Homework Assignment 7. Due March 19 1. Consider the differential equation: ?? ?? = − 1 2 ? sin? ? with initial condition given by ?(0) = 1 Solve this equation from t = 0 to t = 8π using the following methods: (a) Solve analytically by separating variables and integrating. (b) Solve using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method (write your own code for this, do not use the MATLAB provided ODE solvers) for the following two step sizes: I. Maximum step size for stability (don’t try and do this analytically – try out your code for different step sizes to find the stability limit). II. Maximum step size for a time-accurate solution. “Good” accuracy can be defined in several ways, but use the definition that the numerical solution remains within 2% of the true solution a t = nπ. (c) Solve using the MATLAB function ode45. 2. A car and its suspension system traveling over a bumpy road can be modeled as a mass/spring/damper system. In this model, ?? is the vertical motion of the wheel center of mass, ?? is the vertical motion of the car chassis, and ?? represents the displacement of the bottom of the tire due to the variation in the road surface. Applying Newton’s law to the two masses yields a system of second-order equations: ???̈? + ??(?̇? − ?̇?) + ??(?? − ??) + ???? = ???? ???̈? − ??(?̇? − ?̇?) − ??(?? − ??) + ???? = 0 (a) Convert the two second-order ODE’s into a system of 4 first-order ODE’s. Write them in standard “state-space” form. (b) Assume the car hits a large pothole at t = 0 so that ??(?) = ?−0.2 m 0 ≤ ? < 0.2 s 0 ? > 0.2 s Create a MATLAB function that returns the right hand sides of the state-space equations for an input t and an input state vector. (c) Solve the system on the time interval [0 60] seconds using the MATLAB function ode45. Find the displacement and velocity of the chassis and the wheel as a function of time. Use the following data: ?? = 100 kg, ?? = 1900 kg, ?? = 145 N/m, ?? = 25 N/m, ?? = 150 N-s/m 3. Write a MATLAB program to simulate the dynamics of a helicopter lifting a survivor. When lifting the survivor into the helicopter with a constant speed winch, the resulting dynamics are non-linear, and stability is dependent upon the winch speed. Using polar coordinates, we can find the equations of motion to be: −?? sin ? = ????̈ + 2?̇?̇? ?̇ = constant (negative) Notice that the mass of the survivor factors out and thus the solution is independent of the mass of the person being lifted. In these equations, r is the instantaneous length of the winch cable, g, is the gravitational constant, and θ is the angle of the swing. You may choose to use either your Runge-Kutta solver from problem 1 or ode45 to integrate the equations of motion. This problem is of particular interest to the survivor since an unstable condition can cause the angle of the swing to exceed 90⁰, essentially placing him/her in danger of being beheaded by the rotor blades of the rescue helicopter. Also, it is desirable to retrieve the survivor as fast as possible to get away from the danger. Use your program to determine the maximum winch speed for which the survivor will not swing above the helicopter attach point for a lift from the initial conditions: ?? = 0.1 ??? ?? ̇ = 0 ?? = 34 ? And ending when ? = 0.5 ?. The maximum lifting speed of the winch is 5 m/s. Present your results for the above problems in an appropriate fashion. For problem 1, be sure to include a comparison of the numerical methods with each other and with the true solution. Be sure to discuss your findings with respect to the notions of stability and accuracy of the numerical methods. For problem 2, ensure that your results are easily interpreted by a reader. Students receiving a score of 70% or above on these two problems will receive credit for outcome #5. For problem 3, if you receive at least 70% of the points, you will receive credit for outcome #4.

Homework Assignment 7. Due March 19 1. Consider the differential equation: ?? ?? = − 1 2 ? sin? ? with initial condition given by ?(0) = 1 Solve this equation from t = 0 to t = 8π using the following methods: (a) Solve analytically by separating variables and integrating. (b) Solve using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method (write your own code for this, do not use the MATLAB provided ODE solvers) for the following two step sizes: I. Maximum step size for stability (don’t try and do this analytically – try out your code for different step sizes to find the stability limit). II. Maximum step size for a time-accurate solution. “Good” accuracy can be defined in several ways, but use the definition that the numerical solution remains within 2% of the true solution a t = nπ. (c) Solve using the MATLAB function ode45. 2. A car and its suspension system traveling over a bumpy road can be modeled as a mass/spring/damper system. In this model, ?? is the vertical motion of the wheel center of mass, ?? is the vertical motion of the car chassis, and ?? represents the displacement of the bottom of the tire due to the variation in the road surface. Applying Newton’s law to the two masses yields a system of second-order equations: ???̈? + ??(?̇? − ?̇?) + ??(?? − ??) + ???? = ???? ???̈? − ??(?̇? − ?̇?) − ??(?? − ??) + ???? = 0 (a) Convert the two second-order ODE’s into a system of 4 first-order ODE’s. Write them in standard “state-space” form. (b) Assume the car hits a large pothole at t = 0 so that ??(?) = ?−0.2 m 0 ≤ ? < 0.2 s 0 ? > 0.2 s Create a MATLAB function that returns the right hand sides of the state-space equations for an input t and an input state vector. (c) Solve the system on the time interval [0 60] seconds using the MATLAB function ode45. Find the displacement and velocity of the chassis and the wheel as a function of time. Use the following data: ?? = 100 kg, ?? = 1900 kg, ?? = 145 N/m, ?? = 25 N/m, ?? = 150 N-s/m 3. Write a MATLAB program to simulate the dynamics of a helicopter lifting a survivor. When lifting the survivor into the helicopter with a constant speed winch, the resulting dynamics are non-linear, and stability is dependent upon the winch speed. Using polar coordinates, we can find the equations of motion to be: −?? sin ? = ????̈ + 2?̇?̇? ?̇ = constant (negative) Notice that the mass of the survivor factors out and thus the solution is independent of the mass of the person being lifted. In these equations, r is the instantaneous length of the winch cable, g, is the gravitational constant, and θ is the angle of the swing. You may choose to use either your Runge-Kutta solver from problem 1 or ode45 to integrate the equations of motion. This problem is of particular interest to the survivor since an unstable condition can cause the angle of the swing to exceed 90⁰, essentially placing him/her in danger of being beheaded by the rotor blades of the rescue helicopter. Also, it is desirable to retrieve the survivor as fast as possible to get away from the danger. Use your program to determine the maximum winch speed for which the survivor will not swing above the helicopter attach point for a lift from the initial conditions: ?? = 0.1 ??? ?? ̇ = 0 ?? = 34 ? And ending when ? = 0.5 ?. The maximum lifting speed of the winch is 5 m/s. Present your results for the above problems in an appropriate fashion. For problem 1, be sure to include a comparison of the numerical methods with each other and with the true solution. Be sure to discuss your findings with respect to the notions of stability and accuracy of the numerical methods. For problem 2, ensure that your results are easily interpreted by a reader. Students receiving a score of 70% or above on these two problems will receive credit for outcome #5. For problem 3, if you receive at least 70% of the points, you will receive credit for outcome #4.

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http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and … Read More...
1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

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Critical Essay Guidelines FORMAT: Prepare your paper as a Microsoft Word file. Single-space the body of your paper; you may double-space between the headings (Introduction, Background Explanation and Critical Evaluation) described below. Use 1” margins on all sides. Use a font that is no larger than Times New Roman at 12 pt. and no smaller than Times New Roman at 10 pt. Put your name, course name, section and the date in a header on top of all pages. Include page numbers. LENGTH, TOPIC, ETC.: Write a 2 – 3 page (single-spaced) (1500 words) critical response on your topic. Back up your discussion with direct quotation from the relevant text, preferably short quotes, such as single sentences and (even better) crucial phrases. Leave out words or phrases using…ellipses…, etc. Less than 1/4 page total of your paper should be direct quotation. Cite any direct quotes simply by giving text title and page number in parentheses; the page number will either be from the textbook or what’s posted on Blackboard. For example, such a citation might look like: (Schoedinger, 25). Include a “Works Cited” page at the end of your paper citing the primary philosophic text from Schoedinger’s textbook. No other sources should be used. Treat your intended audience as someone who has some familiarity with philosophy generally, but no familiarity with the details of what you are writing on. STRUCTURE: In this critical response, you will do all and only the following three things, putting each under its OWN SECTION HEADING: A. INTRODUCTION Begin with a one-sentence introductory paragraph where you very briefly say what you will be doing in the rest of the critical response, one which has the exact form: “In this critical response, I will consider <insert chosen topic>, and then I will argue that <insert statement of main thesis>.” For example: “In this critical response, I will consider Socrates’ views on a worthwhile life, and then I will argue that the worthwhile life is nothing more or less than the life of pleasure.” B. BACKGROUND EXPLANATION Explain (in one-half to 1 page), as clearly as you can, the background to your chosen topic, including any relevant discussion in the text, and also including any relevant theories, arguments, objections, crucial notions and distinctions, etc. C. CRITICAL EVALUATION Critically evaluate (in 1½ – 2 pages) your chosen topic. This involves explaining and defending your thesis on the topic. In doing this, address relevant material from your “ Background Explanation” section. Also, you are encouraged (but not required) to anticipate potential objections and reply to them. Throughout your critical evaluation, pay careful attention (even if just informally) to the criteria of a good argument. This applies both when you are considering others’ arguments and when you are giving your own. GRADING: Grading will be based partly on whether or not you have successfully followed the instructions above (including the format requirements). Each defect in terms of failure to satisfy the instructions will cost you points. Any paper which completely ignores all instructions, however, will receive a zero. Barring prior consent from me or documented and sufficiently excusing special contingency, late papers will be graded in accord with the late policy on the syllabus. Grading will also be based on the writing quality. Here I have in mind things like: is the paper clear, concise, grammatical and accurate? Does it provide necessary explanations and avoid irrelevant material?

Critical Essay Guidelines FORMAT: Prepare your paper as a Microsoft Word file. Single-space the body of your paper; you may double-space between the headings (Introduction, Background Explanation and Critical Evaluation) described below. Use 1” margins on all sides. Use a font that is no larger than Times New Roman at 12 pt. and no smaller than Times New Roman at 10 pt. Put your name, course name, section and the date in a header on top of all pages. Include page numbers. LENGTH, TOPIC, ETC.: Write a 2 – 3 page (single-spaced) (1500 words) critical response on your topic. Back up your discussion with direct quotation from the relevant text, preferably short quotes, such as single sentences and (even better) crucial phrases. Leave out words or phrases using…ellipses…, etc. Less than 1/4 page total of your paper should be direct quotation. Cite any direct quotes simply by giving text title and page number in parentheses; the page number will either be from the textbook or what’s posted on Blackboard. For example, such a citation might look like: (Schoedinger, 25). Include a “Works Cited” page at the end of your paper citing the primary philosophic text from Schoedinger’s textbook. No other sources should be used. Treat your intended audience as someone who has some familiarity with philosophy generally, but no familiarity with the details of what you are writing on. STRUCTURE: In this critical response, you will do all and only the following three things, putting each under its OWN SECTION HEADING: A. INTRODUCTION Begin with a one-sentence introductory paragraph where you very briefly say what you will be doing in the rest of the critical response, one which has the exact form: “In this critical response, I will consider , and then I will argue that .” For example: “In this critical response, I will consider Socrates’ views on a worthwhile life, and then I will argue that the worthwhile life is nothing more or less than the life of pleasure.” B. BACKGROUND EXPLANATION Explain (in one-half to 1 page), as clearly as you can, the background to your chosen topic, including any relevant discussion in the text, and also including any relevant theories, arguments, objections, crucial notions and distinctions, etc. C. CRITICAL EVALUATION Critically evaluate (in 1½ – 2 pages) your chosen topic. This involves explaining and defending your thesis on the topic. In doing this, address relevant material from your “ Background Explanation” section. Also, you are encouraged (but not required) to anticipate potential objections and reply to them. Throughout your critical evaluation, pay careful attention (even if just informally) to the criteria of a good argument. This applies both when you are considering others’ arguments and when you are giving your own. GRADING: Grading will be based partly on whether or not you have successfully followed the instructions above (including the format requirements). Each defect in terms of failure to satisfy the instructions will cost you points. Any paper which completely ignores all instructions, however, will receive a zero. Barring prior consent from me or documented and sufficiently excusing special contingency, late papers will be graded in accord with the late policy on the syllabus. Grading will also be based on the writing quality. Here I have in mind things like: is the paper clear, concise, grammatical and accurate? Does it provide necessary explanations and avoid irrelevant material?

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PHILOSOPHY 100 Study Questions on Bentham from The Classical Utilitarians 1. Provide Bentham’s answers to the following questions from chapter I (“of the Principle of Utility” pp. 8—12) of Principles of Morals and Legislation: (a) What is the principle of utility? (b) What is utility? (c) What is the interest of the community? (d) When is an action conformable to the Principle of Utility? 2. According to Bentham, how are the normative moral notions of right and wrong, ought, and ought not to be understood? 3. What is Bentham’s definition of the Principle of Asceticism from chapter II? 4. In chapter IV, Bentham identifies seven factors (what he calls “circumstances”) that must be considered in estimating or measuring pleasure and pain. What are these seven factors? 5. In chapter XIII (pp. 26—31), Bentham discusses the criminal justice system. According to Bentham, what is the purpose of law? How can punishment (which necessarily involves inflicting pain) be made consistent with the principle of utility? 6. Read the poem on p. 71. Memorize the first line. 7. On page 93, Bentham describes a society in which the majority population enslaves the minority and confiscates its happiness. What follows in this situation? 8. Finish this famous phrase (p. 94): “Prejudice apart,…” What does Bentham mean?

PHILOSOPHY 100 Study Questions on Bentham from The Classical Utilitarians 1. Provide Bentham’s answers to the following questions from chapter I (“of the Principle of Utility” pp. 8—12) of Principles of Morals and Legislation: (a) What is the principle of utility? (b) What is utility? (c) What is the interest of the community? (d) When is an action conformable to the Principle of Utility? 2. According to Bentham, how are the normative moral notions of right and wrong, ought, and ought not to be understood? 3. What is Bentham’s definition of the Principle of Asceticism from chapter II? 4. In chapter IV, Bentham identifies seven factors (what he calls “circumstances”) that must be considered in estimating or measuring pleasure and pain. What are these seven factors? 5. In chapter XIII (pp. 26—31), Bentham discusses the criminal justice system. According to Bentham, what is the purpose of law? How can punishment (which necessarily involves inflicting pain) be made consistent with the principle of utility? 6. Read the poem on p. 71. Memorize the first line. 7. On page 93, Bentham describes a society in which the majority population enslaves the minority and confiscates its happiness. What follows in this situation? 8. Finish this famous phrase (p. 94): “Prejudice apart,…” What does Bentham mean?

please email info@checkyourstudy.com A) The Principle of utility is the … Read More...