For Day 24 Homework Cover Sheet Name:_________________________________________________ 1. Read Pages from 364-371, or watch the videos listed below  Percentage, Ratio and Proportions Problems (11 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLoRCRXTYv4  Direct and Inverse Variation (5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8x0rZklxLLE 2. Attempt problems from page 111 to 113 3. Write a summary and answer questions below from your reading or watching of the videos. a) What is a proportion? b) What is a direct variation? c) What is an inverse variation? List any parts of the video lecture (if there are any) that were unclear or you had trouble understanding. Please be specific and do not just say “All of it”. Questions you had difficulty with or felt stuck on- List the number for the ALEKS topics you were stuck on from the list at the end of the video logs-   ALEKS Topics Mastered Solving a linear equation with several occurrences of the variable: Fractional forms with binomial numerators Translating a sentence into a compound inequality U.S. Customary area unit conversion with whole number values U.S. Customary unit conversion with whole number values U.S. Customary unit conversion with whole number values: Two-step conversion Using two steps to solve an equation with whole numbers Word problem involving multiple rates Word problem on combined variation Word problem on direct variation Word problem on inverse proportions Word problem on inverse variation Word problem on mixed number proportions Word problem on proportions: Problem type 1 Word problem on proportions: Problem type 2 Word problem with linear inequalities: Problem type 1 Word problem with linear inequalities: Problem type 2 Writing a direct variation equation Writing an equation that models variation Areas of rectangles with the same perimeter Circumference ratios Conversions involving measurements in feet and inches Finding an angle measure for a triangle with an extended side Finding an angle measure of a triangle given two angles Finding angle measures of a right or isosceles triangle given angles with variables Finding simple interest without a calculator Finding the missing length in a figure Finding the original price given the sale price and percent discount Finding the percentage increase or decrease: Advanced Finding the perimeter or area of a rectangle given one of these values Finding the radius or the diameter of a circle given its circumference Finding the sale price without a calculator given the original price and percent discount Finding the value for a new score that will yield a given mean Identifying and naming congruent triangles Identifying direct variation equations Identifying direct variation from ordered pairs and writing equations Identifying properties used to solve a linear equation Identifying similar or congruent shapes on a grid Identifying solutions to a linear equation in one variable: Two-step equations Identifying solutions to a linear inequality in one variable Perimeter of a piecewise rectangular figure Sides of polygons having the same perimeter Similar polygons Similar right triangles

For Day 24 Homework Cover Sheet Name:_________________________________________________ 1. Read Pages from 364-371, or watch the videos listed below  Percentage, Ratio and Proportions Problems (11 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLoRCRXTYv4  Direct and Inverse Variation (5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8x0rZklxLLE 2. Attempt problems from page 111 to 113 3. Write a summary and answer questions below from your reading or watching of the videos. a) What is a proportion? b) What is a direct variation? c) What is an inverse variation? List any parts of the video lecture (if there are any) that were unclear or you had trouble understanding. Please be specific and do not just say “All of it”. Questions you had difficulty with or felt stuck on- List the number for the ALEKS topics you were stuck on from the list at the end of the video logs-   ALEKS Topics Mastered Solving a linear equation with several occurrences of the variable: Fractional forms with binomial numerators Translating a sentence into a compound inequality U.S. Customary area unit conversion with whole number values U.S. Customary unit conversion with whole number values U.S. Customary unit conversion with whole number values: Two-step conversion Using two steps to solve an equation with whole numbers Word problem involving multiple rates Word problem on combined variation Word problem on direct variation Word problem on inverse proportions Word problem on inverse variation Word problem on mixed number proportions Word problem on proportions: Problem type 1 Word problem on proportions: Problem type 2 Word problem with linear inequalities: Problem type 1 Word problem with linear inequalities: Problem type 2 Writing a direct variation equation Writing an equation that models variation Areas of rectangles with the same perimeter Circumference ratios Conversions involving measurements in feet and inches Finding an angle measure for a triangle with an extended side Finding an angle measure of a triangle given two angles Finding angle measures of a right or isosceles triangle given angles with variables Finding simple interest without a calculator Finding the missing length in a figure Finding the original price given the sale price and percent discount Finding the percentage increase or decrease: Advanced Finding the perimeter or area of a rectangle given one of these values Finding the radius or the diameter of a circle given its circumference Finding the sale price without a calculator given the original price and percent discount Finding the value for a new score that will yield a given mean Identifying and naming congruent triangles Identifying direct variation equations Identifying direct variation from ordered pairs and writing equations Identifying properties used to solve a linear equation Identifying similar or congruent shapes on a grid Identifying solutions to a linear equation in one variable: Two-step equations Identifying solutions to a linear inequality in one variable Perimeter of a piecewise rectangular figure Sides of polygons having the same perimeter Similar polygons Similar right triangles

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A community bird-watching society makes and sells simple bird feeders to raise money for its conservation activities. The materials for each feeder cost $3, and the society sells an average of 20 feeders per week at a price of $7 each. The society has been considering raising the price, so it conducts a survey and finds that for every dollar increase, it loses 2 sales per week. (a) Find a function P that models weekly profit in terms of price per feeder. (Let x be the price per feeder.) P(x) = (b) What price should the society charge for each feeder to maximize profits? $ What is the maximum weekly profit? $

A community bird-watching society makes and sells simple bird feeders to raise money for its conservation activities. The materials for each feeder cost $3, and the society sells an average of 20 feeders per week at a price of $7 each. The society has been considering raising the price, so it conducts a survey and finds that for every dollar increase, it loses 2 sales per week. (a) Find a function P that models weekly profit in terms of price per feeder. (Let x be the price per feeder.) P(x) = (b) What price should the society charge for each feeder to maximize profits? $ What is the maximum weekly profit? $

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Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

Fall Semester 2015 NMSU Econ 252, Instructor: Dr. Larry Blank Writing Assignment and Critical Thinking Problems: This assignment is worth 100 points toward your overall course average. The criteria used to grade this assignment includes the professional appearance of the document you submit, your ability to use the principles of supply and demand to critically assess the impacts, and your ability to explain your conclusions in writing. Each part can be answered in one page or less. Assigned: October 5, 2015 Deadline: Friday, October 16, 2015 You will email your assignment in Canvas. Before you email your assignment, make sure your name is on your paper AND your full name is included in the electronic file name. For example, filename: Jose Sanchez_Econ252_paper.doc I will not read your work if your name is not in the electronic filename. Assignment: Answers to all parts shall be completed in a Microsoft Word document. Begin by copying the Scenario below and then, for each part, copy the problem before completing your answer. You may want to draw your diagrams in Microsoft PowerPoint or other software and then copy and paste the diagram into the Word document as a “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)” using the “Paste Special” feature in Word. The document you turn in should be six (6) pages long. For the first page include a short title for this assignment, the course name and number, your name, and then copy and paste everything below beginning with “Scenario” onto your first page. The 2nd page of your document should include the description of Part 1 and then your diagram and answer. Do the same for Parts 2-5, with each part on a separate page. Scenario: The Federal Government implemented a policy some years ago to subsidize the production of ethanol fuel at 46 cents per gallon. See news article here: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2011/12/29/9804028-6-billion-a-year-ethanol-subsidy-dies-but-wait-theres-more?lite Ethanol is an alternative fuel (a substitute for regular gasoline) that can be used in some models of automobiles designed to burn any mix of gasoline up to 85% ethanol (fuel is known as E85, and auto manufacturers label these vehicles as “FlexFuel” and similar names). A primary input in the production of ethanol is corn. For the purposes of this assignment, assume that all relevant markets are perfectly competitive. Part 1: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact the subsidy had in the ethanol market (hint: the result has been a reduction in the market price of ethanol). Fully explain the impact of the production subsidy in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the market and what has happened to equilibrium price and quantity in the market for ethanol. Part 2: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the reduction in market price for ethanol had in the market for regular gasoline. Fully explain the impact this reduced ethanol price had on the customer demand for regular gasoline. Part 3: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact due to the change in the equilibrium quantity in the market for ethanol had in the market for corn. Fully explain the impact and the resulting equilibrium price and quantity for corn. Part 4: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves what impact the change in the market price of corn had in the market for manufactured corn tortillas (assume that the market for corn tortillas is perfectly competitive). Corn tortillas are a staple food item in the diets of millions of families across the U.S.. Fully explain the impact of change in the market price of corn in terms of the behavior of producers (sellers) in the market and customers (buyers) in the corn tortilla market. Part 5: Show geometrically using the supply and demand curves the impact in the ethanol market when the ethanol subsidy ended on Jan. 1, 2012. Give one possible explanation why I can no longer find E85 fuel at gas stations. Hint: When the subsidy still existed, the market price of E85 was about 30 cents a gallon less than regular gasoline. E85 is not a perfect substitute for regular gasoline because the performance is less and gas mileage drops by 5-7 miles per gallon.

An element of Freudian theory that has been most supported in modern attachment theory and research is that ________. Question 1 options: attachments can form only between mothers and infants the attachment bond is formed by the caregiver meeting the child’s oral needs early relationships with parents form models for later romantic attachments attachment styles are determined by the successful resolution of the Oedipal crisis

An element of Freudian theory that has been most supported in modern attachment theory and research is that ________. Question 1 options: attachments can form only between mothers and infants the attachment bond is formed by the caregiver meeting the child’s oral needs early relationships with parents form models for later romantic attachments attachment styles are determined by the successful resolution of the Oedipal crisis

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University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

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Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:
 What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:
 What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

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Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

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Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

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