AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

AUCS 340: Ethics in the Professions Individual Written Assignment #1 Medical Ethics: Historical names, dates and ethical theories assignment As you read chapters 1 and 2 in the “Ethics and Basic Law for Medical Imaging Professionals” textbook you will be responsible for identifying and explaining each of the following items from the list below. You will respond in paragraph format with correct spelling and grammar expected for each paragraph. Feel free to have more than one paragraph for each item, although in most instances a single paragraph response is sufficient. If you reference material in addition to what is available in the textbook it must be appropriately cited in your work using either APA or MLA including a references cited page. The use of Wikipedia.com is not a recognized peer reviewed source so please do not use that as a reference. When responding about individuals it is necessary to indicate a year or time period that the person discussed/developed their particular ethical theory so that you can look at and appreciate the historical background to the development of ethical theories and decision making. Respond to the following sixteen items. (They are in random order from your reading) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Isaac Newton 3. Prima Facie Duties – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 4. Hippocrates 5. W.D. Ross – what do the initials stand for in his name and what was his contribution to the study of ethics? 6. Microallocation – define the term and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as microallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 7. Deontology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 8. Thomas Aquinas – 1) Discuss the ethical theory developed by Aquinas, 2) his religious affiliation, 3) why that was so important to his ethical premise and 4) discuss the type of ethical issues resolved to this day using this theory. 9. Macroallocation – define and provide an example separate from the book example (You should develop your own example rather than looking for an online example; this will use your critical thinking skills. Consider an application to your own profession as macroallocation is NOT limited to the medical field.) 10. David Hume 11. Rodericus Castro 12. Plato and “The Republic” 13. Pythagoras 14. Teleology – Discuss at length the basic types/concepts of this theory 15. Core Values – Why do they exist? LIST AND DEFINE ALL TERMS 16. Develop a timeline that reflects the ethical theories as developed by the INDIVIDUALS presented in this assignment. This assignment is due Saturday March 14th at NOON and is graded as a homework assignment. Grading: Paragraph Formation = 20% of grade (bulleted lists are acceptable for some answers) Answers inclusive of major material for answer = 40% of grade Creation of Timeline = 10% of grade Sentence structure, application of correct spelling and grammar = 20% of grade References (if utilized) = 10% of grade; references should be submitted on a separate references cited page. Otherwise this 10% of the assignment grade will be considered under the sentence structure component for 30% of the grade. It is expected that the finished assignment will be two – three pages of text, double spaced, using 12 font and standard page margins.

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A function f(x) is onto a set B if for each b in B there is a corresponding number a so that f(a)=b. Thus, in #1b, what they want is for you to show that there is a natural number m so that f(n) will never equal to m, no matter what n is. i.e. there is a m so that you cannot find a natural number n satisfying f(n)= m.

A function f(x) is onto a set B if for each b in B there is a corresponding number a so that f(a)=b. Thus, in #1b, what they want is for you to show that there is a natural number m so that f(n) will never equal to m, no matter what n is. i.e. there is a m so that you cannot find a natural number n satisfying f(n)= m.

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. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

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http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and … Read More...
Watch this video and answer the multi choices: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4lB4SowAQA PART 1 _______1. Sociologists obtained their knowledge of human behavior through _______, which is this process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one. a. Common sense ideas b. Research c. Myths d. scientific laws _______2. With ____Research, the goal is scientific objectivity, and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically a. qualitative b. observational c. c. quantitative d. d. explanatory _______3. With _______research, interpretative description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) are used to analyze underlying meaning and patterns of social relationships. a. qualitative b. observational c. quantitative d. explanatory _______4. Researchers in one study systematically analyzed the contents of the notes of suicide victims to determine recurring themes, such as feeling of despair or failure. They hoped to determine if any patterns could be found that would help in understating why people might kill themselves. This is an example of __________. a. Qualitative research b. Explanatory research c. Quantitative research d. Descriptive research ______5. the first step in the research process is to: a. select and define the research problem b. review previous research. c. develop a research design d. formulate the hypothesis ______6. A_____sample is a selection from a larger population and has the essential characteristics of the total population. a. selective b. random c. representative d. longitudinal _______7. _________is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure;_________is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results. a. Validity; replication b. Replication; validity c. Validity; reliability d. Reliability; validity _______8. Researchers who use existing material and analyze data that originally was collected by others are engaged in: a. unethical conduct b. primary analysis. c. secondary analysis d. survey analysis _______9. In an experiment, the subjects in the control group a. are exposed to the independent variable. b. are not exposed to the independent variable. c. are exposed to the dependent variable. d. are not exposed to the dependent variable. _______10. A tentative statement that predicts the relationship between variable is called a. a hypothesis b. a research model. c. a probability sample. d. a generalization. ______11. John wants to test this idea: “people who attend church regularly are less likely to express prejudice toward other races than people who do not attend church regularly.’ This idea is John’s a. hypothesis. b. research model. c. conclusion. d. operational definition _______12. In a research project, which of the following steps would come after the other three? a. choosing a research design b. reviewing the literature c. formulating a hypothesis d. collecting the data ________13. The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the a. dependent variable. b. hypothetical variable c. correlation variable d. independent variable ________14. An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a research to measure the concept is a a. Hypothesis b. correlation. c. operatonal definition. d. variable _____15. Observation, ethnography, and case studies are examples of: a. survey research b. experiments. c. Secondary analysis of existing data. d. Field research. ______16. Theory and research are interrelated because a. theory always precedes research. b. research always precedes theory c. both put limits on each other. d. they are parts of a constant cycle. ______17. A dependent variable is one that a. always occurs first. b. is influenced by another variable. c. Causes another variable to change. d. is the most important ______18. In a study designed to test the relationship between gender and voting behavior, the independent variable would be a. the age of the candidates b. voting behavior. c. The political party of the candidates. d. Gender ______19. Differences in age, sex, race, and social class are treated as ____________in sociological research. a. variables b. references c. causes d. controls ______20. Researchers in agriculture decided to test the effects of a new fertilizer on crop growth. In this study, crop growth is the a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. control variable d. correlation e. _____21. The ______is appropriate for studying the relationships among variables under carefully controlled conditions. a. experiment b. survey c. observational study d. in-depth study _____22. In every experiment, some subjects are exposed to an independent variable, and are then watched closely for their reactions. These subjects are known as the a. reference group b. experimental group c. control group d. survey group. ______23. A usual research method for learning the attitudes of a population would be a. an experiment. b. A survey. c. An observational study. d. Content analysis ______24. In survey research, the total group of people the researcher is interested in is called a. the population b. the sample, c. the control group d. the random sample ______25. In the experiment method, the subjects who are exposed to all the experimental conditions except the independent variable are referred to as the_________________group. a. peer b. alternate c. control d. experimental ______26. A__________Sample is one in which every member of the population in The population has an equal chance of being selected. a. defined b. random c. purposive d. convenience ______27. A sociologist is following the research model outlined in the text. After reviewing the literature, the next step will be to a. find a suitable subject b. formulate a hypothesis c. collect the data. d. Choose a research design. ______28. Sociologists use two approaches when answering important questions. a. Explanatory and descriptive Approaches b. Direct and systematic Approaches c. Normative and systematic Approaches d. Normative and Empirical Approaches ______29. Sociologists use types of empirical studies a. Research and Theoretical Studies b. Descriptive and Explanatory Studies c. Hypothesis and Correlations Studies d. Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Studies ______30. The deductive approach begin with the a. Collecting data b. Theory and uses research to test the theory. c. Hypothesis d. Observation ______31. The inductive approach begin with a a. Theory b. Data Collection c. Reviewing the Literature d. The Problem State ______32. Quantitative Research deals with a. Words b. Numbers c. Interpretive descriptive d. Use number to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships. ______33. ________is the study of social life in its natural setting: observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play. a. The survey b. Secondary analysis c. Field research d. The experiment ______34. ________refers to the process of collecting data while being part of the activities of the group that the researcher is studying a. The experiment b. Survey research c. Participant observation d. Secondary analysis _______35. A/an________is a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years. a. Correlational study b. ethnography c. experiment d. content analysis _______36. A/an _________is a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior. a. case study b. correlational study c. experiment d. Participant observation _______37. In an experiment, the_______contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable to study its effect on them. a. Experiment group b. Dependent group c. Control group d. Independent group _______38. In an experiment, the_________contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable. a. Experimental group b. Independent group c. Dependent group d. Control group _______39. ________is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure a. Validity b. Reliability c. Predictability d. Variability ______40. ________is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individual at one time or to same individuals over time. a. Validity b. Reliability c. Predictability d. Variability TRUE/FALSE ______41. In social science research, individuals are the most typical units of analysis. ______42. With qualitative research, statistics are used to analyze patterns of social relationship. ______43. Reliability is when a study gives consistent results to different research over time.

Watch this video and answer the multi choices: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4lB4SowAQA PART 1 _______1. Sociologists obtained their knowledge of human behavior through _______, which is this process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one. a. Common sense ideas b. Research c. Myths d. scientific laws _______2. With ____Research, the goal is scientific objectivity, and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically a. qualitative b. observational c. c. quantitative d. d. explanatory _______3. With _______research, interpretative description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) are used to analyze underlying meaning and patterns of social relationships. a. qualitative b. observational c. quantitative d. explanatory _______4. Researchers in one study systematically analyzed the contents of the notes of suicide victims to determine recurring themes, such as feeling of despair or failure. They hoped to determine if any patterns could be found that would help in understating why people might kill themselves. This is an example of __________. a. Qualitative research b. Explanatory research c. Quantitative research d. Descriptive research ______5. the first step in the research process is to: a. select and define the research problem b. review previous research. c. develop a research design d. formulate the hypothesis ______6. A_____sample is a selection from a larger population and has the essential characteristics of the total population. a. selective b. random c. representative d. longitudinal _______7. _________is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure;_________is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results. a. Validity; replication b. Replication; validity c. Validity; reliability d. Reliability; validity _______8. Researchers who use existing material and analyze data that originally was collected by others are engaged in: a. unethical conduct b. primary analysis. c. secondary analysis d. survey analysis _______9. In an experiment, the subjects in the control group a. are exposed to the independent variable. b. are not exposed to the independent variable. c. are exposed to the dependent variable. d. are not exposed to the dependent variable. _______10. A tentative statement that predicts the relationship between variable is called a. a hypothesis b. a research model. c. a probability sample. d. a generalization. ______11. John wants to test this idea: “people who attend church regularly are less likely to express prejudice toward other races than people who do not attend church regularly.’ This idea is John’s a. hypothesis. b. research model. c. conclusion. d. operational definition _______12. In a research project, which of the following steps would come after the other three? a. choosing a research design b. reviewing the literature c. formulating a hypothesis d. collecting the data ________13. The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the a. dependent variable. b. hypothetical variable c. correlation variable d. independent variable ________14. An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a research to measure the concept is a a. Hypothesis b. correlation. c. operatonal definition. d. variable _____15. Observation, ethnography, and case studies are examples of: a. survey research b. experiments. c. Secondary analysis of existing data. d. Field research. ______16. Theory and research are interrelated because a. theory always precedes research. b. research always precedes theory c. both put limits on each other. d. they are parts of a constant cycle. ______17. A dependent variable is one that a. always occurs first. b. is influenced by another variable. c. Causes another variable to change. d. is the most important ______18. In a study designed to test the relationship between gender and voting behavior, the independent variable would be a. the age of the candidates b. voting behavior. c. The political party of the candidates. d. Gender ______19. Differences in age, sex, race, and social class are treated as ____________in sociological research. a. variables b. references c. causes d. controls ______20. Researchers in agriculture decided to test the effects of a new fertilizer on crop growth. In this study, crop growth is the a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. control variable d. correlation e. _____21. The ______is appropriate for studying the relationships among variables under carefully controlled conditions. a. experiment b. survey c. observational study d. in-depth study _____22. In every experiment, some subjects are exposed to an independent variable, and are then watched closely for their reactions. These subjects are known as the a. reference group b. experimental group c. control group d. survey group. ______23. A usual research method for learning the attitudes of a population would be a. an experiment. b. A survey. c. An observational study. d. Content analysis ______24. In survey research, the total group of people the researcher is interested in is called a. the population b. the sample, c. the control group d. the random sample ______25. In the experiment method, the subjects who are exposed to all the experimental conditions except the independent variable are referred to as the_________________group. a. peer b. alternate c. control d. experimental ______26. A__________Sample is one in which every member of the population in The population has an equal chance of being selected. a. defined b. random c. purposive d. convenience ______27. A sociologist is following the research model outlined in the text. After reviewing the literature, the next step will be to a. find a suitable subject b. formulate a hypothesis c. collect the data. d. Choose a research design. ______28. Sociologists use two approaches when answering important questions. a. Explanatory and descriptive Approaches b. Direct and systematic Approaches c. Normative and systematic Approaches d. Normative and Empirical Approaches ______29. Sociologists use types of empirical studies a. Research and Theoretical Studies b. Descriptive and Explanatory Studies c. Hypothesis and Correlations Studies d. Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Studies ______30. The deductive approach begin with the a. Collecting data b. Theory and uses research to test the theory. c. Hypothesis d. Observation ______31. The inductive approach begin with a a. Theory b. Data Collection c. Reviewing the Literature d. The Problem State ______32. Quantitative Research deals with a. Words b. Numbers c. Interpretive descriptive d. Use number to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships. ______33. ________is the study of social life in its natural setting: observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play. a. The survey b. Secondary analysis c. Field research d. The experiment ______34. ________refers to the process of collecting data while being part of the activities of the group that the researcher is studying a. The experiment b. Survey research c. Participant observation d. Secondary analysis _______35. A/an________is a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years. a. Correlational study b. ethnography c. experiment d. content analysis _______36. A/an _________is a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior. a. case study b. correlational study c. experiment d. Participant observation _______37. In an experiment, the_______contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable to study its effect on them. a. Experiment group b. Dependent group c. Control group d. Independent group _______38. In an experiment, the_________contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable. a. Experimental group b. Independent group c. Dependent group d. Control group _______39. ________is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure a. Validity b. Reliability c. Predictability d. Variability ______40. ________is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individual at one time or to same individuals over time. a. Validity b. Reliability c. Predictability d. Variability TRUE/FALSE ______41. In social science research, individuals are the most typical units of analysis. ______42. With qualitative research, statistics are used to analyze patterns of social relationship. ______43. Reliability is when a study gives consistent results to different research over time.

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Author Name: BIO 218 Natural History Paper General Formatting: (10%) • 1 Margins correct? • 1 Font correct? • 2 Double-spaced? • 2 Pages numbered? • 2 All sections included? • 2 At least 3 pages of text, not more than 5 pages? Project elements (50%) • Introduction: o 8 General background on topic and species (state scientific name!)? o 2 Goes from general to specific? • Review of Journal Articles: o 4 States topic and hypothesis/hypotheses described in articles? o 3 Reports how research was conducted? o 2 Describes specialized materials used? o 2 Discusses type(s) of data collected and how to be analyzed/compared/used? o 3 Reports what happened in the experiments? o 2 If comparisons made, discusses how they were made? o 2 Figure(s) reproduced and cited? o 2 Table(s) reproduced and cited? • Summary/Conclusion: o 10 Synthesizes the results of the experiments and ties the findings of the articles together? • Literature Cited: o 4 At least 3 journal articles (primary literature) used? o 2 References used in paper properly? o 2 References all listed in this section and formatted correctly? o 2 All references listed are in the body of the paper and all references in the body are listed in this section? *0.5% for each extra citation (>3) that is correctly used* Writing Elements (40%) • /15 Grammar or spelling errors? • /15 Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper? • /10 Appropriate content in each section? Final Paper Total ( %) = /40 Comments:

Author Name: BIO 218 Natural History Paper General Formatting: (10%) • 1 Margins correct? • 1 Font correct? • 2 Double-spaced? • 2 Pages numbered? • 2 All sections included? • 2 At least 3 pages of text, not more than 5 pages? Project elements (50%) • Introduction: o 8 General background on topic and species (state scientific name!)? o 2 Goes from general to specific? • Review of Journal Articles: o 4 States topic and hypothesis/hypotheses described in articles? o 3 Reports how research was conducted? o 2 Describes specialized materials used? o 2 Discusses type(s) of data collected and how to be analyzed/compared/used? o 3 Reports what happened in the experiments? o 2 If comparisons made, discusses how they were made? o 2 Figure(s) reproduced and cited? o 2 Table(s) reproduced and cited? • Summary/Conclusion: o 10 Synthesizes the results of the experiments and ties the findings of the articles together? • Literature Cited: o 4 At least 3 journal articles (primary literature) used? o 2 References used in paper properly? o 2 References all listed in this section and formatted correctly? o 2 All references listed are in the body of the paper and all references in the body are listed in this section? *0.5% for each extra citation (>3) that is correctly used* Writing Elements (40%) • /15 Grammar or spelling errors? • /15 Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper? • /10 Appropriate content in each section? Final Paper Total ( %) = /40 Comments:

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Unselfish acts that help others in a group so that they increase their chances of surviving and reproducing is called Select one: a. altruistic behavior. b. selfish behavior. c. natural selection. d. inclusive fitness. e. sexual selection.

Unselfish acts that help others in a group so that they increase their chances of surviving and reproducing is called Select one: a. altruistic behavior. b. selfish behavior. c. natural selection. d. inclusive fitness. e. sexual selection.

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