Individual case study Due date: 1:00pm AEST, Thursday, Week 11 All students are to submit electronically – max file size is 2Mb. ASSESSMENT Weighting: 35% Length: No set length 2 I…Assignment 2 SPECIFICATIONS CIS8011_Digital Innovation Assignment 2 (30%) (1500 words maximum) This assignment continues from the first assignment and your task is to write a report on the following a…1 CSE2DES/CSE5DES – Assignment 1 Due Date: 10 am Monday 22nd September 2014 Assessment: This assignment 1 is worth 15% of the final mark for CSE2DES/CSE5DES. This is an individual assignment. Copying,…All questions are from the textbook: Fatseas, Victor & Williams, John, Cost Management (2013) 3rd edition, McGraw HillMLC 703: PRINCIPLES OF INCOME TAX LAW INSTRUCTIONS Please note that the following will not form part of the word count: ? References, including statute and cases; ? Diagrams; ? Tables; ? Calculations….WRITTEN ESSAY Outline This assessment has been written to develop your understanding of Human Resource Management, assessing learning outcomes a, b, c, h and i: “The external environmental (e.g. econo…Subject: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING B01ITMK208 Assessment item 2: International Marketing Analysis Weighting: 30% Due: Week 10. A daily penalty of 5% will be applied to late assignments. Task: You are a …B01ITMK208 INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS KEY INFORMATION Maximum Length: 2500 words Due: Week 8. Note that late submission will attract a penalty. Weighting: 30% Instructions: Read …Subject: Advertising Management BO1ADMG207 Assessment item 2: IMC Report Weighting: 30% Due: Week 8. A daily penalty of 5% will be applied to late assignments. Task: You are the Australian-based Marke…Attached are two Memos, please have a lookgetEconomics topic Assignment 2 Value: 40% Due date: 01-Sep-2014 Return date: 22-Sep-2014 Length: about 1500-2000 words each Submission method options Alternative submission method Task Analytical essays…Accounting for Business Decisions –HI5001 Trimester 2 2014 The assignment allows students to exhibit their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter of Accounting. The students will use the sk…HOLMES INSTITUTE FACULTY OF HIGHER EDUCATION HI6007 SPSS Assignment 02 Due Friday 4pm week 11 WORTH 30% The data set you need to do the assignment can be found on Blackboard in the folder “Assignments…Assignmnet of Economic Assignment (Written report): 25% 1. Organize yourselves into groups. Each group is to have Four or Five members. 2. Groups need to choose a topic from the list of topics provide…2. Rio Tinto Annual Report Financial Analysis [10 marks] Consider the sources below and answer the following questions. Source 1: Rio Tinto Annual Report 2012 (see report uploaded on the portal) Sourc…Quantitative Methods for Business Business Statistics Assignment – Semester, 2 2014 Total Marks: 60, Worth: 20% of final assessment This assignment requires a considerable amount of computer work and …BUACC 2613 Management Accounting 1 Semester 2, 2014 Assignment Contribution to overall assessment: 25% Due date: 26/09/2014 • This assignment has two parts: o Part 1

Individual case study Due date: 1:00pm AEST, Thursday, Week 11 All students are to submit electronically – max file size is 2Mb. ASSESSMENT Weighting: 35% Length: No set length 2 I…Assignment 2 SPECIFICATIONS CIS8011_Digital Innovation Assignment 2 (30%) (1500 words maximum) This assignment continues from the first assignment and your task is to write a report on the following a…1 CSE2DES/CSE5DES – Assignment 1 Due Date: 10 am Monday 22nd September 2014 Assessment: This assignment 1 is worth 15% of the final mark for CSE2DES/CSE5DES. This is an individual assignment. Copying,…All questions are from the textbook: Fatseas, Victor & Williams, John, Cost Management (2013) 3rd edition, McGraw HillMLC 703: PRINCIPLES OF INCOME TAX LAW INSTRUCTIONS Please note that the following will not form part of the word count: ? References, including statute and cases; ? Diagrams; ? Tables; ? Calculations….WRITTEN ESSAY Outline This assessment has been written to develop your understanding of Human Resource Management, assessing learning outcomes a, b, c, h and i: “The external environmental (e.g. econo…Subject: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING B01ITMK208 Assessment item 2: International Marketing Analysis Weighting: 30% Due: Week 10. A daily penalty of 5% will be applied to late assignments. Task: You are a …B01ITMK208 INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS KEY INFORMATION Maximum Length: 2500 words Due: Week 8. Note that late submission will attract a penalty. Weighting: 30% Instructions: Read …Subject: Advertising Management BO1ADMG207 Assessment item 2: IMC Report Weighting: 30% Due: Week 8. A daily penalty of 5% will be applied to late assignments. Task: You are the Australian-based Marke…Attached are two Memos, please have a lookgetEconomics topic Assignment 2 Value: 40% Due date: 01-Sep-2014 Return date: 22-Sep-2014 Length: about 1500-2000 words each Submission method options Alternative submission method Task Analytical essays…Accounting for Business Decisions –HI5001 Trimester 2 2014 The assignment allows students to exhibit their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter of Accounting. The students will use the sk…HOLMES INSTITUTE FACULTY OF HIGHER EDUCATION HI6007 SPSS Assignment 02 Due Friday 4pm week 11 WORTH 30% The data set you need to do the assignment can be found on Blackboard in the folder “Assignments…Assignmnet of Economic Assignment (Written report): 25% 1. Organize yourselves into groups. Each group is to have Four or Five members. 2. Groups need to choose a topic from the list of topics provide…2. Rio Tinto Annual Report Financial Analysis [10 marks] Consider the sources below and answer the following questions. Source 1: Rio Tinto Annual Report 2012 (see report uploaded on the portal) Sourc…Quantitative Methods for Business Business Statistics Assignment – Semester, 2 2014 Total Marks: 60, Worth: 20% of final assessment This assignment requires a considerable amount of computer work and …BUACC 2613 Management Accounting 1 Semester 2, 2014 Assignment Contribution to overall assessment: 25% Due date: 26/09/2014 • This assignment has two parts: o Part 1

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Vermont Technical College Electronics I – Laboratory ELT-2051 Lab 07: Transistor Biasing Circuits and Q-point Stability Objectives: • To set an operating point for a transistor using three different bias techniques • To explore amplification of an AC signal • To use MultiSim to verify your experimental data General: In this laboratory, you will be supplied with two NPN transistors with varying ß’s. Prelab: Calculate values of Rb in Figures 1 and 2 assuming ß = 200, VCE = 6V . For Figure 3, calculate R1 and R2 so that their parallel resistance is about 20KΩ or 10% of (ß+1)RE. Also, calculate the critical frequency of the 1uF capacitor in Figure 4. Materials: • 2N3904, 2N4123 NPN TXs (1 high ß, 1 low ß) • (2) 1 k Ohm, 100 k Ohm, assorted resistors • 1uF, 10uF capacitors • Curve Tracer • DC Power Supply • Multimeter • Signal Generator • Oscilloscope • Breadboard Procedure: 1. Use the curve tracer to plot the curves for each of your transistors. From these curves, again using the curve tracer, determine the ßDC for each transistor at the IC currents of 1mA, 3mA, 6mA, and 10mA with VCE = 6V. Of course, be sure to keep track of which transistor goes with which curve. Verify that the ßDC values that you obtain are within the manufacturer’s specifications. Remember– ßDC = hFE ! 2. For each of the three circuits shown in Figures 1-3, using the R values calculated in your prelab, determine the operating points IC and VCE for each of the transistors. Be sure to table your data. In addition, plot ß vs IC for both transistors on a single graph so that the data is meaningful! What conclusions can be reached for the 3 biasing circuits? 3. Lastly – Build Figure 4 and determine the ratio (Gain) of Vout/Vin at 1KHz. Now vary the frequency of Vin to determine at what frequencies this ratio decreases to 0.707 of the value at 1KHz. 4. Use the Bode Plotter feature in MultiSim to verify your data of Part 3. Is the cut-off frequency the same as you measured in the lab? Base Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Emitter Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Voltage Divider Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Laboratory Report: This lab is a semi-formal lab. Be sure to collect all data necessary to make observations and answer questions before you leave the lab. Also, you and your lab partner should discuss the results and outcomes prior to leaving. Take notes, fill in tables and include diagrams as needed. Your report should include: • Data Table • Beta Plot • MultiSim Frequency Response • Comparison of biasing schemes • Comparison of measurements vs. simulations and expectations.

Vermont Technical College Electronics I – Laboratory ELT-2051 Lab 07: Transistor Biasing Circuits and Q-point Stability Objectives: • To set an operating point for a transistor using three different bias techniques • To explore amplification of an AC signal • To use MultiSim to verify your experimental data General: In this laboratory, you will be supplied with two NPN transistors with varying ß’s. Prelab: Calculate values of Rb in Figures 1 and 2 assuming ß = 200, VCE = 6V . For Figure 3, calculate R1 and R2 so that their parallel resistance is about 20KΩ or 10% of (ß+1)RE. Also, calculate the critical frequency of the 1uF capacitor in Figure 4. Materials: • 2N3904, 2N4123 NPN TXs (1 high ß, 1 low ß) • (2) 1 k Ohm, 100 k Ohm, assorted resistors • 1uF, 10uF capacitors • Curve Tracer • DC Power Supply • Multimeter • Signal Generator • Oscilloscope • Breadboard Procedure: 1. Use the curve tracer to plot the curves for each of your transistors. From these curves, again using the curve tracer, determine the ßDC for each transistor at the IC currents of 1mA, 3mA, 6mA, and 10mA with VCE = 6V. Of course, be sure to keep track of which transistor goes with which curve. Verify that the ßDC values that you obtain are within the manufacturer’s specifications. Remember– ßDC = hFE ! 2. For each of the three circuits shown in Figures 1-3, using the R values calculated in your prelab, determine the operating points IC and VCE for each of the transistors. Be sure to table your data. In addition, plot ß vs IC for both transistors on a single graph so that the data is meaningful! What conclusions can be reached for the 3 biasing circuits? 3. Lastly – Build Figure 4 and determine the ratio (Gain) of Vout/Vin at 1KHz. Now vary the frequency of Vin to determine at what frequencies this ratio decreases to 0.707 of the value at 1KHz. 4. Use the Bode Plotter feature in MultiSim to verify your data of Part 3. Is the cut-off frequency the same as you measured in the lab? Base Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Emitter Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Voltage Divider Bias: Parameter Calculated Value Simulated Value Measured Value VCE1 (high β) VCE2 (low β) n/a n/a |VCE1 – VCE2| 0 0 IC1 (high β) IC2 (low β) n/a n/a |IC1 – IC2| 0 0 Laboratory Report: This lab is a semi-formal lab. Be sure to collect all data necessary to make observations and answer questions before you leave the lab. Also, you and your lab partner should discuss the results and outcomes prior to leaving. Take notes, fill in tables and include diagrams as needed. Your report should include: • Data Table • Beta Plot • MultiSim Frequency Response • Comparison of biasing schemes • Comparison of measurements vs. simulations and expectations.

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Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

Project Four: Revisiting English 1010 (Literacy, Language, and Culture: An Exploration of the African American Experience) The MultiMedia Reflective Portfolio Project Overview This project will provide us with the opportunity to use a combination of textual, digital, and oral tools to: 1) reflect on and display what we have learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and 2) reflect on and display what we have learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project. Ultimately, this project will provide us with the opportunity to use multimedia tools and applications to reflect on and display our experience as knowledge users and knowledge makers in this course (specifically as it relates to the English 1010 Learning Outcomes). ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt: This reflective assignment, which is the last major assignment of the semester, consists of two parts: Part One Part One consists of a 2-3 page reflective essay in which you reflect on and display: (1) what you learned about African American literacy, language, and culture; and (2) what you learned about the process of composing a literacy narrative, informative summary, media analysis, and multimedia reflective portfolio project–specifically as the process relates to the Learning Outcomes (Reading, Writing, Reflection, and Technology Use). To do so, you must look back over the work you produced during the semester in order to locate and discuss your learning and accomplishments in these areas. While your discussion of achievements with respect to ENG 1010 Learning Outcomes is perhaps the most important goal in the Reflective Essay, the written expression of these achievements can be strengthened when it is integrated into a broader narrative that describes where you are coming from and who you are as a student. In this narrative, you may discuss, for example, how you learned and used various reading strategies in the course, or you may describe, for example, how your ability to use composition and course management technologies, like Word and Blackboard, increased. You may also address, as appropriate, how your culture, identity, or background shaped your experiences as a student in ENG 1010. You may wish to discuss, for example, some of the following issues. • Transition to college and the larger first-year experience • Negotiation of a new identity as college student (how you adjusted; how you handled it) • Membership in groups historically underrepresented in college • Language diversity • Managing life circumstances to be able to give enough time and energy to academic work In sum, the Reflective Essay should make claims about your learning and accomplishments with respect to the two areas identified above. Essentially, the reflective essay should demonstrate what you have learned and what you can do as a result of your work in ENG 1010. In this way, a successful Reflective Essay will inspire confidence that you are prepared to move forward into your next composition courses, beginning with ENG 1020, and into the larger academic discourse community. Part Two Part Two consists of an electronic multimedia portfolio containing 3-5 selected pieces of the work you produced this semester (essay topic proposals, reading responses, essay outlines, essay first or final drafts, in-class assignments, etc.) that you can use as evidence of your learning and accomplishments and to support the claims you made in your reflective essay. ___________________________________________________________________ English 1010 Learning Outcomes Reading ● Develop reading strategies to explain, paraphrase, and summarize college-level material. ● Analyze college-level material to identify evidence that supports broader claims. Writing ● Plan and compose a well-organized thesis-driven text that engages with college-level material and is supported by relevant and sufficient evidence. ● Develop a flexible revision process that incorporates feedback to rewrite multiple drafts of a text for clarity (e.g. argument, organization, support, and audience awareness). Reflection ● Use reflective writing to evaluate and revise writing processes and drafts ● Use reflective writing to assess and articulate skill development in relation to course learning outcomes. Technology Use ● Navigate institutional web-based interfaces, such as course websites, university email, and Blackboard Learn™, to find, access and submit course material. ● Use computer-based composition technologies, including word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint), to compose college-level texts. ● Use computer-based composition technologies to read and annotate course readings and texts authored by students (e.g. peer review). Your Final Draft Should: • meet the requirements as outlined in the “Introduction/Rationale/Assignment Prompt” section above. Points for This Project • First Draft: 20 Points • Final Draft: 130 Points • Oral Presentation: 30 Points Refer to the Course Schedule (Syllabus) for Assignment Due Dates. _______________________________________________________________ Evaluation: You will be evaluated based on content, organization, and mechanics.

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Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Standard based Curriculum In standard based curriculum, the initial point … Read More...
Assignment 2 Conditional Probability, Bayes Theorem, and Random Variables Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem Problems 1-14 from Problem Set on Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem I am including all the question here so that there is no confusion. Q1. Pair of six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the sample space? What is the size of the sample space? Suppose all we are interested in is the sum of the two outcomes. What is the probability that the sum of the two is 6? 7? 8? (Note: This can be solved using both enumeration and conditional probability method). Here, it makes more sense to use the enumeration approach than conditional probability. It is, however, listed here to set the stage for Q5. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 and the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 or the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. Q2. If P(A)=0.4, P(B)=0.5 and P(A∩B)=0.3 What is the value of (a) P(A|B) and (b) P(B|A) Q3. At a fair, a vendor has 25 helium balloons on strings: 10 balloons are yellow, 8 are red, and 7 are green. A balloon is selected at random and sold. Given that the balloon sold is yellow, what is the probability that the next balloon selected at random is also yellow? Q4. A bowl contains seven blue chips and three red chips. Two chips are to be drawn at random and without replacement. What is the probability that the fist chip is a red chip and the second a blue? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators and use conditional probability. Q5. Three six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the size of the sample space? What is the probability that the sum of the three numbers is 6? 13? 18? Solve using conditional probability How does the concept of conditional probability help? Q6. A grade school boy has 5 blue and four white marbles in his left pocket and four blue and five white marbles in his right pocket. If he transfers one marble at random from his left pocket to his right pocket, what is the probability of his then drawing a blue marble from his right pocket? Q7. In a certain factory, machine I, II, and III are all producing springs of the same length. Of their production, machines I, II, and III produce 2%, 1%, and 3% defective springs respectively. Of the total production of springs in the factory, machine I produces 35%, machine II produces 25%, and machine III produces 40%. If one spring is selected at random from the total springs produced in a day, what is the probability that it is defective? Given that the selected spring is defective, what is the probability that it was produced on machine III? Q8. Bowl B1 contains 2 white chips, bowl B2 contains 2 red chips, bowl B3 contains 2 white and 2 red chips, and Bowl B4 contains 3 white chips and 1 red chip. The probabilities of selecting bowl B1, B2, B3, and B4 are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/8 respectively. A bowl is selected using these probabilities, and a chip is then drawn at random. Find P(W), the probability of drawing a white chip P(B1|W): the probability that bowl B1 was selected, given that a white chip was drawn. Q9. A pap smear is a screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. For women with this cancer, there are about 16% false negative. For women without cervical cancer, there are about 19% false positive. In the US, there are about 8 women in 100,000 who have this cancer. What is the probability that a woman who has been tested positive actually has cervical cancer? Q10. There is a new diagnostic test for a disease that occurs in about 0.05% of the population. The test is not perfect but will detect a person with the disease 99% of the time. It will, however, say that a person without the disease has the disease about 3% of the time. A person is selected at random from the population and the test indicates that this person has the disease. What are the conditional probabilities that The person has the disease The person does not have the disease Q11. Consider two urns: the first contains two white and seven black balls, and the second contains five white and six black balls. We flip a fair coin and then draw a ball from the first urn or the second urn depending on whether the outcome was a head or a tails. What is the conditional probability that the outcome of the toss was heads given that a white ball was selected? Q12. In answering a question on a multiple-choice test a student either knows the answer or guesses. Let p be the probability that she knows the answer. Assume that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability 1/m where m is the number of multiple choice alternatives. What is the conditional probability that a student knew the answer given that she answered it correctly? Q13. A laboratory blood test is 95% effective in detecting a certain disease when it is, in fact, present. However, the test also yields a “false positive” result for 1% of the healthy persons tested (i.e., if a healthy person is tested, then, with probability 0.01, the test result will imply that he has the disease.). If 0.5% of the population actually have the disease, what is the probability a person has the disease given that his test results are positive? Q14. An urn contains b black balls and r red balls. One of the balls is drawn at random, but when it is put back in the urn, c additional balls of the same color are put in it with it. Now suppose that we draw another ball. What is the probability that the first ball drawn was black given that the second ball drawn was red? Random Variables Q15. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two six sided fair dice and observing the outcomes. What is the sample space? Let Y denote the sum of the two numbers that appear on the dice. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=7? What does it mean if I say that Y<7? Q16. Suppose an experiment consists of picking a sample of size n from a population of size N. Assume that n≪N. Also, assume that the population contains D defective parts and N-D non defective parts, where n<D≪N. What is the sample space? If we are interested in knowing the number (count) of defective parts in the sample space, describe how, the concept of a random variable could help. Define a random variable Y and describe what values the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=5? Q17. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two fair coins. Let Y denote the number of heads appearing. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=1? What are the probabilities associated with each outcome? What is the sum of the probabilities associated with all possible values that Y can take? Q18. A lot, consisting of 100 fuses, is inspected by the following procedure. Five fuses are chosen at random and tested: if all 5 fuses pass the inspection, the lot is accepted. Suppose that the lot contains 20 defective fuses. What is the probability of accepting the lot? Define the random variable, its purpose, and the formula/concept that you would use. Q19. In a small pond there are 50 fish, 10 of which have been tagged. If a fisherman’s catch consists of 7 fish, selected at random and without replacement. Give an example of a random variable that can be defined if we are interested in knowing the number of tagged fish that are caught? What is the probability that exactly 2 tagged fish are caught? Define the random variable, its purpose, and the formula/concept that you would use. Applied to Quality Control Q20. My manufacturing firm makes 100 cars every day out of which 10 are defective; the quality control inspector tests drives 5 different cars. Based on the sample, the quality control inspector will make a generalization about the whole batch of 100 cars that I have on that day. Let d denote the number of defective cars in the sample What are the values that d can take (given the information provided above)? What is the probability that the quality control inspector will conclude that: (a) 0% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=0); (b) 20% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=1); (c) 40% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=2); (d) 60% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=3),(e) 80% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=4), and (f) 100% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=5) What is P(d=0)+ P(d=1)+ P(d=2)+ P(d=3)+ P(d=4)+ P(d=5) Let’s assume that the quality control inspector has been doing the testing for a while (say for the past 1000 days). What is the average # of defective cars that he found? Q21. Assume that the quality control inspector is selecting 1 car at a time and the car that he tested is put back in the pool of possible cars that he can test (sample with replacement). Let d denote the number of defective cars in the sample (n) What are the values that d can take (given the information provided above)? What is the probability that the quality control inspector will conclude that: (a) 0% of the cars are defective, (b) 20% of the cars are defective, (c) 40% of the cars are defective, (d) 60% of the cars are defective, (e) 80% of the cars are defective, and (f) 100% of the cars are defective. Let’s call these P(d=0)….P(d=5) What is P(d=0)+ P(d=1)+ P(d=2)+ P(d=3)+ P(d=4)+ P(d=5) Let’s assume that the quality control inspector has been doing the testing for a while (say for the past 1000 days). What is the average # of defective cars that he found? Interesting Problems Q22. A closet contains n pairs of shoes. If 2r shoes are chosen at random (2r<n), what is the probability that there will be no matching pair in the sample? Q23. In a draft lottery containing the 366 days of the leap year, what is the probability that the first 180 days drawn (without replacement) are evenly distributed among the 12 months? What is the probability that the first 30 days drawn contain none from September? Q25. You and I play a coin-tossing game. If the coin falls heads I score one, if tails, you score one. In the beginning, the score is zero. What is the probability that after 2n throws our scores are equal? What is the probability that after 2n+1 throws my score is three more than yours?

Assignment 2 Conditional Probability, Bayes Theorem, and Random Variables Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem Problems 1-14 from Problem Set on Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem I am including all the question here so that there is no confusion. Q1. Pair of six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the sample space? What is the size of the sample space? Suppose all we are interested in is the sum of the two outcomes. What is the probability that the sum of the two is 6? 7? 8? (Note: This can be solved using both enumeration and conditional probability method). Here, it makes more sense to use the enumeration approach than conditional probability. It is, however, listed here to set the stage for Q5. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 and the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 or the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. Q2. If P(A)=0.4, P(B)=0.5 and P(A∩B)=0.3 What is the value of (a) P(A|B) and (b) P(B|A) Q3. At a fair, a vendor has 25 helium balloons on strings: 10 balloons are yellow, 8 are red, and 7 are green. A balloon is selected at random and sold. Given that the balloon sold is yellow, what is the probability that the next balloon selected at random is also yellow? Q4. A bowl contains seven blue chips and three red chips. Two chips are to be drawn at random and without replacement. What is the probability that the fist chip is a red chip and the second a blue? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators and use conditional probability. Q5. Three six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the size of the sample space? What is the probability that the sum of the three numbers is 6? 13? 18? Solve using conditional probability How does the concept of conditional probability help? Q6. A grade school boy has 5 blue and four white marbles in his left pocket and four blue and five white marbles in his right pocket. If he transfers one marble at random from his left pocket to his right pocket, what is the probability of his then drawing a blue marble from his right pocket? Q7. In a certain factory, machine I, II, and III are all producing springs of the same length. Of their production, machines I, II, and III produce 2%, 1%, and 3% defective springs respectively. Of the total production of springs in the factory, machine I produces 35%, machine II produces 25%, and machine III produces 40%. If one spring is selected at random from the total springs produced in a day, what is the probability that it is defective? Given that the selected spring is defective, what is the probability that it was produced on machine III? Q8. Bowl B1 contains 2 white chips, bowl B2 contains 2 red chips, bowl B3 contains 2 white and 2 red chips, and Bowl B4 contains 3 white chips and 1 red chip. The probabilities of selecting bowl B1, B2, B3, and B4 are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/8 respectively. A bowl is selected using these probabilities, and a chip is then drawn at random. Find P(W), the probability of drawing a white chip P(B1|W): the probability that bowl B1 was selected, given that a white chip was drawn. Q9. A pap smear is a screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. For women with this cancer, there are about 16% false negative. For women without cervical cancer, there are about 19% false positive. In the US, there are about 8 women in 100,000 who have this cancer. What is the probability that a woman who has been tested positive actually has cervical cancer? Q10. There is a new diagnostic test for a disease that occurs in about 0.05% of the population. The test is not perfect but will detect a person with the disease 99% of the time. It will, however, say that a person without the disease has the disease about 3% of the time. A person is selected at random from the population and the test indicates that this person has the disease. What are the conditional probabilities that The person has the disease The person does not have the disease Q11. Consider two urns: the first contains two white and seven black balls, and the second contains five white and six black balls. We flip a fair coin and then draw a ball from the first urn or the second urn depending on whether the outcome was a head or a tails. What is the conditional probability that the outcome of the toss was heads given that a white ball was selected? Q12. In answering a question on a multiple-choice test a student either knows the answer or guesses. Let p be the probability that she knows the answer. Assume that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability 1/m where m is the number of multiple choice alternatives. What is the conditional probability that a student knew the answer given that she answered it correctly? Q13. A laboratory blood test is 95% effective in detecting a certain disease when it is, in fact, present. However, the test also yields a “false positive” result for 1% of the healthy persons tested (i.e., if a healthy person is tested, then, with probability 0.01, the test result will imply that he has the disease.). If 0.5% of the population actually have the disease, what is the probability a person has the disease given that his test results are positive? Q14. An urn contains b black balls and r red balls. One of the balls is drawn at random, but when it is put back in the urn, c additional balls of the same color are put in it with it. Now suppose that we draw another ball. What is the probability that the first ball drawn was black given that the second ball drawn was red? Random Variables Q15. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two six sided fair dice and observing the outcomes. What is the sample space? Let Y denote the sum of the two numbers that appear on the dice. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=7? What does it mean if I say that Y<7? Q16. Suppose an experiment consists of picking a sample of size n from a population of size N. Assume that n≪N. Also, assume that the population contains D defective parts and N-D non defective parts, where n

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

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After reading the supplement article on Business Analytics linked to the week 1 schedule, write an essay on how business analytics impacts you today, or its potential role in your chosen career path. Do research for your paper, or interview someone who works in your area. The goals of this paper are two-fold: (1) focus on high quality writing, using the COBE Writing Styles Guide for writing help and citations. (2) consider the importance of BI from a personal/work/career perspective.

After reading the supplement article on Business Analytics linked to the week 1 schedule, write an essay on how business analytics impacts you today, or its potential role in your chosen career path. Do research for your paper, or interview someone who works in your area. The goals of this paper are two-fold: (1) focus on high quality writing, using the COBE Writing Styles Guide for writing help and citations. (2) consider the importance of BI from a personal/work/career perspective.

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Module Overview Summary of Module Description For full details, go to Module Descriptor. Aims The aim of this module is to: • Develop individuals for a career in business and management • Enhance and develop employability , professional and lifelong learning skills and personal development Learning Outcomes Learners will be able to critically evaluate the acquisition of a range of academic and professional skills using a number of theoretical frameworks. Assessment – Summary Category Assessment Description Duration Word Count Weight (%) Written Assignment Essay 1 Reflective Essay N/A 3000 45 For full details, go to Assessment. Additional Information Remember that a variety of Resources is available to support your learning materials.Skills and character audit This document provides an initial picture of your skills and character. It will also provide the basis of further documents that make up the first assignment on the module. It is based on the skills statements that form a fundamental part of your Masters programme which were approved by a validation panel that consisted of members of staff in the Business School, academic staff from other higher education institutions and employers. The statements in the form are there for you and you will not be judged on whether your responses are positive or negative. The responses should enable you to identify what you are good or bad at from which you can create a personal SLOT analysis (Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities, Threats). From this SLOT analysis you can then concentrate on developing certain areas that will enhance your academic and professional development. We would very much like to” get to know” you through this document and would encourage you to also complete the notes section. In this you could give us a rationale for your responses to the questions. As a guide to how you should gauge your response consider the following: Strongly agree – I have a wide range of experience in this area and have been commended by a tutor or employer for my efforts in this area Agree – I am comfortable with this aspect and have been able to demonstrate my ability Disagree – I am Ok with this but realise that I do need to improve Strongly disagree – I know I am weak in this area and need to focus on this as I could fine this weakness to be detrimental to my progression Explain why – please take the room to consider the reasons for your answer as this is the reflection that is of most value. Do not worry if your section spills onto the next page.   Intellectual (thinking) skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am a creative person who can adapt my thinking to circumstances I am able to organise my thoughts, analyse, synthesise and critically appraise situations I can identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning, identify implicit values, define terms adequately and generalise appropriately Explain why: Professional/Vocational skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I use a wide range of techniques in approaching and solving problems. I am comfortable with a range of research techniques I am able to analyse and interpret quantitative data I am able to analyse and interpret qualitative data My leadership skills are well developed and I can adapt them to different situations I am able to manage people effectively Motivating myself and others comes easy to me I am aware of my responsibilities to myself, the organisation and other people I treat people with respect and consideration Explain why:   Key/Common skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am able to use mathematical techniques to analyse data I can effectively interpret numerical data including tables and charts I am able to use a wide range of software on a PC I use a range Information Technology devices to communicate and access information I am a good listener I am able to communicate my ideas well in a face-to-face situation I can adapt my written style to suit an audiences needs I am comfortable presenting my ideas to an audience Whenever I have completed a task I always reflect on the experience with a view to seeking continuous improvement I manage my time effectively I am always prompt when asked to complete a task I am aware of the need to be sensitive to the cultural differences to which I have been exposed I am keen to learn about other people and their country and culture I enjoy working with others to complete a task I know my own character and am sensitive of this in a group situation I understand that a group is made of individuals and I am sensitive to the needs and preferences of others I will always ensure that I get my views across in a meeting I am willing to accept the viewpoint of others I always give 100% in a group task Explain why: SLOT Analysis Having responded to the statements above you should now be in a position to look forward and recognise those areas on which your development will be based. The SLOT analysis can help you to arrange this. Strengths – can be those skills and characteristics to which you have responded positively to in the previous section. It is worth noting that whilst you may be strong in these areas that does not mean you ignore their development. Indeed you may be able to utilise these strengths in the development of areas identified as weaknesses or to overcome strengths, this will enhance those skills and characteristics. Limitations – All of us can identify some sort of limitation to our skills. None of us should be afraid of doing this as this is the first stage on the improvement and development of these weaknesses. Opportunities – These arise or can be created. When thinking of this look ahead at opportunities that will arise in a professional, academic or social context within which your development can take place. Threats – Many threats from your development can come from within – your own characteristics e.g. poor time management can lead to missing deadlines. However we could equally identify a busy lifestyle as a threat to our development. Once again think widely in terms of where the threat will come from. Do not worry if you find that a strength can also be a limitation. This is often true as a characteristic you have may be strength in one situation but a limitation in another. E.g. you may be an assertive person, which is positive, but this could be negative in a group situation. Please try and elaborate this in the notes section at the foot of the table. SLOT Analysis (you may need to use two pages to set out this analysis) Strengths Limitations Opportunities Threats Analysis of the Bullet points in the SLOT table Objectives Having undertaken some analysis of your skills and characteristics the aim of this next section is to identify various aspects of your development during the course of this module, other modules on your course, and extra-curricular activities. Make sure the objectives are SMART:- S – Specific. Clearly identified from the exercises undertaken M – Measurable. The outcomes can be easily demonstrated (to yourself, and where possible others) A – Achievable. They can be done given the opportunities available to you R – Relevant. They form part of your development either on this award, in your employability prospects or in your current job role T – Timebound. They can be achieved within a given timescale Whilst there are 5 rows in the table below, please feel free to add more. However be sure that you need to do this development and that they fit within the scope of the above criteria. Area What I am going to do. How I am going to do it When I am going to do it by Force Field Analysis This technique was designed by Kurt Lewin (1947 and 1953). In the business world it is used for decision making, looking at forces that need to be considered when implementing change – it can be said to be a specialised method of weighing up the pros and cons of a decision. Having looked at your personal strengths and weaknesses we would like you to use this technique to become aware of those factors that will help/hinder, give you motivation for or may act against, your personal development. Whilst you could do this for each of your objectives we want you to think in terms of where you would like to be at the end of your Masters programme. In the central pillar, put in a statement of where you want to be at the end of the course. Then in the arrows either side look at those factors/forces that may work in your favour. Be realistic and please add as many arrows that you think may be necessary; use a separate page for the module if it makes it easier to structure your thoughts. Forces or factors working for achieving your desired outcome Where I want to be Forces or factors against working against you achieving your desired outcome

Module Overview Summary of Module Description For full details, go to Module Descriptor. Aims The aim of this module is to: • Develop individuals for a career in business and management • Enhance and develop employability , professional and lifelong learning skills and personal development Learning Outcomes Learners will be able to critically evaluate the acquisition of a range of academic and professional skills using a number of theoretical frameworks. Assessment – Summary Category Assessment Description Duration Word Count Weight (%) Written Assignment Essay 1 Reflective Essay N/A 3000 45 For full details, go to Assessment. Additional Information Remember that a variety of Resources is available to support your learning materials.Skills and character audit This document provides an initial picture of your skills and character. It will also provide the basis of further documents that make up the first assignment on the module. It is based on the skills statements that form a fundamental part of your Masters programme which were approved by a validation panel that consisted of members of staff in the Business School, academic staff from other higher education institutions and employers. The statements in the form are there for you and you will not be judged on whether your responses are positive or negative. The responses should enable you to identify what you are good or bad at from which you can create a personal SLOT analysis (Strengths, Limitations, Opportunities, Threats). From this SLOT analysis you can then concentrate on developing certain areas that will enhance your academic and professional development. We would very much like to” get to know” you through this document and would encourage you to also complete the notes section. In this you could give us a rationale for your responses to the questions. As a guide to how you should gauge your response consider the following: Strongly agree – I have a wide range of experience in this area and have been commended by a tutor or employer for my efforts in this area Agree – I am comfortable with this aspect and have been able to demonstrate my ability Disagree – I am Ok with this but realise that I do need to improve Strongly disagree – I know I am weak in this area and need to focus on this as I could fine this weakness to be detrimental to my progression Explain why – please take the room to consider the reasons for your answer as this is the reflection that is of most value. Do not worry if your section spills onto the next page.   Intellectual (thinking) skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am a creative person who can adapt my thinking to circumstances I am able to organise my thoughts, analyse, synthesise and critically appraise situations I can identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning, identify implicit values, define terms adequately and generalise appropriately Explain why: Professional/Vocational skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I use a wide range of techniques in approaching and solving problems. I am comfortable with a range of research techniques I am able to analyse and interpret quantitative data I am able to analyse and interpret qualitative data My leadership skills are well developed and I can adapt them to different situations I am able to manage people effectively Motivating myself and others comes easy to me I am aware of my responsibilities to myself, the organisation and other people I treat people with respect and consideration Explain why:   Key/Common skills Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I am able to use mathematical techniques to analyse data I can effectively interpret numerical data including tables and charts I am able to use a wide range of software on a PC I use a range Information Technology devices to communicate and access information I am a good listener I am able to communicate my ideas well in a face-to-face situation I can adapt my written style to suit an audiences needs I am comfortable presenting my ideas to an audience Whenever I have completed a task I always reflect on the experience with a view to seeking continuous improvement I manage my time effectively I am always prompt when asked to complete a task I am aware of the need to be sensitive to the cultural differences to which I have been exposed I am keen to learn about other people and their country and culture I enjoy working with others to complete a task I know my own character and am sensitive of this in a group situation I understand that a group is made of individuals and I am sensitive to the needs and preferences of others I will always ensure that I get my views across in a meeting I am willing to accept the viewpoint of others I always give 100% in a group task Explain why: SLOT Analysis Having responded to the statements above you should now be in a position to look forward and recognise those areas on which your development will be based. The SLOT analysis can help you to arrange this. Strengths – can be those skills and characteristics to which you have responded positively to in the previous section. It is worth noting that whilst you may be strong in these areas that does not mean you ignore their development. Indeed you may be able to utilise these strengths in the development of areas identified as weaknesses or to overcome strengths, this will enhance those skills and characteristics. Limitations – All of us can identify some sort of limitation to our skills. None of us should be afraid of doing this as this is the first stage on the improvement and development of these weaknesses. Opportunities – These arise or can be created. When thinking of this look ahead at opportunities that will arise in a professional, academic or social context within which your development can take place. Threats – Many threats from your development can come from within – your own characteristics e.g. poor time management can lead to missing deadlines. However we could equally identify a busy lifestyle as a threat to our development. Once again think widely in terms of where the threat will come from. Do not worry if you find that a strength can also be a limitation. This is often true as a characteristic you have may be strength in one situation but a limitation in another. E.g. you may be an assertive person, which is positive, but this could be negative in a group situation. Please try and elaborate this in the notes section at the foot of the table. SLOT Analysis (you may need to use two pages to set out this analysis) Strengths Limitations Opportunities Threats Analysis of the Bullet points in the SLOT table Objectives Having undertaken some analysis of your skills and characteristics the aim of this next section is to identify various aspects of your development during the course of this module, other modules on your course, and extra-curricular activities. Make sure the objectives are SMART:- S – Specific. Clearly identified from the exercises undertaken M – Measurable. The outcomes can be easily demonstrated (to yourself, and where possible others) A – Achievable. They can be done given the opportunities available to you R – Relevant. They form part of your development either on this award, in your employability prospects or in your current job role T – Timebound. They can be achieved within a given timescale Whilst there are 5 rows in the table below, please feel free to add more. However be sure that you need to do this development and that they fit within the scope of the above criteria. Area What I am going to do. How I am going to do it When I am going to do it by Force Field Analysis This technique was designed by Kurt Lewin (1947 and 1953). In the business world it is used for decision making, looking at forces that need to be considered when implementing change – it can be said to be a specialised method of weighing up the pros and cons of a decision. Having looked at your personal strengths and weaknesses we would like you to use this technique to become aware of those factors that will help/hinder, give you motivation for or may act against, your personal development. Whilst you could do this for each of your objectives we want you to think in terms of where you would like to be at the end of your Masters programme. In the central pillar, put in a statement of where you want to be at the end of the course. Then in the arrows either side look at those factors/forces that may work in your favour. Be realistic and please add as many arrows that you think may be necessary; use a separate page for the module if it makes it easier to structure your thoughts. Forces or factors working for achieving your desired outcome Where I want to be Forces or factors against working against you achieving your desired outcome

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