Develop a 4 page-500 word précis on Chapter 7 “How to Monitor & Control a TPM Project” of the Wysocki 7th Ed. text.”

Develop a 4 page-500 word précis on Chapter 7 “How to Monitor & Control a TPM Project” of the Wysocki 7th Ed. text.”

Summary of ‘How to Monitor and Control a TPM Project’ … Read More...
Discuss Bitcoins. What are they?

Discuss Bitcoins. What are they?

Bitcoin utilize peer-to-peer technology to activate with no essential authority … Read More...
English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

Please answer the following questions: You’re a leader in your company or organization (based on your concentration area). You need to make a decision on whether your company or organization shall start a new initiative. To make an informed decision, you plan to do some research. 1. Suppose that you have a list of 2700 employees in your company or organization, please describe in detail how you would use the systematic sampling method to select 30 participants for your study. 2. There are fewer male employees in your company. If you want to be sure these male employees are equally represented in your study, what sampling procedure should you use? Please describe in detail what you would do. 3. Suppose that you selected 30 employees (participants) for your study, you gave them a survey on their attitude towards the possible new initiative. What are some possible threats to the internal validity of this design? 4. The survey results indicated that your employees have mixed attitudes towards the new initiative. To be on the safe side, you would like to run a pilot study to examine the impact of the new initiative on employees’ productivity. Please describe in detail how you could use a true experimental design to address this research question. 5. Which statistical procedure would you use to analyze the quantitative data you collected from your pilot study (with a true experimental design) to address your research question? “

Please answer the following questions: You’re a leader in your company or organization (based on your concentration area). You need to make a decision on whether your company or organization shall start a new initiative. To make an informed decision, you plan to do some research. 1. Suppose that you have a list of 2700 employees in your company or organization, please describe in detail how you would use the systematic sampling method to select 30 participants for your study. 2. There are fewer male employees in your company. If you want to be sure these male employees are equally represented in your study, what sampling procedure should you use? Please describe in detail what you would do. 3. Suppose that you selected 30 employees (participants) for your study, you gave them a survey on their attitude towards the possible new initiative. What are some possible threats to the internal validity of this design? 4. The survey results indicated that your employees have mixed attitudes towards the new initiative. To be on the safe side, you would like to run a pilot study to examine the impact of the new initiative on employees’ productivity. Please describe in detail how you could use a true experimental design to address this research question. 5. Which statistical procedure would you use to analyze the quantitative data you collected from your pilot study (with a true experimental design) to address your research question? “

Suppose that you have a list of 2700 employees in … Read More...
Select Case 1, 2, or 8 in the back of the textbook. After you have read the case, select at least one of the questions presented at the end.-If you select only one question, then you will need to elaborate with more examples and perspectives than if you select more than one, but the choice is yours. Fair warning: It is possible to fall into the trap of repeating oneself. To avoid that threat, think in advance of the different perspectives that you wish to explore. If you select more than one question, each answer will naturally be shorter. This may be a good approach if you discern that the questions lack strong potential to elicit in-depth answers. Remember to reply to the contributions of two other students in this exercise. This is a rule that we are only observing in the case analyses, given the relative complexity of the cases, compared to the chapter discussion questions. Always add value, from the textbook, news, personal experience, or all three. Indicate the case and question at the beginning, but avoid restating the question in your answer. In this respect, use the same method as in the chapter discussion questions, described in the Week 2 forum. Write at least 500 words (no minimum for replies, but do add value). Quoted passages do not contribute to the word count (so you will need to write more if you insert any quoted material). Post-edit your work carefully to catch errors. Avoid plagiarism at all cost. ——— Note on anomalous questions. Some questions will require you to work around selected details to fit the requisite discussion format. For example, Question 2 in Case 1 asks how your proposal will solve certain problems noted in answer to the previous question. If you have not actually answered Question 1, then you will have to assert one or more problems from the case, a proposed solution, and then an explanation of how your proposal may help. Question 3 is similar, in that you will need to identify a problem and a solution, followed by an argument about the budget. Although Alistair was expecting to hire a Project Engineer rather than a Quality Compliance Manager, the methods used to make the decision should be similar. The main difference in the Quality Compliance Manager position is that it is in a joint venture with a Hungarian government backed firm. International Joint Ventures (IJV) makes HRM practices more complicated because HRM practices and strategies are required for each IJV entity (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). HRM must address IJV in four stages, in which, each stage has an impact on the next. It is important for HRM to very thorough with each stage and communication through each stage is vital. To be successful, HRM must combine the IJV strategy along with the recruitment, selection, training, and development processes (Dowling et al., 2013). In light of the needs of the company and the new Quality Compliance Manager position, Alistair should choose the first candidate, Marie Erten-Loiseau. The fact that the job requires travel to France and Germany is a positive for Marie because she was born in France and was educated in France and Germany. The familiarity of these locations will help her as she meets with new business partners because she will have a good understanding of the policy and procedures required for companies in these two countries. Dowling et al., (2013), points out that the manager needs to be able to assess the desires of the stakeholders and be able to implement strategies based on their desires. Another reason for choosing Marie is that she has the most experience and has worked with Trianon for 13 years. The experience she has with the company is invaluable because she knows the goals of the company and strategies for implementing those goals. The last reason for choosing Marie is that she has been successful in her previous positions. She has lead two projects in two different countries and both were successful. This shows that she is able to adapt to the different practices of each country. There are many factors that Alistair should take into consideration to determine the correct choice for the Quality Compliance Manager position. The major factors that require consideration are the specificities of the entire situation, the reason for the assignment, and type of assignment. The four main specificities include context specificities, firm specific variables, local unit specificities, and IHRM practices (Dowling et al., 2013). The context specificities would include the differences in cultures between the assignment in Hungary and the base location for the Trianon, Marseilles. The firm specific variable includes any changes in the way operations in Hungary are conducted, whether it is strategy or HRM policies. The local unit specificities include the role of the joint venture in relation to Trianon and how this joint venture will fit into the long-term plan of the company. The company hopes that it will provide a good working relationship with the state supported airline, which will lead to more business in the future. The IHRM practices determine the employees that are hired and the training that is available to the employees. The reason for the assignment also is a major factor in determining the correct candidate. In the situation of Trianon, a joint venture with a Hungarian government back firm created a position that needed filling. The Quality Compliance Manager position allows Trianon to manage the joint venture operation, make sure it is successful, and build a strong relationship with Malev. The last major factor is the type of assignment. The Quality Compliance Manager assignment is long-term assignment because it is 3 years in duration. The joint venture is the first that the company has been involved in outside the UK so there is less familiarity on the administrative/compliance side. The candidate must act as an agent of direct control (Dowling et al., 2013) by assuring that compliance policies are followed and company strategy is implemented. Assessing whether a male or female would be the best fit for the position is also a factor that deserves consideration. The low number of female expatriates led Jessens, Cappellen, &Zanoni (2006) to research the following three myths: women have no desire to be in positions of authority in a foreign country, companies do not desire to place females in positions of authority while a foreign country, and women would be ineffective because of the views towards women in foreign countries. The research indicated that female expatriates do have conflict that arises related to their gender but the successful ones were able to turn the conflicts around based on the qualities that these women possess (Jessens et al., 2006). With all of these factors considered, I believe Marie Erten-Loiseau is the best candidate for the Quality Compliance Manager. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D. Sr. (2013). International Human Resource Management (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning Janssens, M., Cappellen, T., &Zanoni, P. (2006). Successful female expatriates as agents: Positioning oneself through gender, hierarchy, and culture. Journal of World Business, 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2006.01.001 2.) Case 8 – Questions 1 & 4 Multinational firms are often faced with recruiting and staffing decisions that could ultimately enhance or diminish the firm’s ability to be successful in a competitive global market. Perlmutter identified four staffing approaches for MNEs to consider based on the primary attitudes of international executives that would lay the foundation for MNEs during the recruitment and hiring process (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). At one point or another throughout the MacDougall family journey Lachlan and Lisa have served in one of the four capacities as an ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric employee. The ability to encompass all four attitudes that Perlmutter set forth is something that the MacDougall family has managed to do extremely well. The possibility for a multinational firm to recruit a family of this caliber that has been exposed and has an understanding of the positive and negative aspects of each attitude is phenomenal. This would be resourceful for any multinational firm. The MacDougal family’s exposure to cross-cultural management is also valuable. The diverse cultural background that the family has encountered on their international journey is a rarity. Cultural diversity and cross-cultural management play a critical role in MNEs because it produces a work environment that can transform the workplace into a place of learning and give the firm the availability to create new ideas for a more productive and competitive advantage over other firms (Sultana, Rashid, Mohiuddin, &Mazumder, 2013). This is something that is easy for the MacDougall family to bring to the table with the family’s given history. The expatriate lifestyle that has become second nature to the MacDougall family is beneficial for multinational firms for multifarious reasons Being raised around different cultures and then choosing to work internationally and learn different cultures has attributed to Lachlan’s successful career. The family’s ability to communicate and blend in socially among diverse cultures is an important aspect for international firms that want to stay competitive and be successful. The family has acclimated fairly easy to all of the places they have been and this is something that can be favorable when firms are recruiting employees. The MacDougall family has an upper-hand in the international marketplace naturally due to previous experiences with other countries and cultures. The exceptional way that the family has managed to conform to a multitude of other cultures and flourish is not an easy task. Marriage is not easy and many families experience a greater challenge avoiding divorcees when international mobility is involved. Lachlan and Lisa have been able to move together and this is an important aspect to the success of their marriage. Based on the case study they have a common desire to travel and both are successful in their careers. Lisa’s devotion to her husband’s successful career has put some strain on the marriage as she has had times where she felt she did not have her own identity. Military spouses experience this type of stress during long deployments and times that they have to hold the household together on their own. Another example is with employers who are transferred internationally for a short period of time or travel often. Separation of spouses can strain any marriage, but Lisa and Lachlan have been fortunate to avoid separation for any extended length of time. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D.Sr.(2013). International Human Resource Management. (6thed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Sultana, M., Rashid, M., Mohiuddin, M. &Mazumder, M. (2013).Cross-cultural management and organizational performance.A Contnet analysis perspective.International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 133-146.

Select Case 1, 2, or 8 in the back of the textbook. After you have read the case, select at least one of the questions presented at the end.-If you select only one question, then you will need to elaborate with more examples and perspectives than if you select more than one, but the choice is yours. Fair warning: It is possible to fall into the trap of repeating oneself. To avoid that threat, think in advance of the different perspectives that you wish to explore. If you select more than one question, each answer will naturally be shorter. This may be a good approach if you discern that the questions lack strong potential to elicit in-depth answers. Remember to reply to the contributions of two other students in this exercise. This is a rule that we are only observing in the case analyses, given the relative complexity of the cases, compared to the chapter discussion questions. Always add value, from the textbook, news, personal experience, or all three. Indicate the case and question at the beginning, but avoid restating the question in your answer. In this respect, use the same method as in the chapter discussion questions, described in the Week 2 forum. Write at least 500 words (no minimum for replies, but do add value). Quoted passages do not contribute to the word count (so you will need to write more if you insert any quoted material). Post-edit your work carefully to catch errors. Avoid plagiarism at all cost. ——— Note on anomalous questions. Some questions will require you to work around selected details to fit the requisite discussion format. For example, Question 2 in Case 1 asks how your proposal will solve certain problems noted in answer to the previous question. If you have not actually answered Question 1, then you will have to assert one or more problems from the case, a proposed solution, and then an explanation of how your proposal may help. Question 3 is similar, in that you will need to identify a problem and a solution, followed by an argument about the budget. Although Alistair was expecting to hire a Project Engineer rather than a Quality Compliance Manager, the methods used to make the decision should be similar. The main difference in the Quality Compliance Manager position is that it is in a joint venture with a Hungarian government backed firm. International Joint Ventures (IJV) makes HRM practices more complicated because HRM practices and strategies are required for each IJV entity (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). HRM must address IJV in four stages, in which, each stage has an impact on the next. It is important for HRM to very thorough with each stage and communication through each stage is vital. To be successful, HRM must combine the IJV strategy along with the recruitment, selection, training, and development processes (Dowling et al., 2013). In light of the needs of the company and the new Quality Compliance Manager position, Alistair should choose the first candidate, Marie Erten-Loiseau. The fact that the job requires travel to France and Germany is a positive for Marie because she was born in France and was educated in France and Germany. The familiarity of these locations will help her as she meets with new business partners because she will have a good understanding of the policy and procedures required for companies in these two countries. Dowling et al., (2013), points out that the manager needs to be able to assess the desires of the stakeholders and be able to implement strategies based on their desires. Another reason for choosing Marie is that she has the most experience and has worked with Trianon for 13 years. The experience she has with the company is invaluable because she knows the goals of the company and strategies for implementing those goals. The last reason for choosing Marie is that she has been successful in her previous positions. She has lead two projects in two different countries and both were successful. This shows that she is able to adapt to the different practices of each country. There are many factors that Alistair should take into consideration to determine the correct choice for the Quality Compliance Manager position. The major factors that require consideration are the specificities of the entire situation, the reason for the assignment, and type of assignment. The four main specificities include context specificities, firm specific variables, local unit specificities, and IHRM practices (Dowling et al., 2013). The context specificities would include the differences in cultures between the assignment in Hungary and the base location for the Trianon, Marseilles. The firm specific variable includes any changes in the way operations in Hungary are conducted, whether it is strategy or HRM policies. The local unit specificities include the role of the joint venture in relation to Trianon and how this joint venture will fit into the long-term plan of the company. The company hopes that it will provide a good working relationship with the state supported airline, which will lead to more business in the future. The IHRM practices determine the employees that are hired and the training that is available to the employees. The reason for the assignment also is a major factor in determining the correct candidate. In the situation of Trianon, a joint venture with a Hungarian government back firm created a position that needed filling. The Quality Compliance Manager position allows Trianon to manage the joint venture operation, make sure it is successful, and build a strong relationship with Malev. The last major factor is the type of assignment. The Quality Compliance Manager assignment is long-term assignment because it is 3 years in duration. The joint venture is the first that the company has been involved in outside the UK so there is less familiarity on the administrative/compliance side. The candidate must act as an agent of direct control (Dowling et al., 2013) by assuring that compliance policies are followed and company strategy is implemented. Assessing whether a male or female would be the best fit for the position is also a factor that deserves consideration. The low number of female expatriates led Jessens, Cappellen, &Zanoni (2006) to research the following three myths: women have no desire to be in positions of authority in a foreign country, companies do not desire to place females in positions of authority while a foreign country, and women would be ineffective because of the views towards women in foreign countries. The research indicated that female expatriates do have conflict that arises related to their gender but the successful ones were able to turn the conflicts around based on the qualities that these women possess (Jessens et al., 2006). With all of these factors considered, I believe Marie Erten-Loiseau is the best candidate for the Quality Compliance Manager. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D. Sr. (2013). International Human Resource Management (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning Janssens, M., Cappellen, T., &Zanoni, P. (2006). Successful female expatriates as agents: Positioning oneself through gender, hierarchy, and culture. Journal of World Business, 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2006.01.001 2.) Case 8 – Questions 1 & 4 Multinational firms are often faced with recruiting and staffing decisions that could ultimately enhance or diminish the firm’s ability to be successful in a competitive global market. Perlmutter identified four staffing approaches for MNEs to consider based on the primary attitudes of international executives that would lay the foundation for MNEs during the recruitment and hiring process (Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2013). At one point or another throughout the MacDougall family journey Lachlan and Lisa have served in one of the four capacities as an ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric employee. The ability to encompass all four attitudes that Perlmutter set forth is something that the MacDougall family has managed to do extremely well. The possibility for a multinational firm to recruit a family of this caliber that has been exposed and has an understanding of the positive and negative aspects of each attitude is phenomenal. This would be resourceful for any multinational firm. The MacDougal family’s exposure to cross-cultural management is also valuable. The diverse cultural background that the family has encountered on their international journey is a rarity. Cultural diversity and cross-cultural management play a critical role in MNEs because it produces a work environment that can transform the workplace into a place of learning and give the firm the availability to create new ideas for a more productive and competitive advantage over other firms (Sultana, Rashid, Mohiuddin, &Mazumder, 2013). This is something that is easy for the MacDougall family to bring to the table with the family’s given history. The expatriate lifestyle that has become second nature to the MacDougall family is beneficial for multinational firms for multifarious reasons Being raised around different cultures and then choosing to work internationally and learn different cultures has attributed to Lachlan’s successful career. The family’s ability to communicate and blend in socially among diverse cultures is an important aspect for international firms that want to stay competitive and be successful. The family has acclimated fairly easy to all of the places they have been and this is something that can be favorable when firms are recruiting employees. The MacDougall family has an upper-hand in the international marketplace naturally due to previous experiences with other countries and cultures. The exceptional way that the family has managed to conform to a multitude of other cultures and flourish is not an easy task. Marriage is not easy and many families experience a greater challenge avoiding divorcees when international mobility is involved. Lachlan and Lisa have been able to move together and this is an important aspect to the success of their marriage. Based on the case study they have a common desire to travel and both are successful in their careers. Lisa’s devotion to her husband’s successful career has put some strain on the marriage as she has had times where she felt she did not have her own identity. Military spouses experience this type of stress during long deployments and times that they have to hold the household together on their own. Another example is with employers who are transferred internationally for a short period of time or travel often. Separation of spouses can strain any marriage, but Lisa and Lachlan have been fortunate to avoid separation for any extended length of time. References Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D.Sr.(2013). International Human Resource Management. (6thed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Sultana, M., Rashid, M., Mohiuddin, M. &Mazumder, M. (2013).Cross-cultural management and organizational performance.A Contnet analysis perspective.International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 133-146.

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6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

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Look up a journal article in your field that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

Look up a journal article in your field that addresses diversity and/or special education and briefly describe it in a paragraph.

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Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

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Statistical Methods (STAT 4303) Review for Final Comprehensive Exam Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion Q.1. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in college algebra class. 10,12,15,20,13,16,14 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) Q.2. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in English class. 12,15,16,18,13,10,17,20 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) (f) Compare the results of Q.1 and Q.2, Which scores College Algebra or English do you think is more precise (less spread)? Q.3 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics (a) mean (b) median (c) mode (d) first and third quartiles (e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. (f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. (g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). (h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 26 is replaced by 37 (i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? (j) What will be the new median? (k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.4 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 19, 14, 14, 15, 17, 16, 17, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics a) mean b) median c) mode d) first and third quartiles e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 28 is replaced by 48 i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? j) What will be the new median? k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.5 Consider the following data of height (in inch) and weight(in lbs). Height(x) Frequency 50 2 52 3 55 2 60 4 62 3  Find the mean height.  What is the variance of height? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.6. The following table shows the number of miles run during one week for a sample of 20 runners: Miles Mid-value (x) Frequency (f) 5.5-10.5 1 10.5-15.5 2 15.5-20.5 3 20.5-25.5 5 25.5-30.5 4 (a) Find the average (mean) miles run. (Hint: Find mid-value of mile range first) (b) What is the variance of miles run? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.7. (a) If the mean of 20 observations is 20.5, find the sum of all observations? (b) If the mean of 30 observations is 40, find the sum of all observations? Probability Q.8 Out of forty students, 14 are taking English Composition and 29 are taking Chemistry. a) How many students are in both classes? b) What is the probability that a randomly-chosen student from this group is taking only the Chemistry class? Q.9 A drawer contains 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and then replaced. Another ball is taken from the drawer. What is the probability that (Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation). (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q.10 A drawer contains 3 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and not replaced. Another ball is then taken from the drawer. Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation. What is the probability that (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q. 11 Missile A has 45% chance of hitting target. Missile B has 55% chance of hitting a target. What is the probability that (i) both miss the target. (ii) at least one will hit the target. (iii) exactly one will hit the target. Q. 12 A politician from D party speaks truth 65% of times; another politician from rival party speaks truth 75% of times. Both politicians were asked about their personal love affair with their own office secretary, what is the probability that (i) both lie the actual fact . (ii) at least one will speak truth. (iii) exactly one speaks the truth. (iv) both speak the truth. Q.13 The question, “Do you drink alcohol?” was asked to 220 people. Results are shown in the table. . Yes No Total Male 48 82 Female 24 66 Total (a) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a male also drinks? (b) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a female? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected individual drinks? (d) A person is selected at random and if the person is female, what is the probability that she drinks? (e) What is the probability that a randomly selected alcoholic person is a male? Q.14 A professor, Dr. Drakula, taught courses that included statements from across the five colleges abbreviated as AH, AS, BA, ED and EN. He taught at Texas A&M University – Kingsville (TAMUK) during the span of five academic years AY09 to AY13. The following table shows the total number of graduates during AY09 to AY13. One day, he was running late to his class. He was so focused on the class that he did not stop for a red light. As soon as he crossed through the intersection, a police officer Asked him to stop. ( a ) It is turned out that the police officer was TAMUK graduate during the past five years. What is the probability that the Police Officer was from ED College? ( b ) What is the probability that the Police Officer graduated in the academic year of 2011? ( c ) If the traffic officer graduated from TAMUK in the academic year of 2011(AY11). What is the conditional probability that he graduated from the ED college? ( d ) Are the events the academic year “AY 11” and the college of Education “ED” independent? Yes or no , why? Discrete Distribution Q.15 Find k and probability for X=2 and X=4. X 1 2 3 4 5 P(X=x) 0.1 3k 0.2 2k 0.2 (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers.What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Q.16 Find k. X 3 4 5 6 7 P(X=x) k 2k 2k k 2k (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers. What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Binomial Distribution: Q.17 (a) Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain disease, 75% die of it. What is the probability that of 6 randomly selected patients, 4 will recover? (b) A (blindfolded) marksman finds that on the average he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits? (ii) at least 3 misses? (c) which of the following are binomial experiments? Explain the reason. i. Telephone surveying a group of 200 people to ask if they voted for George Bush. ii. Counting the average number of dogs seen at a veterinarian’s office daily. iii. You take a survey of 50 traffic lights in a certain city, at 3 p.m., recording whether the light was red, green, or yellow at that time. iv. You are at a fair, playing “pop the balloon” with 6 darts. There are 20 balloons. 10 of the balloons have a ticket inside that say “win,” and 10 have a ticket that says “lose.” Normal Distribution Q.18 Use standard normal distribution table to find the following probabilities: (a) P(Z<2.5) (b) P(Z< -1.3) (c) P(Z>0.12) (d) P(Z> -2.15) (e) P(0.11<Z<0.22) (f) P(-0.11<Z<0.5) Q.19. Use normal distribution table to find the missing values (?). (a) P(Z< ?)=0.40 (b) P(Z< ?)=0.76 (c) P(Z> ?)=0.87 (d) P(Z> ?)=0.34 Q.20. The length of life of certain type of light bulb is normally distributed with mean=220hrs and standard deviation=20hrs. (a) Define a random variable, X A light bulb is randomly selected, what is the probability that (b) it will last will last more than 207 hrs. ? (c) it will last less than 214 hrs. (d) it will last in between 199 to 207 hrs. Q.21. The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 22 months and standard deviation of 4 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last (a) less than 10 months. (b) more than 28 months (c) between 10 and 28 months. Distribution of sample mean and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) Q.22 It is assumed that weight of teenage student is normally distributed with mean=140 lbs. and standard deviation =15 lbs. A simple random sample of 40 teenage students is taken and sample mean is calculated. If several such samples of same size are taken (i) what could be the mean of all sample means. (ii) what could be the standard deviation of all sample means. (iii) will the distribution of sample means be normal ? (iv) What is CLT? Write down the distribution of sample mean in the form of ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   . Q.23 The time it takes students in a cooking school to learn to prepare seafood gumbo is a random variable with a normal distribution where the average is 3.2 hours and a standard deviation of 1.8 hours. A sample of 40 students was investigated. What is the distribution of sample mean (express in numbers)? Hypothesis Testing Q.24 The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 203 with standard deviation of 37. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,00, =200.3. Is there statistical evidence of a difference in mean cholesterol levels in the Framingham Offspring (means does the result form current examination differs from 2002 report)?? (Follow the steps below to reach the conclusion) (i) Define null and alternate hypothesis (Also write what is  , and x in words at the beginning) (ii) Identify the significance level ,  and check whether it is one sided or two sided test. (iii) Calculate test statistics, Z. (iv) Use standard normal table to find the p-value and state whether you reject or accept (fail to reject) the null hypothesis. (v) what is the critical value, do you reject or accept the H0. (vi) Write down the conclusion based on part (iv). Q.25 A sample of 145 boxes of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran contain in average 1.95 scoops of raisins. It is known from past experiments that the standard deviation for the number of scoops of raisins is 0.25. The manufacturer of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran claimed that in average their product contains more than 2 scoops of raisins, do you reject or accept the manufacturers claim (follow all five steps)? Q.26 It is assumed that the mean systolic blood pressure is μ = 120 mm Hg. In the Honolulu Heart Study, a sample of n = 100 people had an average systolic blood pressure of 130.1 mm Hg. The standard deviation from the population is 21.21 mm Hg. Is the group significantly different (with respect to systolic blood pressure!) from the regular population? Use 10% level of significance. Q.27 A CEO claims that at least 80 percent of the company’s 1,000,000 customers are very satisfied. Again, 100 customers are surveyed using simple random sampling. The result: 73 percent are very satisfied. Based on these results, should we accept or reject the CEO’s hypothesis? Assume a significance level of 0.05. Q.28 True/False questions (These questions are collected from previous HW, review and exam problems, see the previous solutions for answers) (a) Total sum of probability can exceed 1. (b) If you throw a die, getting 2 or any even number are independent events. (c) If you roll a die for 20 times, the probability of getting 5 in 15th roll is 20 15 . (d) A student is taking a 5 question True-False quiz but he has not been doing any work in the course and does not know the material so he randomly guesses at all the answers. Probability that he gets the first question right is 2 1 . (e) Typing in laptop and writing emails using the same laptop are independent events. (f) Normal distribution is right skewed. (g) Mean is more robust to outliers. So mean is used for data with extreme values. (h) It is possible to have no mode in the data. (i) Standard normal variable, Z has some unit. (j) Only two parameters are required to describe the entire normal distribution. (k) Mean of standard normal variable, Z is 1. (l) If p-value of more than level of significance (alpha), we reject the H0. (m) Very small p-value indicates rejection of H0. (n) H0 always contains equality sign. (o) CLT indicates that distribution of sample mean can be anything, not just normal. (p) Sample mean is always equal to population mean. (q) Variance of sample mean is less than population mean. (r) Variance of sample mean does not depend on sample size. (s) Mr. A has cancer but a medical doctor diagnosed him as “no cancer”. It is a type I error. (t) Level of significance is probability of making type II error. (u) Type II error can be controlled. (v) Type I error is more serious than type II error. (w) Type I and Type II errors are based on null hypothesis. Q.29 Type I and Type II Errors : Make statements about Type I (False Positive) and Type II errors (False Negative). (a) The Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test has both Type I and Type II error possibilities. This test screens the mother’s blood during pregnancy for AFP and determines risk. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate Down syndrome. (Hint: Take actual status as down syndrome or not) Ho: patient is healthy Ha: patient is unhealthy (b) The mechanic inspects the brake pads for the minimum allowable thickness. Ho: Vehicles breaks meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. Ha: Vehicles brakes do not meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. (c) Celiac disease is one of the diseases which can be misdiagnosed or have less diagnosis. Following table shows the actual celiac patients and their diagnosis status by medical doctors: Actual Status Yes No Diagnosed as celiac Yes 85 5 No 25 105 I. Calculate the probability of making type I and type II error rates. II. Calculate the power of the test. (Power of the test= 1- P(type II error) Answers: USEFUL FORMULAE: Descriptive Statistics Possible Outliers, any value beyond the range of Q 1.5( ) and Q 1.5( ) Range = Maximum value -Minimum value 100 where 1 ( ) (Preferred) 1 and , n fx x For data with repeats, 1 ( ) (Preferred ) OR 1 and n x x For data without repeats, 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q Q Q Q x s CV n f n f x x OR s n fx nx s n x x s n x nx s                             Discrete Distribution         ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ( )} ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 E X x P X x V X E X E X E X xP X x Binomial Distribution Probability mass function, P(X=x)= x n x n x C p q  for x=0,1,2,…,n. E(X)=np, Var(X)=npq Hypothesis Testing based on Normal Distribution      X std X mean Z Standard Normal Variable, Probability Bayes Rule, ( ) ( and ) ( ) ( ) ( | ) P B P A B P B P A B P A B    Central Limit Theorem For large n (n>30), ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   and ˆ ~ ( , ) n pq p N p For hypothesis testing of μ, σ known           n x Z   For hypothesis testing of p n pq p p Z   ˆ ANSWERS: Q.1 (a) 14.286 (b) 14 (c) none (d) 10.24 (e) 22.40 Q.2 (a) 15.125 (b) 15.5 (c) No (d) 10.98 (e) 21.9 (f) English Q.3 (a) 18.6 (b)19 (c) 16, 21, and 25 (d) 15, 22 (f) slightly left (g) 7 (h) no outliers (i) increase (j) same Q.4 (a) 0.41 (b) 20 (c)14, 17, 20, 21,25 (d) 16.5, 25 (f) slightly right (g) 8.5 (h) no (i) increase (j) same Q.5 (a)56.57 (b) 22.26 (c) 8.34 Q.6 (a) 21 (b) 38.57 (c) 29.57 Q.7 (a) 410 (b) 1200 Q.8 (a)3 (b) 0.65 Q.9 (a) 0.082 (b) 0.29 (c)0.34 (d) 0.66 (e)0.10 (f) 0.64 Q.10 (a) 0.038 (b)0.23 (c) 0.71 (d) 0.29 (e)0.096 (f) 0.62 Q.11 (i)0.248 (ii)0.752 (iii)0.505 Q.12 (i)0.0875 (ii)0.913 (iii)0.425 (iii)0.488 Q.13 (a)0.22 (b)0.41 (c)0.33 (d)0.27 (e) 0.67 Q.14 (a) 0.13 (b) 0.18 (c)0.12 Q.15 E(X)=3.1 , V(X)=1.69, $0.2 per game, $ 4 win. Q.16 E(X)=5.125, V(X)=1.86, $0.25 loss per game, $5 loss. Q.17 (a)0.201 (b) 0.819, 0.027 Q.18 (a)0.9938 (b)0.0968 (c)0.452 (d)0.984 (e) 0.0433 (f)0.2353 Q.19 (a) -0.25 (b)0.71 (c) -1.13 (d)0.41 Q.20 (b) 0.7422 (c) 0.3821 (d) 0.1109 Q.21 (a)0.0014 (b) 0.0668 (c) 0.9318 Q.22 (a) 140 (b)2.37 Q.24 Z=-1.26, Accept null. Q.25 Z=-2.41, accept null Q.26 Z=4.76, reject H0 Q.27 Z=-1.75, reject H0 Q.28 F, F, F, T , F, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T Q.29 (c)0.113 , 0.022 , 0.977 (or 98%)

Statistical Methods (STAT 4303) Review for Final Comprehensive Exam Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion Q.1. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in college algebra class. 10,12,15,20,13,16,14 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) Q.2. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in English class. 12,15,16,18,13,10,17,20 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) (f) Compare the results of Q.1 and Q.2, Which scores College Algebra or English do you think is more precise (less spread)? Q.3 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics (a) mean (b) median (c) mode (d) first and third quartiles (e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. (f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. (g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). (h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 26 is replaced by 37 (i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? (j) What will be the new median? (k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.4 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 19, 14, 14, 15, 17, 16, 17, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics a) mean b) median c) mode d) first and third quartiles e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 28 is replaced by 48 i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? j) What will be the new median? k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.5 Consider the following data of height (in inch) and weight(in lbs). Height(x) Frequency 50 2 52 3 55 2 60 4 62 3  Find the mean height.  What is the variance of height? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.6. The following table shows the number of miles run during one week for a sample of 20 runners: Miles Mid-value (x) Frequency (f) 5.5-10.5 1 10.5-15.5 2 15.5-20.5 3 20.5-25.5 5 25.5-30.5 4 (a) Find the average (mean) miles run. (Hint: Find mid-value of mile range first) (b) What is the variance of miles run? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.7. (a) If the mean of 20 observations is 20.5, find the sum of all observations? (b) If the mean of 30 observations is 40, find the sum of all observations? Probability Q.8 Out of forty students, 14 are taking English Composition and 29 are taking Chemistry. a) How many students are in both classes? b) What is the probability that a randomly-chosen student from this group is taking only the Chemistry class? Q.9 A drawer contains 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and then replaced. Another ball is taken from the drawer. What is the probability that (Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation). (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q.10 A drawer contains 3 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and not replaced. Another ball is then taken from the drawer. Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation. What is the probability that (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q. 11 Missile A has 45% chance of hitting target. Missile B has 55% chance of hitting a target. What is the probability that (i) both miss the target. (ii) at least one will hit the target. (iii) exactly one will hit the target. Q. 12 A politician from D party speaks truth 65% of times; another politician from rival party speaks truth 75% of times. Both politicians were asked about their personal love affair with their own office secretary, what is the probability that (i) both lie the actual fact . (ii) at least one will speak truth. (iii) exactly one speaks the truth. (iv) both speak the truth. Q.13 The question, “Do you drink alcohol?” was asked to 220 people. Results are shown in the table. . Yes No Total Male 48 82 Female 24 66 Total (a) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a male also drinks? (b) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a female? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected individual drinks? (d) A person is selected at random and if the person is female, what is the probability that she drinks? (e) What is the probability that a randomly selected alcoholic person is a male? Q.14 A professor, Dr. Drakula, taught courses that included statements from across the five colleges abbreviated as AH, AS, BA, ED and EN. He taught at Texas A&M University – Kingsville (TAMUK) during the span of five academic years AY09 to AY13. The following table shows the total number of graduates during AY09 to AY13. One day, he was running late to his class. He was so focused on the class that he did not stop for a red light. As soon as he crossed through the intersection, a police officer Asked him to stop. ( a ) It is turned out that the police officer was TAMUK graduate during the past five years. What is the probability that the Police Officer was from ED College? ( b ) What is the probability that the Police Officer graduated in the academic year of 2011? ( c ) If the traffic officer graduated from TAMUK in the academic year of 2011(AY11). What is the conditional probability that he graduated from the ED college? ( d ) Are the events the academic year “AY 11” and the college of Education “ED” independent? Yes or no , why? Discrete Distribution Q.15 Find k and probability for X=2 and X=4. X 1 2 3 4 5 P(X=x) 0.1 3k 0.2 2k 0.2 (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers.What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Q.16 Find k. X 3 4 5 6 7 P(X=x) k 2k 2k k 2k (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers. What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Binomial Distribution: Q.17 (a) Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain disease, 75% die of it. What is the probability that of 6 randomly selected patients, 4 will recover? (b) A (blindfolded) marksman finds that on the average he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits? (ii) at least 3 misses? (c) which of the following are binomial experiments? Explain the reason. i. Telephone surveying a group of 200 people to ask if they voted for George Bush. ii. Counting the average number of dogs seen at a veterinarian’s office daily. iii. You take a survey of 50 traffic lights in a certain city, at 3 p.m., recording whether the light was red, green, or yellow at that time. iv. You are at a fair, playing “pop the balloon” with 6 darts. There are 20 balloons. 10 of the balloons have a ticket inside that say “win,” and 10 have a ticket that says “lose.” Normal Distribution Q.18 Use standard normal distribution table to find the following probabilities: (a) P(Z<2.5) (b) P(Z< -1.3) (c) P(Z>0.12) (d) P(Z> -2.15) (e) P(0.11 ?)=0.87 (d) P(Z> ?)=0.34 Q.20. The length of life of certain type of light bulb is normally distributed with mean=220hrs and standard deviation=20hrs. (a) Define a random variable, X A light bulb is randomly selected, what is the probability that (b) it will last will last more than 207 hrs. ? (c) it will last less than 214 hrs. (d) it will last in between 199 to 207 hrs. Q.21. The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 22 months and standard deviation of 4 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last (a) less than 10 months. (b) more than 28 months (c) between 10 and 28 months. Distribution of sample mean and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) Q.22 It is assumed that weight of teenage student is normally distributed with mean=140 lbs. and standard deviation =15 lbs. A simple random sample of 40 teenage students is taken and sample mean is calculated. If several such samples of same size are taken (i) what could be the mean of all sample means. (ii) what could be the standard deviation of all sample means. (iii) will the distribution of sample means be normal ? (iv) What is CLT? Write down the distribution of sample mean in the form of ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   . Q.23 The time it takes students in a cooking school to learn to prepare seafood gumbo is a random variable with a normal distribution where the average is 3.2 hours and a standard deviation of 1.8 hours. A sample of 40 students was investigated. What is the distribution of sample mean (express in numbers)? Hypothesis Testing Q.24 The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 203 with standard deviation of 37. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,00, =200.3. Is there statistical evidence of a difference in mean cholesterol levels in the Framingham Offspring (means does the result form current examination differs from 2002 report)?? (Follow the steps below to reach the conclusion) (i) Define null and alternate hypothesis (Also write what is  , and x in words at the beginning) (ii) Identify the significance level ,  and check whether it is one sided or two sided test. (iii) Calculate test statistics, Z. (iv) Use standard normal table to find the p-value and state whether you reject or accept (fail to reject) the null hypothesis. (v) what is the critical value, do you reject or accept the H0. (vi) Write down the conclusion based on part (iv). Q.25 A sample of 145 boxes of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran contain in average 1.95 scoops of raisins. It is known from past experiments that the standard deviation for the number of scoops of raisins is 0.25. The manufacturer of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran claimed that in average their product contains more than 2 scoops of raisins, do you reject or accept the manufacturers claim (follow all five steps)? Q.26 It is assumed that the mean systolic blood pressure is μ = 120 mm Hg. In the Honolulu Heart Study, a sample of n = 100 people had an average systolic blood pressure of 130.1 mm Hg. The standard deviation from the population is 21.21 mm Hg. Is the group significantly different (with respect to systolic blood pressure!) from the regular population? Use 10% level of significance. Q.27 A CEO claims that at least 80 percent of the company’s 1,000,000 customers are very satisfied. Again, 100 customers are surveyed using simple random sampling. The result: 73 percent are very satisfied. Based on these results, should we accept or reject the CEO’s hypothesis? Assume a significance level of 0.05. Q.28 True/False questions (These questions are collected from previous HW, review and exam problems, see the previous solutions for answers) (a) Total sum of probability can exceed 1. (b) If you throw a die, getting 2 or any even number are independent events. (c) If you roll a die for 20 times, the probability of getting 5 in 15th roll is 20 15 . (d) A student is taking a 5 question True-False quiz but he has not been doing any work in the course and does not know the material so he randomly guesses at all the answers. Probability that he gets the first question right is 2 1 . (e) Typing in laptop and writing emails using the same laptop are independent events. (f) Normal distribution is right skewed. (g) Mean is more robust to outliers. So mean is used for data with extreme values. (h) It is possible to have no mode in the data. (i) Standard normal variable, Z has some unit. (j) Only two parameters are required to describe the entire normal distribution. (k) Mean of standard normal variable, Z is 1. (l) If p-value of more than level of significance (alpha), we reject the H0. (m) Very small p-value indicates rejection of H0. (n) H0 always contains equality sign. (o) CLT indicates that distribution of sample mean can be anything, not just normal. (p) Sample mean is always equal to population mean. (q) Variance of sample mean is less than population mean. (r) Variance of sample mean does not depend on sample size. (s) Mr. A has cancer but a medical doctor diagnosed him as “no cancer”. It is a type I error. (t) Level of significance is probability of making type II error. (u) Type II error can be controlled. (v) Type I error is more serious than type II error. (w) Type I and Type II errors are based on null hypothesis. Q.29 Type I and Type II Errors : Make statements about Type I (False Positive) and Type II errors (False Negative). (a) The Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test has both Type I and Type II error possibilities. This test screens the mother’s blood during pregnancy for AFP and determines risk. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate Down syndrome. (Hint: Take actual status as down syndrome or not) Ho: patient is healthy Ha: patient is unhealthy (b) The mechanic inspects the brake pads for the minimum allowable thickness. Ho: Vehicles breaks meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. Ha: Vehicles brakes do not meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. (c) Celiac disease is one of the diseases which can be misdiagnosed or have less diagnosis. Following table shows the actual celiac patients and their diagnosis status by medical doctors: Actual Status Yes No Diagnosed as celiac Yes 85 5 No 25 105 I. Calculate the probability of making type I and type II error rates. II. Calculate the power of the test. (Power of the test= 1- P(type II error) Answers: USEFUL FORMULAE: Descriptive Statistics Possible Outliers, any value beyond the range of Q 1.5( ) and Q 1.5( ) Range = Maximum value -Minimum value 100 where 1 ( ) (Preferred) 1 and , n fx x For data with repeats, 1 ( ) (Preferred ) OR 1 and n x x For data without repeats, 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q Q Q Q x s CV n f n f x x OR s n fx nx s n x x s n x nx s                             Discrete Distribution         ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ( )} ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 E X x P X x V X E X E X E X xP X x Binomial Distribution Probability mass function, P(X=x)= x n x n x C p q  for x=0,1,2,…,n. E(X)=np, Var(X)=npq Hypothesis Testing based on Normal Distribution      X std X mean Z Standard Normal Variable, Probability Bayes Rule, ( ) ( and ) ( ) ( ) ( | ) P B P A B P B P A B P A B    Central Limit Theorem For large n (n>30), ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   and ˆ ~ ( , ) n pq p N p For hypothesis testing of μ, σ known           n x Z   For hypothesis testing of p n pq p p Z   ˆ ANSWERS: Q.1 (a) 14.286 (b) 14 (c) none (d) 10.24 (e) 22.40 Q.2 (a) 15.125 (b) 15.5 (c) No (d) 10.98 (e) 21.9 (f) English Q.3 (a) 18.6 (b)19 (c) 16, 21, and 25 (d) 15, 22 (f) slightly left (g) 7 (h) no outliers (i) increase (j) same Q.4 (a) 0.41 (b) 20 (c)14, 17, 20, 21,25 (d) 16.5, 25 (f) slightly right (g) 8.5 (h) no (i) increase (j) same Q.5 (a)56.57 (b) 22.26 (c) 8.34 Q.6 (a) 21 (b) 38.57 (c) 29.57 Q.7 (a) 410 (b) 1200 Q.8 (a)3 (b) 0.65 Q.9 (a) 0.082 (b) 0.29 (c)0.34 (d) 0.66 (e)0.10 (f) 0.64 Q.10 (a) 0.038 (b)0.23 (c) 0.71 (d) 0.29 (e)0.096 (f) 0.62 Q.11 (i)0.248 (ii)0.752 (iii)0.505 Q.12 (i)0.0875 (ii)0.913 (iii)0.425 (iii)0.488 Q.13 (a)0.22 (b)0.41 (c)0.33 (d)0.27 (e) 0.67 Q.14 (a) 0.13 (b) 0.18 (c)0.12 Q.15 E(X)=3.1 , V(X)=1.69, $0.2 per game, $ 4 win. Q.16 E(X)=5.125, V(X)=1.86, $0.25 loss per game, $5 loss. Q.17 (a)0.201 (b) 0.819, 0.027 Q.18 (a)0.9938 (b)0.0968 (c)0.452 (d)0.984 (e) 0.0433 (f)0.2353 Q.19 (a) -0.25 (b)0.71 (c) -1.13 (d)0.41 Q.20 (b) 0.7422 (c) 0.3821 (d) 0.1109 Q.21 (a)0.0014 (b) 0.0668 (c) 0.9318 Q.22 (a) 140 (b)2.37 Q.24 Z=-1.26, Accept null. Q.25 Z=-2.41, accept null Q.26 Z=4.76, reject H0 Q.27 Z=-1.75, reject H0 Q.28 F, F, F, T , F, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T Q.29 (c)0.113 , 0.022 , 0.977 (or 98%)

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