– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

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Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Current balance Objectives When a steady electric current flows perpendicularly across a uniform magnetic field it experiences a force. This experiment aims to investigate this effect, and to determine the direction of the force relative to the current and magnetic field. You will design and perform a series of experiments to show how the magnitude of the force depends upon the current and the length of the conductor that is in the field. Task You are provided with a current balance apparatus (Figure 1), power supply and a magnet. This current balance consists of five loops of conducting wire supported on a pivoted aluminium frame. Current may be made to flow in one or up to five of the loops at a time in either direction. If the end of the loop is situated in a perpendicular magnetic field, when the current is switched on, the magnetic force on the current will unbalance the apparatus. By moving the sliding weights to rebalance it, the magnitude of this magnetic force may be measured. A scale is etched on one arm of the balance, so that the distance moved by the slider can be measured. The circuitry of the balance cannot cope currents greater than 5 Amps, so please do not exceed this level of current. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of current balance apparatus and circuitry. Start by familiarising yourself with the apparatus. Use the two sliding weights to balance the apparatus, then apply a magnetic field to either end of the loop. Pass a current through just one of the conducting loops and observe the direction of the resulting magnetic force, relative to the direction of the current and the applied field. Change the magnitude and direction of the current, observe qualitatively the effect this has on the magnetic force. Having familiarised yourself with the apparatus, you should design and perform a series of quantitative experiments aiming to: (1) determine how the size of the magnetic force is dependant on the size of the current flowing in the conductor. (2) determine how the size of the force is dependant on the length of the conductor which is in the field. (3) measure the value (in Tesla) of the field of the magnet provided. For each of these, the balance should be set up with the magnet positioned at the end of the arm that has the distance scale, and orientated so that the magnetic force will be directed upwards when a current is passed through the conductor. The sliding weight on this arm should be positioned at the zero-mark. The weight on the opposite arm should be adjusted to balance the apparatus in the absence of a current. When a current is applied, you should re-balance the apparatus by moving the weight on the scaled arm outwards, while keeping the opposite weight fixed in position. The distance moved by the weight is directly proportional to the force applied by the magnetic field to the end of the balance. In your report, make sure you discuss why this is the case. Use the position of the sliding weight to quantify the magnetic force as a function of the current applied to the conductor, and of the number of conducting loops through which the current flows. For tasks (1) and (2) you can use the position of the sliding weight as a measure of the force. Look up the relationship that relates the force to the applied field, current and length of conductor in the field. Is this consistent with your data? To complete task (3) you need to determine the magnitude (in Newtons) of the magnetic force from the measurement of the position of the sliding weight. To do this, what other information do you need to know? When you have determined a value for the field, you can measure the field directly using the laboratory’s Gaussmeter for comparison.

Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Current balance Objectives When a steady electric current flows perpendicularly across a uniform magnetic field it experiences a force. This experiment aims to investigate this effect, and to determine the direction of the force relative to the current and magnetic field. You will design and perform a series of experiments to show how the magnitude of the force depends upon the current and the length of the conductor that is in the field. Task You are provided with a current balance apparatus (Figure 1), power supply and a magnet. This current balance consists of five loops of conducting wire supported on a pivoted aluminium frame. Current may be made to flow in one or up to five of the loops at a time in either direction. If the end of the loop is situated in a perpendicular magnetic field, when the current is switched on, the magnetic force on the current will unbalance the apparatus. By moving the sliding weights to rebalance it, the magnitude of this magnetic force may be measured. A scale is etched on one arm of the balance, so that the distance moved by the slider can be measured. The circuitry of the balance cannot cope currents greater than 5 Amps, so please do not exceed this level of current. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of current balance apparatus and circuitry. Start by familiarising yourself with the apparatus. Use the two sliding weights to balance the apparatus, then apply a magnetic field to either end of the loop. Pass a current through just one of the conducting loops and observe the direction of the resulting magnetic force, relative to the direction of the current and the applied field. Change the magnitude and direction of the current, observe qualitatively the effect this has on the magnetic force. Having familiarised yourself with the apparatus, you should design and perform a series of quantitative experiments aiming to: (1) determine how the size of the magnetic force is dependant on the size of the current flowing in the conductor. (2) determine how the size of the force is dependant on the length of the conductor which is in the field. (3) measure the value (in Tesla) of the field of the magnet provided. For each of these, the balance should be set up with the magnet positioned at the end of the arm that has the distance scale, and orientated so that the magnetic force will be directed upwards when a current is passed through the conductor. The sliding weight on this arm should be positioned at the zero-mark. The weight on the opposite arm should be adjusted to balance the apparatus in the absence of a current. When a current is applied, you should re-balance the apparatus by moving the weight on the scaled arm outwards, while keeping the opposite weight fixed in position. The distance moved by the weight is directly proportional to the force applied by the magnetic field to the end of the balance. In your report, make sure you discuss why this is the case. Use the position of the sliding weight to quantify the magnetic force as a function of the current applied to the conductor, and of the number of conducting loops through which the current flows. For tasks (1) and (2) you can use the position of the sliding weight as a measure of the force. Look up the relationship that relates the force to the applied field, current and length of conductor in the field. Is this consistent with your data? To complete task (3) you need to determine the magnitude (in Newtons) of the magnetic force from the measurement of the position of the sliding weight. To do this, what other information do you need to know? When you have determined a value for the field, you can measure the field directly using the laboratory’s Gaussmeter for comparison.

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For Day 25 Homework Cover Sheet Name:_________________________________________________ 1. Read Pages from 372-378, or watch the videos listed below  Zero Product Property (10 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zKug2bfT48  Examples (7 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FFGzy5Bw4s 2. Attempt problems from page 114-116 3. Answer the following based on your reading or watching of the videos. a) In solving the equation ?(?−2)=3, can I say ?=3 or ?−2=3 giving us solutions of ?=3,?? ?=5? b) Find all solutions to the equation ?−2−3?−1+2=0 using some of the knowledge you have gathered so far. c) Find all solutions to the inequality ??−1+2?<1?2−?. List any parts of the video lecture (if there are any) that were unclear or you had trouble understanding. Please be specific and do not just say “All of it”. Questions you had difficulty with or felt stuck on- List the number for the ALEKS topics you were stuck on from the list at the end of the video logs- ALEKS Topics Mastered 387 Solving a quadratic equation needing simplification 3.3 388 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominator x 3.3 389 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominator x+a 3.3 390 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominators a, x, or ax 3.3 391 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Unlike binomial denominators 3.3 392 Solving an equation written in factored form 3.3

For Day 25 Homework Cover Sheet Name:_________________________________________________ 1. Read Pages from 372-378, or watch the videos listed below  Zero Product Property (10 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zKug2bfT48  Examples (7 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FFGzy5Bw4s 2. Attempt problems from page 114-116 3. Answer the following based on your reading or watching of the videos. a) In solving the equation ?(?−2)=3, can I say ?=3 or ?−2=3 giving us solutions of ?=3,?? ?=5? b) Find all solutions to the equation ?−2−3?−1+2=0 using some of the knowledge you have gathered so far. c) Find all solutions to the inequality ??−1+2?<1?2−?. List any parts of the video lecture (if there are any) that were unclear or you had trouble understanding. Please be specific and do not just say “All of it”. Questions you had difficulty with or felt stuck on- List the number for the ALEKS topics you were stuck on from the list at the end of the video logs- ALEKS Topics Mastered 387 Solving a quadratic equation needing simplification 3.3 388 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominator x 3.3 389 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominator x+a 3.3 390 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Denominators a, x, or ax 3.3 391 Solving a rational equation that simplifies to linear: Unlike binomial denominators 3.3 392 Solving an equation written in factored form 3.3

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English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

In which reaction does the oxidation number of hydrogen change? A) 2 HCl (aq) NaOH (+ aq)® NaCl (aq) + H O (l) B) 2 2 CaO (s) + H O (l) ®Ca(OH) (s) C) 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 HClO (aq) + CaCO (s) ® Ca(ClO ) (aq) + H O (l) +CO (g) D) 2 2 2 3 SO (g) + H O (l)®H SO (aq) E) 2 2 2 Na (s) + 2H O (l) ® 2 NaOH (aq) + H (g)

In which reaction does the oxidation number of hydrogen change? A) 2 HCl (aq) NaOH (+ aq)® NaCl (aq) + H O (l) B) 2 2 CaO (s) + H O (l) ®Ca(OH) (s) C) 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 HClO (aq) + CaCO (s) ® Ca(ClO ) (aq) + H O (l) +CO (g) D) 2 2 2 3 SO (g) + H O (l)®H SO (aq) E) 2 2 2 Na (s) + 2H O (l) ® 2 NaOH (aq) + H (g)

Which solution has the same number of moles of NaOH as 40.00 mL of 0.100M solution of NaOH? A) 20.00 mL of 0.200M solution of NaOH B) 25.00 mL of 0.175M solution of NaOH C) 30.00 mL of 0.145M solution of NaOH D) 50.00 mL of 0.125M solution of NaOH E) 100.00 mL of 0.0500M solution of NaOH

Which solution has the same number of moles of NaOH as 40.00 mL of 0.100M solution of NaOH? A) 20.00 mL of 0.200M solution of NaOH B) 25.00 mL of 0.175M solution of NaOH C) 30.00 mL of 0.145M solution of NaOH D) 50.00 mL of 0.125M solution of NaOH E) 100.00 mL of 0.0500M solution of NaOH

In the tigers football club, there are 9 players to each coach, while in the eagles football club: there are 17 players to every 2 coaches. If the total number of players and coaches in the two clubs is 232, how many players and coaches are in each club?

In the tigers football club, there are 9 players to each coach, while in the eagles football club: there are 17 players to every 2 coaches. If the total number of players and coaches in the two clubs is 232, how many players and coaches are in each club?

In the tigers football club, there are 9 players to … Read More...