An element of Freudian theory that has been most supported in modern attachment theory and research is that ________. Question 1 options: attachments can form only between mothers and infants the attachment bond is formed by the caregiver meeting the child’s oral needs early relationships with parents form models for later romantic attachments attachment styles are determined by the successful resolution of the Oedipal crisis

## An element of Freudian theory that has been most supported in modern attachment theory and research is that ________. Question 1 options: attachments can form only between mothers and infants the attachment bond is formed by the caregiver meeting the child’s oral needs early relationships with parents form models for later romantic attachments attachment styles are determined by the successful resolution of the Oedipal crisis

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University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

## University of California, Los Angeles Department of Statistics Statistics 100C Instructor: Nicolas Christou Homework 4 Exercise 1 Consider the following simple regression model yi = 0 + 1xi + i, for which E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2. The normal equations discussed earlier in class are: n^ 0 + ^ 1 Xn i=1 xi = Xn i=1 yi ^ 0 Xn i=1 xi + ^ 1 Xn i=1 x2i = Xn i=1 xiyi In matrix form this system of two equations with two unknowns can be expressed as follows:  n Pn i=1 P xi n i=1 xi Pn i=1 x2i  ^ 0 ^ 1  =  Pn i=1 P yi n i=1 xiyi  a. Use matrix algebra to nd the solution for the vector ^ = ( ^ 0; ^ 1)0. b. Use matrix algebra to nd the variance covariance matrix of the vector ^ , i.e.  var( ^ 0) cov( ^ 0; 1) cov( ^ 1; 1) var( ^ 1)  : Exercise 2 Consider the following simple regression model for which i  N(0; ). y1 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 1 y2 = 0 ? 1 + 2 y3 = 0 + 0:5 1 + 3 a. Write the above model in matrix form. b. Find the least squares estimates using vectors and matrices. c. Find the variance-covariance matrix of ^ . d. Find the hat matrix. Verify that the sum of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix is equal to 2 ( Pn i=1 hii = k + 1). e. Generate your own data with n = 3 based on this model and verify that the estimates of 0 and 1 are those given by part (b). Exercise 3 Suppose that you need to t the multiple regression model yi = 0 + 1x1i + 2x2i + i, where E(i) = 0, E(ij) = 0 for i 6= j, and var(i) = 2, to the following data: y x1 x2 -43.6 27 34 3.3 33 30 -12.4 27 33 7.6 24 11 11.4 31 16 5.9 40 30 -4.5 15 17 22.7 26 12 -14.4 22 21 -28.3 23 27 It turns out that (X0X)?1 = 0 @ 1:97015 ?0:05623 ?0:01572 ?0:05623 0:00289 ?0:00091 ?0:01572 ?0:00091 0:00174 1 A and X0Y = 0 @ ?52:3 ?1076:3 ?2220:2 1 A a. Find the least squares estimator of = ( 0; 1; 2)0. b. Find the variance-covariance matrix of the previous estimator. c. Compute the estimate s2e of 2. d. Using your answers to parts (b) and (c) nd the variances of ^ 0; ^ 1, and ^ 2. e. Find the tted value ^y1 a nd its variance. f. What is the variance of the rst residual (var(ei))? Exercise 4 Show that the residuals are orthogonal to the matrix X as well as to the tted values ^Y . This is true for simple or multiple regression models. a. e0X = 0. b. e0^Y = 0. c. Use part (a) to show the already known result that Pn i=1 ei = 0.

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Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:  What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

## Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following:  What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

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Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

## Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

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