http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

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Statistical Methods (STAT 4303) Review for Final Comprehensive Exam Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion Q.1. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in college algebra class. 10,12,15,20,13,16,14 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) Q.2. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in English class. 12,15,16,18,13,10,17,20 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) (f) Compare the results of Q.1 and Q.2, Which scores College Algebra or English do you think is more precise (less spread)? Q.3 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics (a) mean (b) median (c) mode (d) first and third quartiles (e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. (f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. (g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). (h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 26 is replaced by 37 (i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? (j) What will be the new median? (k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.4 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 19, 14, 14, 15, 17, 16, 17, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics a) mean b) median c) mode d) first and third quartiles e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 28 is replaced by 48 i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? j) What will be the new median? k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.5 Consider the following data of height (in inch) and weight(in lbs). Height(x) Frequency 50 2 52 3 55 2 60 4 62 3  Find the mean height.  What is the variance of height? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.6. The following table shows the number of miles run during one week for a sample of 20 runners: Miles Mid-value (x) Frequency (f) 5.5-10.5 1 10.5-15.5 2 15.5-20.5 3 20.5-25.5 5 25.5-30.5 4 (a) Find the average (mean) miles run. (Hint: Find mid-value of mile range first) (b) What is the variance of miles run? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.7. (a) If the mean of 20 observations is 20.5, find the sum of all observations? (b) If the mean of 30 observations is 40, find the sum of all observations? Probability Q.8 Out of forty students, 14 are taking English Composition and 29 are taking Chemistry. a) How many students are in both classes? b) What is the probability that a randomly-chosen student from this group is taking only the Chemistry class? Q.9 A drawer contains 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and then replaced. Another ball is taken from the drawer. What is the probability that (Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation). (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q.10 A drawer contains 3 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and not replaced. Another ball is then taken from the drawer. Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation. What is the probability that (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q. 11 Missile A has 45% chance of hitting target. Missile B has 55% chance of hitting a target. What is the probability that (i) both miss the target. (ii) at least one will hit the target. (iii) exactly one will hit the target. Q. 12 A politician from D party speaks truth 65% of times; another politician from rival party speaks truth 75% of times. Both politicians were asked about their personal love affair with their own office secretary, what is the probability that (i) both lie the actual fact . (ii) at least one will speak truth. (iii) exactly one speaks the truth. (iv) both speak the truth. Q.13 The question, “Do you drink alcohol?” was asked to 220 people. Results are shown in the table. . Yes No Total Male 48 82 Female 24 66 Total (a) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a male also drinks? (b) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a female? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected individual drinks? (d) A person is selected at random and if the person is female, what is the probability that she drinks? (e) What is the probability that a randomly selected alcoholic person is a male? Q.14 A professor, Dr. Drakula, taught courses that included statements from across the five colleges abbreviated as AH, AS, BA, ED and EN. He taught at Texas A&M University – Kingsville (TAMUK) during the span of five academic years AY09 to AY13. The following table shows the total number of graduates during AY09 to AY13. One day, he was running late to his class. He was so focused on the class that he did not stop for a red light. As soon as he crossed through the intersection, a police officer Asked him to stop. ( a ) It is turned out that the police officer was TAMUK graduate during the past five years. What is the probability that the Police Officer was from ED College? ( b ) What is the probability that the Police Officer graduated in the academic year of 2011? ( c ) If the traffic officer graduated from TAMUK in the academic year of 2011(AY11). What is the conditional probability that he graduated from the ED college? ( d ) Are the events the academic year “AY 11” and the college of Education “ED” independent? Yes or no , why? Discrete Distribution Q.15 Find k and probability for X=2 and X=4. X 1 2 3 4 5 P(X=x) 0.1 3k 0.2 2k 0.2 (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers.What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Q.16 Find k. X 3 4 5 6 7 P(X=x) k 2k 2k k 2k (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers. What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Binomial Distribution: Q.17 (a) Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain disease, 75% die of it. What is the probability that of 6 randomly selected patients, 4 will recover? (b) A (blindfolded) marksman finds that on the average he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits? (ii) at least 3 misses? (c) which of the following are binomial experiments? Explain the reason. i. Telephone surveying a group of 200 people to ask if they voted for George Bush. ii. Counting the average number of dogs seen at a veterinarian’s office daily. iii. You take a survey of 50 traffic lights in a certain city, at 3 p.m., recording whether the light was red, green, or yellow at that time. iv. You are at a fair, playing “pop the balloon” with 6 darts. There are 20 balloons. 10 of the balloons have a ticket inside that say “win,” and 10 have a ticket that says “lose.” Normal Distribution Q.18 Use standard normal distribution table to find the following probabilities: (a) P(Z<2.5) (b) P(Z< -1.3) (c) P(Z>0.12) (d) P(Z> -2.15) (e) P(0.11<Z<0.22) (f) P(-0.11<Z<0.5) Q.19. Use normal distribution table to find the missing values (?). (a) P(Z< ?)=0.40 (b) P(Z< ?)=0.76 (c) P(Z> ?)=0.87 (d) P(Z> ?)=0.34 Q.20. The length of life of certain type of light bulb is normally distributed with mean=220hrs and standard deviation=20hrs. (a) Define a random variable, X A light bulb is randomly selected, what is the probability that (b) it will last will last more than 207 hrs. ? (c) it will last less than 214 hrs. (d) it will last in between 199 to 207 hrs. Q.21. The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 22 months and standard deviation of 4 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last (a) less than 10 months. (b) more than 28 months (c) between 10 and 28 months. Distribution of sample mean and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) Q.22 It is assumed that weight of teenage student is normally distributed with mean=140 lbs. and standard deviation =15 lbs. A simple random sample of 40 teenage students is taken and sample mean is calculated. If several such samples of same size are taken (i) what could be the mean of all sample means. (ii) what could be the standard deviation of all sample means. (iii) will the distribution of sample means be normal ? (iv) What is CLT? Write down the distribution of sample mean in the form of ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   . Q.23 The time it takes students in a cooking school to learn to prepare seafood gumbo is a random variable with a normal distribution where the average is 3.2 hours and a standard deviation of 1.8 hours. A sample of 40 students was investigated. What is the distribution of sample mean (express in numbers)? Hypothesis Testing Q.24 The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 203 with standard deviation of 37. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,00, =200.3. Is there statistical evidence of a difference in mean cholesterol levels in the Framingham Offspring (means does the result form current examination differs from 2002 report)?? (Follow the steps below to reach the conclusion) (i) Define null and alternate hypothesis (Also write what is  , and x in words at the beginning) (ii) Identify the significance level ,  and check whether it is one sided or two sided test. (iii) Calculate test statistics, Z. (iv) Use standard normal table to find the p-value and state whether you reject or accept (fail to reject) the null hypothesis. (v) what is the critical value, do you reject or accept the H0. (vi) Write down the conclusion based on part (iv). Q.25 A sample of 145 boxes of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran contain in average 1.95 scoops of raisins. It is known from past experiments that the standard deviation for the number of scoops of raisins is 0.25. The manufacturer of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran claimed that in average their product contains more than 2 scoops of raisins, do you reject or accept the manufacturers claim (follow all five steps)? Q.26 It is assumed that the mean systolic blood pressure is μ = 120 mm Hg. In the Honolulu Heart Study, a sample of n = 100 people had an average systolic blood pressure of 130.1 mm Hg. The standard deviation from the population is 21.21 mm Hg. Is the group significantly different (with respect to systolic blood pressure!) from the regular population? Use 10% level of significance. Q.27 A CEO claims that at least 80 percent of the company’s 1,000,000 customers are very satisfied. Again, 100 customers are surveyed using simple random sampling. The result: 73 percent are very satisfied. Based on these results, should we accept or reject the CEO’s hypothesis? Assume a significance level of 0.05. Q.28 True/False questions (These questions are collected from previous HW, review and exam problems, see the previous solutions for answers) (a) Total sum of probability can exceed 1. (b) If you throw a die, getting 2 or any even number are independent events. (c) If you roll a die for 20 times, the probability of getting 5 in 15th roll is 20 15 . (d) A student is taking a 5 question True-False quiz but he has not been doing any work in the course and does not know the material so he randomly guesses at all the answers. Probability that he gets the first question right is 2 1 . (e) Typing in laptop and writing emails using the same laptop are independent events. (f) Normal distribution is right skewed. (g) Mean is more robust to outliers. So mean is used for data with extreme values. (h) It is possible to have no mode in the data. (i) Standard normal variable, Z has some unit. (j) Only two parameters are required to describe the entire normal distribution. (k) Mean of standard normal variable, Z is 1. (l) If p-value of more than level of significance (alpha), we reject the H0. (m) Very small p-value indicates rejection of H0. (n) H0 always contains equality sign. (o) CLT indicates that distribution of sample mean can be anything, not just normal. (p) Sample mean is always equal to population mean. (q) Variance of sample mean is less than population mean. (r) Variance of sample mean does not depend on sample size. (s) Mr. A has cancer but a medical doctor diagnosed him as “no cancer”. It is a type I error. (t) Level of significance is probability of making type II error. (u) Type II error can be controlled. (v) Type I error is more serious than type II error. (w) Type I and Type II errors are based on null hypothesis. Q.29 Type I and Type II Errors : Make statements about Type I (False Positive) and Type II errors (False Negative). (a) The Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test has both Type I and Type II error possibilities. This test screens the mother’s blood during pregnancy for AFP and determines risk. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate Down syndrome. (Hint: Take actual status as down syndrome or not) Ho: patient is healthy Ha: patient is unhealthy (b) The mechanic inspects the brake pads for the minimum allowable thickness. Ho: Vehicles breaks meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. Ha: Vehicles brakes do not meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. (c) Celiac disease is one of the diseases which can be misdiagnosed or have less diagnosis. Following table shows the actual celiac patients and their diagnosis status by medical doctors: Actual Status Yes No Diagnosed as celiac Yes 85 5 No 25 105 I. Calculate the probability of making type I and type II error rates. II. Calculate the power of the test. (Power of the test= 1- P(type II error) Answers: USEFUL FORMULAE: Descriptive Statistics Possible Outliers, any value beyond the range of Q 1.5( ) and Q 1.5( ) Range = Maximum value -Minimum value 100 where 1 ( ) (Preferred) 1 and , n fx x For data with repeats, 1 ( ) (Preferred ) OR 1 and n x x For data without repeats, 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q Q Q Q x s CV n f n f x x OR s n fx nx s n x x s n x nx s                             Discrete Distribution         ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ( )} ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 E X x P X x V X E X E X E X xP X x Binomial Distribution Probability mass function, P(X=x)= x n x n x C p q  for x=0,1,2,…,n. E(X)=np, Var(X)=npq Hypothesis Testing based on Normal Distribution      X std X mean Z Standard Normal Variable, Probability Bayes Rule, ( ) ( and ) ( ) ( ) ( | ) P B P A B P B P A B P A B    Central Limit Theorem For large n (n>30), ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   and ˆ ~ ( , ) n pq p N p For hypothesis testing of μ, σ known           n x Z   For hypothesis testing of p n pq p p Z   ˆ ANSWERS: Q.1 (a) 14.286 (b) 14 (c) none (d) 10.24 (e) 22.40 Q.2 (a) 15.125 (b) 15.5 (c) No (d) 10.98 (e) 21.9 (f) English Q.3 (a) 18.6 (b)19 (c) 16, 21, and 25 (d) 15, 22 (f) slightly left (g) 7 (h) no outliers (i) increase (j) same Q.4 (a) 0.41 (b) 20 (c)14, 17, 20, 21,25 (d) 16.5, 25 (f) slightly right (g) 8.5 (h) no (i) increase (j) same Q.5 (a)56.57 (b) 22.26 (c) 8.34 Q.6 (a) 21 (b) 38.57 (c) 29.57 Q.7 (a) 410 (b) 1200 Q.8 (a)3 (b) 0.65 Q.9 (a) 0.082 (b) 0.29 (c)0.34 (d) 0.66 (e)0.10 (f) 0.64 Q.10 (a) 0.038 (b)0.23 (c) 0.71 (d) 0.29 (e)0.096 (f) 0.62 Q.11 (i)0.248 (ii)0.752 (iii)0.505 Q.12 (i)0.0875 (ii)0.913 (iii)0.425 (iii)0.488 Q.13 (a)0.22 (b)0.41 (c)0.33 (d)0.27 (e) 0.67 Q.14 (a) 0.13 (b) 0.18 (c)0.12 Q.15 E(X)=3.1 , V(X)=1.69, $0.2 per game, $ 4 win. Q.16 E(X)=5.125, V(X)=1.86, $0.25 loss per game, $5 loss. Q.17 (a)0.201 (b) 0.819, 0.027 Q.18 (a)0.9938 (b)0.0968 (c)0.452 (d)0.984 (e) 0.0433 (f)0.2353 Q.19 (a) -0.25 (b)0.71 (c) -1.13 (d)0.41 Q.20 (b) 0.7422 (c) 0.3821 (d) 0.1109 Q.21 (a)0.0014 (b) 0.0668 (c) 0.9318 Q.22 (a) 140 (b)2.37 Q.24 Z=-1.26, Accept null. Q.25 Z=-2.41, accept null Q.26 Z=4.76, reject H0 Q.27 Z=-1.75, reject H0 Q.28 F, F, F, T , F, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T Q.29 (c)0.113 , 0.022 , 0.977 (or 98%)

Statistical Methods (STAT 4303) Review for Final Comprehensive Exam Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion Q.1. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in college algebra class. 10,12,15,20,13,16,14 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) Q.2. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in English class. 12,15,16,18,13,10,17,20 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) (f) Compare the results of Q.1 and Q.2, Which scores College Algebra or English do you think is more precise (less spread)? Q.3 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics (a) mean (b) median (c) mode (d) first and third quartiles (e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. (f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. (g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). (h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 26 is replaced by 37 (i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? (j) What will be the new median? (k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.4 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 19, 14, 14, 15, 17, 16, 17, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics a) mean b) median c) mode d) first and third quartiles e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 28 is replaced by 48 i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? j) What will be the new median? k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.5 Consider the following data of height (in inch) and weight(in lbs). Height(x) Frequency 50 2 52 3 55 2 60 4 62 3  Find the mean height.  What is the variance of height? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.6. The following table shows the number of miles run during one week for a sample of 20 runners: Miles Mid-value (x) Frequency (f) 5.5-10.5 1 10.5-15.5 2 15.5-20.5 3 20.5-25.5 5 25.5-30.5 4 (a) Find the average (mean) miles run. (Hint: Find mid-value of mile range first) (b) What is the variance of miles run? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.7. (a) If the mean of 20 observations is 20.5, find the sum of all observations? (b) If the mean of 30 observations is 40, find the sum of all observations? Probability Q.8 Out of forty students, 14 are taking English Composition and 29 are taking Chemistry. a) How many students are in both classes? b) What is the probability that a randomly-chosen student from this group is taking only the Chemistry class? Q.9 A drawer contains 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and then replaced. Another ball is taken from the drawer. What is the probability that (Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation). (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q.10 A drawer contains 3 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and not replaced. Another ball is then taken from the drawer. Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation. What is the probability that (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q. 11 Missile A has 45% chance of hitting target. Missile B has 55% chance of hitting a target. What is the probability that (i) both miss the target. (ii) at least one will hit the target. (iii) exactly one will hit the target. Q. 12 A politician from D party speaks truth 65% of times; another politician from rival party speaks truth 75% of times. Both politicians were asked about their personal love affair with their own office secretary, what is the probability that (i) both lie the actual fact . (ii) at least one will speak truth. (iii) exactly one speaks the truth. (iv) both speak the truth. Q.13 The question, “Do you drink alcohol?” was asked to 220 people. Results are shown in the table. . Yes No Total Male 48 82 Female 24 66 Total (a) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a male also drinks? (b) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a female? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected individual drinks? (d) A person is selected at random and if the person is female, what is the probability that she drinks? (e) What is the probability that a randomly selected alcoholic person is a male? Q.14 A professor, Dr. Drakula, taught courses that included statements from across the five colleges abbreviated as AH, AS, BA, ED and EN. He taught at Texas A&M University – Kingsville (TAMUK) during the span of five academic years AY09 to AY13. The following table shows the total number of graduates during AY09 to AY13. One day, he was running late to his class. He was so focused on the class that he did not stop for a red light. As soon as he crossed through the intersection, a police officer Asked him to stop. ( a ) It is turned out that the police officer was TAMUK graduate during the past five years. What is the probability that the Police Officer was from ED College? ( b ) What is the probability that the Police Officer graduated in the academic year of 2011? ( c ) If the traffic officer graduated from TAMUK in the academic year of 2011(AY11). What is the conditional probability that he graduated from the ED college? ( d ) Are the events the academic year “AY 11” and the college of Education “ED” independent? Yes or no , why? Discrete Distribution Q.15 Find k and probability for X=2 and X=4. X 1 2 3 4 5 P(X=x) 0.1 3k 0.2 2k 0.2 (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers.What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Q.16 Find k. X 3 4 5 6 7 P(X=x) k 2k 2k k 2k (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers. What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Binomial Distribution: Q.17 (a) Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain disease, 75% die of it. What is the probability that of 6 randomly selected patients, 4 will recover? (b) A (blindfolded) marksman finds that on the average he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits? (ii) at least 3 misses? (c) which of the following are binomial experiments? Explain the reason. i. Telephone surveying a group of 200 people to ask if they voted for George Bush. ii. Counting the average number of dogs seen at a veterinarian’s office daily. iii. You take a survey of 50 traffic lights in a certain city, at 3 p.m., recording whether the light was red, green, or yellow at that time. iv. You are at a fair, playing “pop the balloon” with 6 darts. There are 20 balloons. 10 of the balloons have a ticket inside that say “win,” and 10 have a ticket that says “lose.” Normal Distribution Q.18 Use standard normal distribution table to find the following probabilities: (a) P(Z<2.5) (b) P(Z< -1.3) (c) P(Z>0.12) (d) P(Z> -2.15) (e) P(0.11 ?)=0.87 (d) P(Z> ?)=0.34 Q.20. The length of life of certain type of light bulb is normally distributed with mean=220hrs and standard deviation=20hrs. (a) Define a random variable, X A light bulb is randomly selected, what is the probability that (b) it will last will last more than 207 hrs. ? (c) it will last less than 214 hrs. (d) it will last in between 199 to 207 hrs. Q.21. The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 22 months and standard deviation of 4 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last (a) less than 10 months. (b) more than 28 months (c) between 10 and 28 months. Distribution of sample mean and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) Q.22 It is assumed that weight of teenage student is normally distributed with mean=140 lbs. and standard deviation =15 lbs. A simple random sample of 40 teenage students is taken and sample mean is calculated. If several such samples of same size are taken (i) what could be the mean of all sample means. (ii) what could be the standard deviation of all sample means. (iii) will the distribution of sample means be normal ? (iv) What is CLT? Write down the distribution of sample mean in the form of ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   . Q.23 The time it takes students in a cooking school to learn to prepare seafood gumbo is a random variable with a normal distribution where the average is 3.2 hours and a standard deviation of 1.8 hours. A sample of 40 students was investigated. What is the distribution of sample mean (express in numbers)? Hypothesis Testing Q.24 The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 203 with standard deviation of 37. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,00, =200.3. Is there statistical evidence of a difference in mean cholesterol levels in the Framingham Offspring (means does the result form current examination differs from 2002 report)?? (Follow the steps below to reach the conclusion) (i) Define null and alternate hypothesis (Also write what is  , and x in words at the beginning) (ii) Identify the significance level ,  and check whether it is one sided or two sided test. (iii) Calculate test statistics, Z. (iv) Use standard normal table to find the p-value and state whether you reject or accept (fail to reject) the null hypothesis. (v) what is the critical value, do you reject or accept the H0. (vi) Write down the conclusion based on part (iv). Q.25 A sample of 145 boxes of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran contain in average 1.95 scoops of raisins. It is known from past experiments that the standard deviation for the number of scoops of raisins is 0.25. The manufacturer of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran claimed that in average their product contains more than 2 scoops of raisins, do you reject or accept the manufacturers claim (follow all five steps)? Q.26 It is assumed that the mean systolic blood pressure is μ = 120 mm Hg. In the Honolulu Heart Study, a sample of n = 100 people had an average systolic blood pressure of 130.1 mm Hg. The standard deviation from the population is 21.21 mm Hg. Is the group significantly different (with respect to systolic blood pressure!) from the regular population? Use 10% level of significance. Q.27 A CEO claims that at least 80 percent of the company’s 1,000,000 customers are very satisfied. Again, 100 customers are surveyed using simple random sampling. The result: 73 percent are very satisfied. Based on these results, should we accept or reject the CEO’s hypothesis? Assume a significance level of 0.05. Q.28 True/False questions (These questions are collected from previous HW, review and exam problems, see the previous solutions for answers) (a) Total sum of probability can exceed 1. (b) If you throw a die, getting 2 or any even number are independent events. (c) If you roll a die for 20 times, the probability of getting 5 in 15th roll is 20 15 . (d) A student is taking a 5 question True-False quiz but he has not been doing any work in the course and does not know the material so he randomly guesses at all the answers. Probability that he gets the first question right is 2 1 . (e) Typing in laptop and writing emails using the same laptop are independent events. (f) Normal distribution is right skewed. (g) Mean is more robust to outliers. So mean is used for data with extreme values. (h) It is possible to have no mode in the data. (i) Standard normal variable, Z has some unit. (j) Only two parameters are required to describe the entire normal distribution. (k) Mean of standard normal variable, Z is 1. (l) If p-value of more than level of significance (alpha), we reject the H0. (m) Very small p-value indicates rejection of H0. (n) H0 always contains equality sign. (o) CLT indicates that distribution of sample mean can be anything, not just normal. (p) Sample mean is always equal to population mean. (q) Variance of sample mean is less than population mean. (r) Variance of sample mean does not depend on sample size. (s) Mr. A has cancer but a medical doctor diagnosed him as “no cancer”. It is a type I error. (t) Level of significance is probability of making type II error. (u) Type II error can be controlled. (v) Type I error is more serious than type II error. (w) Type I and Type II errors are based on null hypothesis. Q.29 Type I and Type II Errors : Make statements about Type I (False Positive) and Type II errors (False Negative). (a) The Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test has both Type I and Type II error possibilities. This test screens the mother’s blood during pregnancy for AFP and determines risk. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate Down syndrome. (Hint: Take actual status as down syndrome or not) Ho: patient is healthy Ha: patient is unhealthy (b) The mechanic inspects the brake pads for the minimum allowable thickness. Ho: Vehicles breaks meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. Ha: Vehicles brakes do not meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. (c) Celiac disease is one of the diseases which can be misdiagnosed or have less diagnosis. Following table shows the actual celiac patients and their diagnosis status by medical doctors: Actual Status Yes No Diagnosed as celiac Yes 85 5 No 25 105 I. Calculate the probability of making type I and type II error rates. II. Calculate the power of the test. (Power of the test= 1- P(type II error) Answers: USEFUL FORMULAE: Descriptive Statistics Possible Outliers, any value beyond the range of Q 1.5( ) and Q 1.5( ) Range = Maximum value -Minimum value 100 where 1 ( ) (Preferred) 1 and , n fx x For data with repeats, 1 ( ) (Preferred ) OR 1 and n x x For data without repeats, 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q Q Q Q x s CV n f n f x x OR s n fx nx s n x x s n x nx s                             Discrete Distribution         ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ( )} ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 E X x P X x V X E X E X E X xP X x Binomial Distribution Probability mass function, P(X=x)= x n x n x C p q  for x=0,1,2,…,n. E(X)=np, Var(X)=npq Hypothesis Testing based on Normal Distribution      X std X mean Z Standard Normal Variable, Probability Bayes Rule, ( ) ( and ) ( ) ( ) ( | ) P B P A B P B P A B P A B    Central Limit Theorem For large n (n>30), ~ ( , ) 2 n X N   and ˆ ~ ( , ) n pq p N p For hypothesis testing of μ, σ known           n x Z   For hypothesis testing of p n pq p p Z   ˆ ANSWERS: Q.1 (a) 14.286 (b) 14 (c) none (d) 10.24 (e) 22.40 Q.2 (a) 15.125 (b) 15.5 (c) No (d) 10.98 (e) 21.9 (f) English Q.3 (a) 18.6 (b)19 (c) 16, 21, and 25 (d) 15, 22 (f) slightly left (g) 7 (h) no outliers (i) increase (j) same Q.4 (a) 0.41 (b) 20 (c)14, 17, 20, 21,25 (d) 16.5, 25 (f) slightly right (g) 8.5 (h) no (i) increase (j) same Q.5 (a)56.57 (b) 22.26 (c) 8.34 Q.6 (a) 21 (b) 38.57 (c) 29.57 Q.7 (a) 410 (b) 1200 Q.8 (a)3 (b) 0.65 Q.9 (a) 0.082 (b) 0.29 (c)0.34 (d) 0.66 (e)0.10 (f) 0.64 Q.10 (a) 0.038 (b)0.23 (c) 0.71 (d) 0.29 (e)0.096 (f) 0.62 Q.11 (i)0.248 (ii)0.752 (iii)0.505 Q.12 (i)0.0875 (ii)0.913 (iii)0.425 (iii)0.488 Q.13 (a)0.22 (b)0.41 (c)0.33 (d)0.27 (e) 0.67 Q.14 (a) 0.13 (b) 0.18 (c)0.12 Q.15 E(X)=3.1 , V(X)=1.69, $0.2 per game, $ 4 win. Q.16 E(X)=5.125, V(X)=1.86, $0.25 loss per game, $5 loss. Q.17 (a)0.201 (b) 0.819, 0.027 Q.18 (a)0.9938 (b)0.0968 (c)0.452 (d)0.984 (e) 0.0433 (f)0.2353 Q.19 (a) -0.25 (b)0.71 (c) -1.13 (d)0.41 Q.20 (b) 0.7422 (c) 0.3821 (d) 0.1109 Q.21 (a)0.0014 (b) 0.0668 (c) 0.9318 Q.22 (a) 140 (b)2.37 Q.24 Z=-1.26, Accept null. Q.25 Z=-2.41, accept null Q.26 Z=4.76, reject H0 Q.27 Z=-1.75, reject H0 Q.28 F, F, F, T , F, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T Q.29 (c)0.113 , 0.022 , 0.977 (or 98%)

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1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

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Q51. Place the following Assets in groups giving justification for your choice – Website – Digital Certificates – SOP – KYC guidelines – Portable storage devices

Q51. Place the following Assets in groups giving justification for your choice – Website – Digital Certificates – SOP – KYC guidelines – Portable storage devices

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1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

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Discussion Question – GPS Apps Read Ethics and Issues 2-2 on page 70 of your textbook. If you have a smart phone, have you noticed apps that require location? Should app makers be able to require you to enable tracking or track your activity without your knowledge? Why or why not? What information should they be able to track? Should police be able to track GPS data without warrants? Would you use apps that post your location to social networks? After considering the above questions, write one paragraph for enabling tracking and one against. Your third paragraph: what conclusions have you drawn taking the research and your own experience?

Discussion Question – GPS Apps Read Ethics and Issues 2-2 on page 70 of your textbook. If you have a smart phone, have you noticed apps that require location? Should app makers be able to require you to enable tracking or track your activity without your knowledge? Why or why not? What information should they be able to track? Should police be able to track GPS data without warrants? Would you use apps that post your location to social networks? After considering the above questions, write one paragraph for enabling tracking and one against. Your third paragraph: what conclusions have you drawn taking the research and your own experience?

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In the nineteenth century , states could use______ found in the Tenth Amendment to regulate water usage. 1. state charters , 2. police power, 3. the commerce clause, 4 . trading power, 5. legal precedent .

In the nineteenth century , states could use______ found in the Tenth Amendment to regulate water usage. 1. state charters , 2. police power, 3. the commerce clause, 4 . trading power, 5. legal precedent .

3.  Commerce Clause
Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be … Read More...
The Contract Clause began its life in absolute terms, a clearly illegal contract was upheld under Fletcher v. Peck; but over time a string of decisions from Chief Justice Taney to the New Deal Court expanded the states’ ability to alter contracts via the police power. This power has, however, waned under the Republican Courts of the 1970s through 2010s. In an essay, discuss the evolution of Contract Clause case law throughout American history.

The Contract Clause began its life in absolute terms, a clearly illegal contract was upheld under Fletcher v. Peck; but over time a string of decisions from Chief Justice Taney to the New Deal Court expanded the states’ ability to alter contracts via the police power. This power has, however, waned under the Republican Courts of the 1970s through 2010s. In an essay, discuss the evolution of Contract Clause case law throughout American history.

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