STUDENT GRADER Total Score I am submitting my own work, and I understand penalties will be assessed if I submit work for credit that is not my own. Print Name ID Number Sign Name Date # Points Score 1 4 2 8 3 6 4 12 5 4 6 10 7 8 8 6 9 6 Weeks late Adjusted Score Estimated Work Hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Overall Weight Adjusted Score: Deduct 20% from score for each week late Problem 1. Sketch circuits for the following logic equations. Y <= (A and B and C) or not ((A and not B and C and not D) or not (B or D)); X <= (A xor (B and C) xor not D) or (not (B xor C) and not (C or D)) Problem 2. Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the following equations. F = m(1, 2, 6) F = M(0, 7) Problem 3. Write logic assignment statements for the following circuit. Problem 4: Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the truth tables below. Problem 5: Sketch POS circuits for the 2XOR and 2XNOR functions. Problem 6: Sketch the circuit described by the netlist shown, and complete the timing diagram for the stimulus shown to document the circuit’s response to the example stimulus. Use a 100ns vertical grid in your timing diagram, and show all inputs and outputs. Problem 7: Create a truth table that corresponds to the simulation shown below. Show all input and output values in the truth table, and sketch a logic circuit that could have been used to create the waveform. Problem 8. The Seattle Mariners haven’t had a stolen base in 6 months, and the manager decided it was because the other teams were reading his signals to the base runners. He came up with a new set of signals (pulling on his EAR, lifting one LEG, patting the top of his HEAD, and BOWing) to indicate when runners should attempt to steal a base. A runner should STEAL a base if and only if the manager pulls his EAR and BOWs while patting his HEAD, or if he lifts his LEG and pats his HEAD without BOWing, or anytime he pulls his EAR without lifting his LEG. Sketch a minimal circuit that could be used to indicate when a runner should steal a base. Problem 9. A room has four doors and four light switches (one by each door). Sketch a circuit that allows the four switches to control the light – each switch should be able to turn the light on if it is currently off, and off if it is currently on. Note that it will not be possible to associate a given switch position with “light on” or “light off” – simply moving any switch should modify the light’s status.

STUDENT GRADER Total Score I am submitting my own work, and I understand penalties will be assessed if I submit work for credit that is not my own. Print Name ID Number Sign Name Date # Points Score 1 4 2 8 3 6 4 12 5 4 6 10 7 8 8 6 9 6 Weeks late Adjusted Score Estimated Work Hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Overall Weight Adjusted Score: Deduct 20% from score for each week late Problem 1. Sketch circuits for the following logic equations. Y <= (A and B and C) or not ((A and not B and C and not D) or not (B or D)); X <= (A xor (B and C) xor not D) or (not (B xor C) and not (C or D)) Problem 2. Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the following equations. F = m(1, 2, 6) F = M(0, 7) Problem 3. Write logic assignment statements for the following circuit. Problem 4: Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the truth tables below. Problem 5: Sketch POS circuits for the 2XOR and 2XNOR functions. Problem 6: Sketch the circuit described by the netlist shown, and complete the timing diagram for the stimulus shown to document the circuit’s response to the example stimulus. Use a 100ns vertical grid in your timing diagram, and show all inputs and outputs. Problem 7: Create a truth table that corresponds to the simulation shown below. Show all input and output values in the truth table, and sketch a logic circuit that could have been used to create the waveform. Problem 8. The Seattle Mariners haven’t had a stolen base in 6 months, and the manager decided it was because the other teams were reading his signals to the base runners. He came up with a new set of signals (pulling on his EAR, lifting one LEG, patting the top of his HEAD, and BOWing) to indicate when runners should attempt to steal a base. A runner should STEAL a base if and only if the manager pulls his EAR and BOWs while patting his HEAD, or if he lifts his LEG and pats his HEAD without BOWing, or anytime he pulls his EAR without lifting his LEG. Sketch a minimal circuit that could be used to indicate when a runner should steal a base. Problem 9. A room has four doors and four light switches (one by each door). Sketch a circuit that allows the four switches to control the light – each switch should be able to turn the light on if it is currently off, and off if it is currently on. Note that it will not be possible to associate a given switch position with “light on” or “light off” – simply moving any switch should modify the light’s status.

info@checkyourstudy.com
Project management restructuring may be beneficial in that it permits companies to: a. Accomplish tasks that could not be handled effectively by the traditional structure b. Eliminate executive involvement in projects c. Accomplish one-time activities with minimal organizational disruption d. All of the above e. A and C only

Project management restructuring may be beneficial in that it permits companies to: a. Accomplish tasks that could not be handled effectively by the traditional structure b. Eliminate executive involvement in projects c. Accomplish one-time activities with minimal organizational disruption d. All of the above e. A and C only

Project management restructuring may be beneficial in that it permits … Read More...
BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

info@checkyourstudy.com Whatsapp +919911743277
EE118 FALL 2012 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Electrical Engineering TEST 2 — Digital Design I October 24, 2012 10:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. — Closed Book & Closed Notes — — No Crib Sheet Allowed — STUDENT NAME: (Last) Claussen , (First) Matthew STUDENT ID NUMBER (LAST 4 DIGITS): No interpretation of test problems will be given during the test. If you are not sure of what is intended, make appropriate assumptions and continue. Do not unstaple !!! Problems 1-14(4 points each) TOTAL Problems 15 – 17 (15 pts each) 1203 2 For the next 14 problems, circle the correct answer. No partial credit will be given. PROBLEM 1 (4 points) Which statement is not true? A. Any combinational circuit may be designed using multiplexers only. B. Any combinational circuit may be designed using decoders only. C. All Sequential circuits are based on cross-coupled NAND or NOR gates. D. A hazard in a digital system is an undesirable effect caused by either a deficiency in the system or external influences. E. None of the above PROBLEM 2 (4 points) For a 2-bit comparator comparing 2-bit numbers A = (a1 a0) and B = (b1 b0), what is the proper function for the f(A>B) output through logical reasoning? A. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1 + a1’b1’ ) a0 b0’ B. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1’+ a1’b1 ) a0 b0 C. a1 a0’ + (a1 a0 + b1’b0’ ) b1 b0’ D. a1 a0 + (a1 a0’+ b1’b0 ) b1 b0 PROBLEM 3 (4 points) What is the priority scheme of this encoder? Inputs Outputs I3 I2 I1 I0 O1 O 0 d d 1 d 0 1 d d 0 1 0 0 d 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 A. I3 > I2 > I1 >I0 B. I0 > I1 > I2 >I3 C. I1 > I0 > I2 >I3 D. I2 > I1 > I3 >I0 3 PROBLEM 4 (4 points) Which is the correct binary representation of the decimal number 46.625? A. 101101.001 B. 101000.01 C. 111001.001 D. 101110.101 PROBLEM 5 (4 points) Which is the decimal equivalent number of the sum of the two 8-bit 2’s complement numbers FB16 and 3748? A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 PROBLEM 6 (4 points) For the MUX-based circuit shown below, f(X,Y,Z) = ? X Y Z f A. X’Y’ + Y’Z’ B. X’Y’Z’ + YZ’ C. XYZ’ + Y’Z D. X’Y’Z’ + YZ 1 0 MUX 4 PROBLEM 7 (4 points) Which is the correct output F of this circuit? E C B D F A A. (A’E+AB)(C’D) B. (AE+A’B)(C’+D) C. (A’E+AB)(C’D’+CD’+CD) D. (A’E+AB)(CD’)’ PROBLEM 8 (5 points) In order to correctly perform 2910  14510, how many bits are required to represent the numbers? A 8 B 9 C 10 D 11 PROBLEM 9 (4 points) Which is the negative 2’s complement equivalent of the 8-bit number 01001101? A. 11001101 B. 10111100 C. 10110000 D. 10110011 0 2-1 1 MUX 0 0 1 1 2-4 decoder 2 EN 3 5 PROBLEM 10 (4 points) Which is the correct statement describing the behavior of the following Verilog code? module whatisthis(hmm, X, Y); output [3:0] hmm; input [3:0] X, Y; assign hmm = (X < Y) ? X : Y; endmodule A. If X>Y, hmm becomes 1111. B. hmm assumes min(X,Y). C. If X<Y, hmm becomes 1111. D. hmm assumes max(X,Y). PROBLEM 11 (4 points) Which Boolean expression corresponds to the function g(W,X,Y,Z) implemented by the following “non-priority” encoder-based circuit? Assume that one and only one input is high at any time. f W X g Y Z A. Y + Z B. W + Y C. X + Y D. X + Z PROBLEM 12 (4 points) Which Boolean expression corresponds to the output of the following logic diagram? (/B = B’) A. Z = ( A(B’ + C)’ )’ + ( (B’ + C)’ + D )’ B. Z= A(B C’) + (B C’ + D) C. Z = (A(B’ + C)(B’ + C + D) )’ D. Z = A(B’ + C)’ + (B’ + C + D)’ 0 0 1 1 2 3 Encoder 6 PROBLEM 13 (4 points) Which is the correct gate-level circuit in minimal SOP form for the following circuit? A F = Y’X’ + W’ZY’X B F = YX’ + W’Z’Y’X C F = YX’ + W’ZY’X D F = Y’X + W’ZY’X’ PROBLEM 14 (4 points) For the following flow map of a certain cross-coupled gate circuit, the circuit is currently in the underlined state. If the inputs YZ change to 11, the circuit becomes meta-stable. Between which two states (WX) does the circuit oscillate ? A 00  11 B 01  10 C 11  10 D 10  00 YZ WX 00 01 11 10 00 00 11 00 10 01 10 10 10 01 11 00 00 11 01 10 10 01 01 10 G1 Y0 G2A Y1 G2B Y2 Y3 A Y4 B Y5 C Y6 Y7 G1 Y0 G2A Y1 G2B Y2 Y3 A Y4 B Y5 C Y6 Y7 OR W X Y Z X Y Z F + 5 V 7 For each of the next 3 problems, show all your work. Partial credits will be given. PROBLEM 15 (15 points) 1) Which logic variable causes the hazard for the circuit given by the K-map below? 2) Using the timing diagram, clearly show how the hazard occurs. 3) Find the best hazard-free logic function. YZ WX 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 1 1 01 0 0 0 0 11 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 1 1 8 PROBLEM 16(15 points) Analyze the following cross-coupled NAND gates by showing: (a) flow map with stable states circled and with meta-stability condition shown by arrows, (b) state table, and (c) completed timing diagram below. Note that d is the propagation delay of each gate. XY G1(t)G2(t) 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 Inputs  XY=00 XY=01 XY=11 XY=10 Present States  X Y G1(t) G2(t) 0 d 2d 3d 4d 5d 6d 7d 8d 9d X Y G1 G2 9 PROBLEM 17 (15 points) Using Quine-McCluskey algorithm, find the minimal SOP for the following minterm list. f(A, B, C) = (1,2,3,4,6,7) w(j) j Match I Match II 0 1 2 3 PI Covering Table

EE118 FALL 2012 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Electrical Engineering TEST 2 — Digital Design I October 24, 2012 10:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. — Closed Book & Closed Notes — — No Crib Sheet Allowed — STUDENT NAME: (Last) Claussen , (First) Matthew STUDENT ID NUMBER (LAST 4 DIGITS): No interpretation of test problems will be given during the test. If you are not sure of what is intended, make appropriate assumptions and continue. Do not unstaple !!! Problems 1-14(4 points each) TOTAL Problems 15 – 17 (15 pts each) 1203 2 For the next 14 problems, circle the correct answer. No partial credit will be given. PROBLEM 1 (4 points) Which statement is not true? A. Any combinational circuit may be designed using multiplexers only. B. Any combinational circuit may be designed using decoders only. C. All Sequential circuits are based on cross-coupled NAND or NOR gates. D. A hazard in a digital system is an undesirable effect caused by either a deficiency in the system or external influences. E. None of the above PROBLEM 2 (4 points) For a 2-bit comparator comparing 2-bit numbers A = (a1 a0) and B = (b1 b0), what is the proper function for the f(A>B) output through logical reasoning? A. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1 + a1’b1’ ) a0 b0’ B. a1 b1’ + (a1 b1’+ a1’b1 ) a0 b0 C. a1 a0’ + (a1 a0 + b1’b0’ ) b1 b0’ D. a1 a0 + (a1 a0’+ b1’b0 ) b1 b0 PROBLEM 3 (4 points) What is the priority scheme of this encoder? Inputs Outputs I3 I2 I1 I0 O1 O 0 d d 1 d 0 1 d d 0 1 0 0 d 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 A. I3 > I2 > I1 >I0 B. I0 > I1 > I2 >I3 C. I1 > I0 > I2 >I3 D. I2 > I1 > I3 >I0 3 PROBLEM 4 (4 points) Which is the correct binary representation of the decimal number 46.625? A. 101101.001 B. 101000.01 C. 111001.001 D. 101110.101 PROBLEM 5 (4 points) Which is the decimal equivalent number of the sum of the two 8-bit 2’s complement numbers FB16 and 3748? A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 PROBLEM 6 (4 points) For the MUX-based circuit shown below, f(X,Y,Z) = ? X Y Z f A. X’Y’ + Y’Z’ B. X’Y’Z’ + YZ’ C. XYZ’ + Y’Z D. X’Y’Z’ + YZ 1 0 MUX 4 PROBLEM 7 (4 points) Which is the correct output F of this circuit? E C B D F A A. (A’E+AB)(C’D) B. (AE+A’B)(C’+D) C. (A’E+AB)(C’D’+CD’+CD) D. (A’E+AB)(CD’)’ PROBLEM 8 (5 points) In order to correctly perform 2910  14510, how many bits are required to represent the numbers? A 8 B 9 C 10 D 11 PROBLEM 9 (4 points) Which is the negative 2’s complement equivalent of the 8-bit number 01001101? A. 11001101 B. 10111100 C. 10110000 D. 10110011 0 2-1 1 MUX 0 0 1 1 2-4 decoder 2 EN 3 5 PROBLEM 10 (4 points) Which is the correct statement describing the behavior of the following Verilog code? module whatisthis(hmm, X, Y); output [3:0] hmm; input [3:0] X, Y; assign hmm = (X < Y) ? X : Y; endmodule A. If X>Y, hmm becomes 1111. B. hmm assumes min(X,Y). C. If X

info@checkyourstudy.com Operations Team Whatsapp( +91 9911743277)
Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

Francis Bacon was a 16th century ethical theorist who was … Read More...
What do Epicurus and Lucretius have to say about death? What do you think of their arguments?

What do Epicurus and Lucretius have to say about death? What do you think of their arguments?

Epicurus One of the big worries that Epicurus attempts to … Read More...
1 CE 321 PRINCIPLES ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB WORKSHEET No. 1 Due: One (1) Week After Each Lab Section, respectively MICROBIOLOGY Environmental engineers employ microbiology in a variety of applications. Testing for coliform bacteria is used to assess whether pathogens may be present in a water or wastewater sample. Coliforms are a type of bacteria that live in the intestines of warm blooded mammals, such as humans and cattle. They are not pathogens, but if they are present in a sample, it is taken as an indication that fecal material from humans or cattle has contacted the water. If fecal material is present, pathogens may be present, too. In water treatment, coliform counts must average less than one colony per 100 milliliters of sample tested. In wastewater treatment, typical acceptable levels might be 200-colonies/100 mL. There are two standard ways to test for coliforms, the Most Probable Number test, MPN (also called the multiple tube fermentation technique, MTF) and the membrane filter test, MF. Several companies market testing systems that are somewhat simpler, but these cannot be used by treatment plants until they receive EPA approval. Two recently accepted methods are the Minimal Media Test (Colilert system), and the Presence-Absence coliform test (P-A test). Wastewater treatment plant operators study the microorganism composition of the activated sludge units in order to assess and predict the performance of the biological floc. A sample of mixed liquor from the aeration basin is examined under the microscope, and based on the relative predominance of a variety of organisms that might be present; the operator can tell if the BOD application rates and wasting rates are as they should be. For your worksheet, please submit the items requested below (10 pts. each): 1. Examine a sample of activated sludge under the microscope (To be done together in class). Use the Atlas, Standard Methods, or other references to identify at least 5 different organisms you observed. List them and sketch them neatly on unlined paper. Describe their motility and any other distinctive characteristics as you observed it. 2. Explain what types of organisms you might expect to find in sludge with a high mean cell residence time (MCRT), and explain why these would predominate over the other types. 3. How can the predominance of a certain kind of microorganism in activated sludge affect the settling characteristics of the sludge? Give several examples. 2 4. Explain why coliforms are used as “indicator organisms” for water and wastewater testing. Name two pathogenic bacteria, two pathogenic viruses, and one pathogenic protozoan sometimes found in water supplies. 5. There is also a test for fecal coliforms. Use your class notes and outside references to explain the distinctions between the tests for total and fecal coliforms. Explain why one would use the fecal coliform test instead of the test for total coliforms. 6. Using outside references, indicate typical coliform limits for surface waters used for swimming and fishing; potable water; and wastewater treatment plant effluent. 7). In the recent past, EPA instituted regulations designed to insure that Giardia are removed from the water. Using your text or other references, explain what kind of organism this is, and explain the way in which EPA has set standards to insure they are removed during water treatment. 8. What is meant by “population dynamics”? What two factors usually control the population dynamics of a mixed culture? 9. Use the MPN test data from the samples prepared for class prior to determine the number of coliforms present in the wastewater samples. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 4 1 5 5 2 0.1 5 3 1 0.01 5 1 0 0.001 2 1 —- 0.0001 1 —- —- FecalColiforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 2 1 5 4 0 0.1 5 2 1 0.01 1 0 0 0.001 0 0 —– 0.0001 2 —– —– 3 10. Use the membrane filter test data given in class to determine the number of total coliforms and fecal coliforms present in the sample. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms Dilution Colonies Dilution Colonies Raw Influent 0.1 mL/100 mL 58 1 mL/100 mL 47 Intermediate 1 mL/100 mL 13 10 mL/100 mL 28 Wetland Effluent 10 mL/100 mL 10 100 mL/100 mL 15

1 CE 321 PRINCIPLES ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB WORKSHEET No. 1 Due: One (1) Week After Each Lab Section, respectively MICROBIOLOGY Environmental engineers employ microbiology in a variety of applications. Testing for coliform bacteria is used to assess whether pathogens may be present in a water or wastewater sample. Coliforms are a type of bacteria that live in the intestines of warm blooded mammals, such as humans and cattle. They are not pathogens, but if they are present in a sample, it is taken as an indication that fecal material from humans or cattle has contacted the water. If fecal material is present, pathogens may be present, too. In water treatment, coliform counts must average less than one colony per 100 milliliters of sample tested. In wastewater treatment, typical acceptable levels might be 200-colonies/100 mL. There are two standard ways to test for coliforms, the Most Probable Number test, MPN (also called the multiple tube fermentation technique, MTF) and the membrane filter test, MF. Several companies market testing systems that are somewhat simpler, but these cannot be used by treatment plants until they receive EPA approval. Two recently accepted methods are the Minimal Media Test (Colilert system), and the Presence-Absence coliform test (P-A test). Wastewater treatment plant operators study the microorganism composition of the activated sludge units in order to assess and predict the performance of the biological floc. A sample of mixed liquor from the aeration basin is examined under the microscope, and based on the relative predominance of a variety of organisms that might be present; the operator can tell if the BOD application rates and wasting rates are as they should be. For your worksheet, please submit the items requested below (10 pts. each): 1. Examine a sample of activated sludge under the microscope (To be done together in class). Use the Atlas, Standard Methods, or other references to identify at least 5 different organisms you observed. List them and sketch them neatly on unlined paper. Describe their motility and any other distinctive characteristics as you observed it. 2. Explain what types of organisms you might expect to find in sludge with a high mean cell residence time (MCRT), and explain why these would predominate over the other types. 3. How can the predominance of a certain kind of microorganism in activated sludge affect the settling characteristics of the sludge? Give several examples. 2 4. Explain why coliforms are used as “indicator organisms” for water and wastewater testing. Name two pathogenic bacteria, two pathogenic viruses, and one pathogenic protozoan sometimes found in water supplies. 5. There is also a test for fecal coliforms. Use your class notes and outside references to explain the distinctions between the tests for total and fecal coliforms. Explain why one would use the fecal coliform test instead of the test for total coliforms. 6. Using outside references, indicate typical coliform limits for surface waters used for swimming and fishing; potable water; and wastewater treatment plant effluent. 7). In the recent past, EPA instituted regulations designed to insure that Giardia are removed from the water. Using your text or other references, explain what kind of organism this is, and explain the way in which EPA has set standards to insure they are removed during water treatment. 8. What is meant by “population dynamics”? What two factors usually control the population dynamics of a mixed culture? 9. Use the MPN test data from the samples prepared for class prior to determine the number of coliforms present in the wastewater samples. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 4 1 5 5 2 0.1 5 3 1 0.01 5 1 0 0.001 2 1 —- 0.0001 1 —- —- FecalColiforms Raw Intermediate Effluent Sample Volume No. Positive No. Positive No. Positive 10 5 5 2 1 5 4 0 0.1 5 2 1 0.01 1 0 0 0.001 0 0 —– 0.0001 2 —– —– 3 10. Use the membrane filter test data given in class to determine the number of total coliforms and fecal coliforms present in the sample. Please show your work and explain your reasoning. Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms Dilution Colonies Dilution Colonies Raw Influent 0.1 mL/100 mL 58 1 mL/100 mL 47 Intermediate 1 mL/100 mL 13 10 mL/100 mL 28 Wetland Effluent 10 mL/100 mL 10 100 mL/100 mL 15

info@checkyourstudy.com Whatsapp +919911743277