their assignments. 4. Add a ListBox to the form to display all of the student names and assignment grades in your arrays. 5. Add a button to do the following: a. Fill the name and assignment grades 2D global arrays from these two strings. The arrays will be ran in parallel. i. Remember Split(). b. DataTypes on the arrays must be appropriate. c. After filling the arrays, call a method to fill the ListBox with student names and grades. i. Remember to use a mono-spaced font. 6. Add a button that will calculate the grade of each student: a. A method to calculate the grade for each student will be called from this event to fill the grades array. 7. Add 3 Labels to display the Name, Grade, and Letter grade of a selected student. 8. Add a Button that will fill the three previously mentioned Labels from the name and grade arrays. a. You will need to make sure the code cannot run until all appropriate arrays have been filled. b. You will need to use the arrays to fill the Labels. c. A method to calculate and return the appropriate letter grade for the student will need to be called from this event method. i. Hint: there is a .SelectedIndex property on a ListBox to get which item in a ListBox is selected. 9. Add a four Labels for the average grade of each assignment. 10. Add a button to display the average of each assignment in the four Labels. a. This event method will need to call a method that calculates the average grade of an assignment from a given index relating to the assignment in the assignment array. 11. You will need a method for each of the following: a. Fill the arrays from the strings provided. i. Hint: the .Split() method is on a string. However, you will not be able to use this directly to fill the assignment array. b. Display the names and assignment grades of each students in the ListBox i. Hint: the .PadLeft() and .PadRight() methods are on a string. c. Get an array of student average across all assignments. i. This is calculated by iterating across the appropriate index of the 2D assignment array for each student and calculating the average of the four assignment grades. This array will be ran in parallel with the student names array. d. Display the name, grade, and letter grade for a given index in the labels. e. Letter grade is returned for a given grade (use +/- system) f. Get the average grade of an assignment using the index of that assignment in the assignments array. Structure Chart Scoring 1. 5% – Form contains controls necessary for assignment. 2. 10% – Validation as needed as described in the assignment. a. This can be either pre-checking or hiding of controls. 3. 5% – Proper datatypes used for each array to include 2D and parallel arrays. 4. 10% – Method used that correctly fills arrays from strings provided. 5. 10% – Method used that displays all students and grades in ListBox. 6. 10% – Method used to return grades for each student based on assignment grades. 7. 10% – Method used to correctly fill name, grade and letter grade to the form using parallel arrays. 8. 5% – Method used that returns the correct letter grade using +/- system. 9. 10% – Method used that returns the correct average of the grades from a given assignment index. 10. 5% – Parallel arrays use indexes correctly. 11. 15% – Meaningful comments; Correct formatting (indentation, braces, whitespace, etc). This should be done automatically if you set up your preferences correctly as described at the beginning of this document. a. Form, TextBoxes, and Buttons are named properly. b. Form and controls have proper titles and labels. 12. 5% – Wow Factor: do something more to the assignment that shows creativity. (Make sure to document it and that it works.) ButtonAverages_Click getAssgnAverageGrade fillArrays displayNames ButtonShow_Click assgnIndex showStudentDetails ButtonSelected_Click selectedIndex getLetterGrade gradeAvg letterGrade Letter Grade Range A 93 – 100 A – 90 – 92.9 B + 87 – 89.9 B 83 – 86.9 B – 80 – 82.9 C + 77 – 79.9 C 73 – 76.9 C – 70 – 72.9 D + 67 – 69.9 D 63 – 66.9 D – 60 – 62.9 F < 60 avgGrade ButtonGrades_Click getStudentGrades studGrades

1181 Assignment #8 Parallel Arrays For this application, you will use parallel arrays to compare grades of a list of students. 1. Rename the form to frmGrades and give the form an appropriate title. 2. Add the following variables as global (class level) variables. String namesString = “Aaron Ben Carmelina Dorthey Erinn Karin ” + “Lester Mitsue Nichol Ria Sherie Zachary”; String assignmentsString = “44 92 100 100 100 97 100 95 100 0 100 100|” + “95 95 97 90 100 95 100 100 100 100 100 75|” + “98 100 65 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 75|” + “85 100 0 50 100 95 90 0 80 100 100 100”; 3. Create three global (class level) arrays. a. One will hold all of the names of your students. b. One will be a 2D array to hold each of the grades for each assignment. c. One will hold the calculated grade for each student for all of their assignments. 4. Add a ListBox to the form to display all of the student names and assignment grades in your arrays. 5. Add a button to do the following: a. Fill the name and assignment grades 2D global arrays from these two strings. The arrays will be ran in parallel. i. Remember Split(). b. DataTypes on the arrays must be appropriate. c. After filling the arrays, call a method to fill the ListBox with student names and grades. i. Remember to use a mono-spaced font. 6. Add a button that will calculate the grade of each student: a. A method to calculate the grade for each student will be called from this event to fill the grades array. 7. Add 3 Labels to display the Name, Grade, and Letter grade of a selected student. 8. Add a Button that will fill the three previously mentioned Labels from the name and grade arrays. a. You will need to make sure the code cannot run until all appropriate arrays have been filled. b. You will need to use the arrays to fill the Labels. c. A method to calculate and return the appropriate letter grade for the student will need to be called from this event method. i. Hint: there is a .SelectedIndex property on a ListBox to get which item in a ListBox is selected. 9. Add a four Labels for the average grade of each assignment. 10. Add a button to display the average of each assignment in the four Labels. a. This event method will need to call a method that calculates the average grade of an assignment from a given index relating to the assignment in the assignment array. 11. You will need a method for each of the following: a. Fill the arrays from the strings provided. i. Hint: the .Split() method is on a string. However, you will not be able to use this directly to fill the assignment array. b. Display the names and assignment grades of each students in the ListBox i. Hint: the .PadLeft() and .PadRight() methods are on a string. c. Get an array of student average across all assignments. i. This is calculated by iterating across the appropriate index of the 2D assignment array for each student and calculating the average of the four assignment grades. This array will be ran in parallel with the student names array. d. Display the name, grade, and letter grade for a given index in the labels. e. Letter grade is returned for a given grade (use +/- system) f. Get the average grade of an assignment using the index of that assignment in the assignments array. Structure Chart Scoring 1. 5% – Form contains controls necessary for assignment. 2. 10% – Validation as needed as described in the assignment. a. This can be either pre-checking or hiding of controls. 3. 5% – Proper datatypes used for each array to include 2D and parallel arrays. 4. 10% – Method used that correctly fills arrays from strings provided. 5. 10% – Method used that displays all students and grades in ListBox. 6. 10% – Method used to return grades for each student based on assignment grades. 7. 10% – Method used to correctly fill name, grade and letter grade to the form using parallel arrays. 8. 5% – Method used that returns the correct letter grade using +/- system. 9. 10% – Method used that returns the correct average of the grades from a given assignment index. 10. 5% – Parallel arrays use indexes correctly. 11. 15% – Meaningful comments; Correct formatting (indentation, braces, whitespace, etc). This should be done automatically if you set up your preferences correctly as described at the beginning of this document. a. Form, TextBoxes, and Buttons are named properly. b. Form and controls have proper titles and labels. 12. 5% – Wow Factor: do something more to the assignment that shows creativity. (Make sure to document it and that it works.) ButtonAverages_Click getAssgnAverageGrade fillArrays displayNames ButtonShow_Click assgnIndex showStudentDetails ButtonSelected_Click selectedIndex getLetterGrade gradeAvg letterGrade Letter Grade Range A 93 – 100 A – 90 – 92.9 B + 87 – 89.9 B 83 – 86.9 B – 80 – 82.9 C + 77 – 79.9 C 73 – 76.9 C – 70 – 72.9 D + 67 – 69.9 D 63 – 66.9 D – 60 – 62.9 F < 60 avgGrade ButtonGrades_Click getStudentGrades studGrades

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Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

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Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...