Hobbes argues that “Nature hath made men. . . .equal.” What sort of equality is he talking about? How are people equal?

Hobbes argues that “Nature hath made men. . . .equal.” What sort of equality is he talking about? How are people equal?

People are equivalent both physically and psychologically. Hobbes’s stats that … Read More...
argumentative research paper, about (death penalty) and it should have at least 6/7 quotes citation Use MLA format please observe the following guidelines: 1) As always, TIMES NEW ROMAN, 12 PT. FONT. Sorry for the all caps, but this is of the utmost importance. 2) Double spaced 5-6 pages (remember to click the little square when setting your spacing that says “don’t add a space after paragraphs of the same style. 3) No contractions (don’t, won’t, shouldn’t, etc.). 4) No 1st (I, me, my, mine, etc.) or 2nd (we, us, our, you, your, etc.) person pronouns. Keep it objective. Remember, replace yourself as the subject with your position: Instead of “I think abortion is wrong” use “Abortion is wrong because….”

argumentative research paper, about (death penalty) and it should have at least 6/7 quotes citation Use MLA format please observe the following guidelines: 1) As always, TIMES NEW ROMAN, 12 PT. FONT. Sorry for the all caps, but this is of the utmost importance. 2) Double spaced 5-6 pages (remember to click the little square when setting your spacing that says “don’t add a space after paragraphs of the same style. 3) No contractions (don’t, won’t, shouldn’t, etc.). 4) No 1st (I, me, my, mine, etc.) or 2nd (we, us, our, you, your, etc.) person pronouns. Keep it objective. Remember, replace yourself as the subject with your position: Instead of “I think abortion is wrong” use “Abortion is wrong because….”

No expert has answered this question yet. You can browse … Read More...
1. Which of the following statements for electric field lines are true? (Give ALL correct answers, i.e., B, AC, BCD…) A) E-field lines point inward toward negative charges. B) E-field lines may cross. C) E-field lines do not begin or end in a charge-free region (except at infinity). D) Where the E-field lines are dense the E-field must be weak. E) E-field lines make circles around positive charges. F) A point charge q, released from rest will initially move along an E-field line. G) E-field lines point outward from positive charges. 2. Consider two uniformly charged parallel plates as shown above. The magnitudes of the charges are equal. (For each statement select T True, F False). A) If the plates are oppositely charged, there is no electric field at c. B) If both plates are negatively charged, the electric field at a points towards the top of the page. C) If both plates are positively charged, there is no electric field at b. 3. As shown in the figure above, a ball of mass 1.050 g and positive charge q =38.1microC is suspended on a string of negligible mass in a uniform electric field. We observe that the ball hangs at an angle of theta=15.0° from the vertical. What is the magnitude of the electric field?

1. Which of the following statements for electric field lines are true? (Give ALL correct answers, i.e., B, AC, BCD…) A) E-field lines point inward toward negative charges. B) E-field lines may cross. C) E-field lines do not begin or end in a charge-free region (except at infinity). D) Where the E-field lines are dense the E-field must be weak. E) E-field lines make circles around positive charges. F) A point charge q, released from rest will initially move along an E-field line. G) E-field lines point outward from positive charges. 2. Consider two uniformly charged parallel plates as shown above. The magnitudes of the charges are equal. (For each statement select T True, F False). A) If the plates are oppositely charged, there is no electric field at c. B) If both plates are negatively charged, the electric field at a points towards the top of the page. C) If both plates are positively charged, there is no electric field at b. 3. As shown in the figure above, a ball of mass 1.050 g and positive charge q =38.1microC is suspended on a string of negligible mass in a uniform electric field. We observe that the ball hangs at an angle of theta=15.0° from the vertical. What is the magnitude of the electric field?

info@checkyourstudy.com 1.  Which of the following statements for electric field … Read More...
Now, you observe the following light pattern. Select all the possible changes in experimental conditions that might have caused the differences in the original pattern (that shown in problem 3) to that which you observe now. the wavelength of the light source was increased the wavelength of the light source was decreased the slit width/slit separation was increased the slit width/slit separation was decreased the experiment was changed from a double slit to single slit the experiment was changed from a single slit to a double slit

Now, you observe the following light pattern. Select all the possible changes in experimental conditions that might have caused the differences in the original pattern (that shown in problem 3) to that which you observe now. the wavelength of the light source was increased the wavelength of the light source was decreased the slit width/slit separation was increased the slit width/slit separation was decreased the experiment was changed from a double slit to single slit the experiment was changed from a single slit to a double slit

The formula y/L = m(wavelength)/a It’s still a single slit … Read More...
1. Refresh yourself with chapter 6 on Nonverbal communication . More specifically , look at the various types o nonverbal communication , choose one or two of these concepts. 2. Choose a subject/person ( i.e. spouse , boy/girlfriend, roommate, children, co-worker, parent, etc. ) 3. Monitor / observe their nonverbal behavior for at least 1 hour. 3. write-up and submit your observation.

1. Refresh yourself with chapter 6 on Nonverbal communication . More specifically , look at the various types o nonverbal communication , choose one or two of these concepts. 2. Choose a subject/person ( i.e. spouse , boy/girlfriend, roommate, children, co-worker, parent, etc. ) 3. Monitor / observe their nonverbal behavior for at least 1 hour. 3. write-up and submit your observation.

Non –verbal communication is process wherein wordless message/s is sent … Read More...
1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to complete Problems 1 through 4. These problems will guide you in observing signal delays and timing hazards of logic circuits (both Sum-of-Products (SOP) and Product-of-Sums (POS) circuits). These problems will also guide you in adding circuitry to eliminate a timing hazard. Use VHDL to design the circuits. Carefully follow the directions provided in the lab tasks below. Write your answers to the questions asked by the problems. Do not print out the VHDL code and waveforms as asked by the problems, instead include these on the cover sheet for this lab and print this out when you are done. Do not worry about annotating or putting arrows/notes on the waveforms–just make sure any signals or transitions of interest are shown in your screenshot. For each problem, use VHDL assignment statements for each gate of the Boolean expression. You must add delay for each gate and inverter as described by the problem. Do this by using the “after” statement: Z <= (A and B) after 1 ns; Refer to Digilent Real Digital Module 8 for more information about the "after" statement. Lab Tasks: 1. Complete Problem 1 of Project 8. Simulate all input combinations for this SOP (Sum-of-Products) expression. However, be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. The problem states that you will need to observe the output when B and C are both high (logic 1) and A transitions from high to low to high (logic 1 to 0, then back to 1). 2. Complete Problem 4 of Project 8. Increase the delay of the OR gate as specified and re-simulate to answer the questions. 3. Complete Problem 2 of Project 8. Change the delay of the OR gate back to the 1 ns that you used for Problem 1. Add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for the SOP expression and re-simulate to answer the questions. 4. Complete Problem 3 of Project 8. You may create any POS (Product-of-Sums) expression for this problem, however, not all POS expressions will have a timing hazard (so spend some time thinking about how a timing hazard can be generated with a POS expression). Once again, simulate all input combinations for your POS expression but be aware that specific input sequences are required to observe a timing hazard. For this problem, you will also add the new logic gate (with delay) to your VHDL for your POS expression in order to eliminate the timing hazard; you will need to re-simulate with this additional logic gate in order to answer the questions. Problem 1. Implement the function Y = A’.B + A.C in the VHDL tool. Define the INV, OR and two AND operations separately, and give each operation a 1ns delay. Simulate the circuit with all possible combinations of inputs. Watch all circuit nets (inputs, outputs, and intermediate nets) during the simulation. Answer the questions below. Observe the outputs of the AND gates and the overall circuit output when B and C are both high, and A transitions from H to L and then from L to H (you may want to create another simulation to focus on this behavior). What output behavior do you notice when A transitions? What happens when A transitions and B or C are held a ‘0’? How long is the output glitch? _______ Is it positive ( ) or negative ( ) (circle one)? Change the delay through the inverter to 2ns, and resimulate. Now how long is output glitch? ______ What can you say about the relationship between the inverter gate delay and the length of the timing glitch? Based on this simple experiment, an SOP circuit can exhibit positive/negative glitches (circle one) when an input that arrives at one AND gate in a complemented form and another AND gate in uncomplemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Problem 2. Enter the logic equation from problem 1 in the K-map below, and loop the equation with redundant term included. Add the redundant term to the Xilinx circuit, re-simulate, and answer the questions. B C A 00 01 11 10 0 1 F Did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Problem 3. Create a three-input POS circuit to illustrate the formation of a glitch. Drive the simulator to illustrate a glitch in the POS circuit, and answer the questions below. A POS circuit can exhibit a positive/negative glitch (circle one) when an input that arrives at one OR gate in a complemented form and another OR gate in un-complemented form transitions from a _____ to a _____. Write the POS equation you used to show the glitch: Enter the equation in the K-map below, loop the original equation with the redundant term, add the redundant gate to your Xilinx circuit, and resimulate. How did adding the new gate to the circuit change the logical behavior of the circuit? What effect did the new gate have on the output, particularly when A changes and B and C are both held high? Print and submit the circuits and simulation output, label the output glitches in the simulation output, and draw arrows on the simulation output between the events that caused the glitches (i.e., a transition in an input signal) and the glitches themselves. Problem 4. Copy the SOP circuit above to a new VHDL file, and increase the delay of the output OR gate. Simulate the circuit and answer the questions below. How did adding delay to the output gate change the output transition? Does adding delay to the output gate change the circuit’s glitch behavior in any way? Name: Signal Delays Date: Designing with VHDL Grade Item Grade Five segments of VHDL Code for Problems 1-4: /10 Five simulation screenshots for Problems 1-4: /10 Questions from Problems 1-4: /16 Total Grade: /36 VHDL Code: Copy-paste your VHDL design code (just the code you wrote) for: • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshots: Use the “Print Screen” button to capture your screenshot (it should show the entire screen, not just the window of the program). • The SOP expression with the timing hazard (Problem 1, Project 8): • The SOP expression with increased OR gate delay (Problem 4, Project 8): • The SOP expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 2, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): • Your POS expression with the extra logic gate in order to eliminate the timing hazard (Problem 3, Project 8): Simulation Screenshot Tips: (you can delete this once you capture your screenshot) 1. Make the “Wave” window large by clicking the “+” button near the upper-right of the window 2. Click the “Zoom Full” button (looks like a blue/green-filled magnifying glass) to enlarge your waveforms 3. In order to not print a lot of black, change the color scheme of the “Wave” window: 3.1. Click ToolsEdit Preferences… 3.2. The “By Window” tab should be selected, then click Wave Windows in the “Window List” to the left 3.3. Scroll to the bottom of the “Wave Windows Color Scheme” list and click waveBackground. Then click white in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4. Now color the waveforms and text black: 3.4.1. Click LOGIC_0 in the “Wave Windows Color Scheme.” Then click black in the color “Palette” at the right of the screen. 3.4.2. Repeat this for LOGIC_1, timeColor, and cursorColor (if you have a cursor you want to print) 3.5. Once you have captured your screenshot, you can click the Reset Defaults button to restore the “Wave” window to its original color scheme Questions: (Please use this cover sheet to type and print your responses) 1. List the references you used for this lab assignment (e.g. sources/websites used or students with whom you discussed this assignment) 2. Do you have any comments or suggestions for this lab exercise?

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Discovery Civics: Describe the sustainability situation in your neighborhood or community. Observe and explain what are the inputs that people use and what are the outputs produced. Based on the observation, what specific steps would you take to improve the sustainability of your community? (Words: 500 ~ 750)

Discovery Civics: Describe the sustainability situation in your neighborhood or community. Observe and explain what are the inputs that people use and what are the outputs produced. Based on the observation, what specific steps would you take to improve the sustainability of your community? (Words: 500 ~ 750)